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Lec. 12. Free Energy & Review Problems

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Lec. 12. Free Energy & Review Problems
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UCI Chem 1B General Chemistry (Spring 2012) Lec 12. General Chemistry -- Free Energy and Review Problems -- Instructor: A.J. Shaka. Ph.D. Description: UCI Chem 1B is the second quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: properties of gases, liquids, solids; changes of state; properties of solutions; stoichiometry; thermochemistry; and thermodynamics.
freie Enthalpie
concentration chemische Reaktion solutions coal chemical Ammonium nitrate end firm chemische Reaktion water Ammonium Computer animation Nitrate Propylthiouracil <6-Propyl-2-thiouracil> salts
Computer animation Hydroxyoxonorvalin <5-Hydroxy-4-oxonorvalin> board Agricultural University of Athens stuff
Alkoholgehalt Computer animation Tollens Ammonium nitrate Trimethylamin
fall freie Enthalpie tuberculosis case chemische Reaktion chemical pressure chemische Reaktion temperatures Cadaver conditions Computer animation function temperatures Pressure mineralischer
areas Expansion metabolic breakdown Angular mil case solutions systems molecule processes conditions entropy Computer animation age nanoparticle entropy spontaneously processes spontaneously
chain rock current chemische Reaktion chemical pressure temperatures systems conditions entropy Computer animation temperatures Library Erholung
delta Gletscherzunge solutions chemical Ammonium nitrate pressure systems conditions entropy Computer animation age temperatures entropy chemist mineralischer spontaneously processes
transition states Chemieingenieurin probe density Stöße Wasserstoff Klinisches Experiment combustion race age water Octane temperatures color stone storage transition metal type accelerator galactose Octane chemische Reaktion chemical pressure end firm fat Hydroxyethylcellulosen water Wasserstoff Computer animation Beta oxygen stuff
Kohlenstoff-14 probe density transport combustion age Methane Propylthiouracil <6-Propyl-2-thiouracil> stone natural gas weight chemical element type density ethane balance concentration carbon chemical Wasserstoff conditions Computer animation Gasoline Can (band) CH4 oxygen stuff
type Gasflasche ethane ethane Propionaldehyd chemische Reaktion water molecule Wasserstoff Computer animation Gasoline Methane stone CH4
flame probe carbon end chemische Reaktion Acetylen Wasserstoff Computer animation temperatures stone Fackel report Acetylen
Bruchverhalten Wasserstoff water Wasserstoff Computer animation Carbon dioxide chemical Columbia Records chemische Reaktion
mixture composition probe solutions pressure solutions molecule Computer animation water Pressure mixture Ideal Mole Fractions form Ideal
Thylakoid Computer animation hydrogen bonding Pressure titration solutions chemical form Ideal solutions Columbia Records end
bond probe mechanism solutions case chemical pressure solutions water Wasserstoff conditions Computer animation water conditions Attitude (psychology) Pressure Ideal Löslichkeit Zinnerz Löslichkeit
flow water Computer animation water probe concentration Carbonic Acid Pressure solutions chemical pressure Kaugummi
Schelfeis concentration carbon carbon Bicarbonate Kohlenstoff-14 source Computer animation water tuberculosis Oceans Oceans oxidation
Diet food Computer animation Meeting/Interview Oceans Oceans Meerwasser Meerwasser chemical food
chain Computer animation Oceans saline chemical food
probe left balance container Angular mil valine striking man chemical pressure firm end Geyser Van der Waals Interactions van Computer animation Meeting/Interview conditions Melatonin Pressure side chains
Bruchverhalten probe Fusion chamber end Computer animation Methane natural gas CH4 The Helium Atom Helium Ideal Helium
chemical formulae progress mixture Holes probe rates association Fusion container chemical firm molecule Computer animation Methane Rifampicin rate CH4 Helium mixture Helium processes
where get slightly according to do a little bit on the energy today part will not be on the stand 2 and then we shall review will throw up problems and will look at them what do the other thing you should review its any problems on the last because that's only problem was that new love again the look that especially if I told you to look at and there I am on Monday In the afternoon 3 people come In the work problem 297 all I can assume that you know what you're doing picture you know how to do all the problems from the prior to him and that they're not slowly facts put stop watch on at least tender going flunk out of you pass just that problem right don't look at the answer ready to go see OK free energy some review problems and ideas but cautionary tale "quotation mark this hopelessly
right that most reactions but favorable In other words that mostly architects of day also believes the by far the majority and for a while he was thought that the reaction being acts of Thurman was a requirement for being favorable In other words that's how you could tell if there were excellent and make it would be favorable with the warrant and it wouldn't be favorable but that's not true because if you dissolve ammonium nitrate in water the reaction ammonium nitrate salts and chemical reactions and the solution gets cold that means the end of the stick the absorbing heat and there are lots of other examples like that this one's pretty striking because it's quite a bit positive number and therefore this discovery forced people to consider as it can be one-eighth of privately that the reaction you threaten testimony favorable the if the producers and the minus 60 per cent of Prop but the that's not going to be be going concern firms making something it turns out that the reaction you write doesn't meet necessarily be favorable on its own as long as you're willing to
work if you're willing to be then you can make it available for example the closing I have reaction that produces and reminded the return from the police if I can take the product out if I can talk at all so that the product falls below the equilibrium value then the reactants make more In effect the company the products of the reaction the making more because the concentration of product is also to low and so I do a ton of work and I get my product eventually but the time were where they were coming from the work came from running another reaction that is favorable like burning coal which makes electricity that runs the how and when you consider that coal-burning and you're reaction going in you add a mile it's terrible and that's why you do it to me end that there is sometimes a reaction that in the background that we don't necessarily see the all right but someone got caught cheating on sampling I won't go into details so I thought we'd have a lesson
cannot the said on Sunday you may have seen somebody love the some people exaggerated accomplishment I was the senior managers I was senior account I have to disagree I got my degree a year sooner than I did have a higher GPA then is actually true Scott Thompson resigned as CEO of Yahoo on Sunday that's kind of what can I started the he claimed 70 s degree in computer science he have BSE degree in accounting and on see the artist resonate he put that he had a BS in accounting and computer science With may sound a little bit better but insect he did not he had no such degree and in the days of public records that thing is this is easy to find out pretty quickly but there isn't much cover any
more people can find out a lot of stuff tho he and 5 board members who didn't do the right fact-checking her they all resigned
oftentimes people will remember you but you the best thing you ever did for the worst thing you ever did and everything in between will be stopped make sure that I remember you buy the best thing you I'm not a member of the guy who resigned as CEO of the company that we can that's how people remember who you are but I don't know I the guy who resigned in disgrace I remember I think the azaleas sum this up pretty well In 1 of
its problems the awful daring of a moment surrender which endangers prudence and never retracted OK let's go back to our ammonium nitrate change
hands work out this is the change in free energy not just that he took in brilliant that dictates whether reacted favorable inadvertently giving more product than reaction that equilibrium or whether the reaction "quotation mark will go at constant temperature and pressure and Jean named after Gibbs is a state functions and it's partly that the that's partly right and then there is an additional foreign mining the and that is a little bit more abstract it's also a state and that's the entropy has to do With the amount of disorder whether something is random or whether it is organize organized things have very low and the trips organized and have very high interest and if we get the G function the gets function for both products and reactants then we can write the change which is always the final minus the initial "quotation mark In this case it she products -minus g of reactants and when she is negative the reaction is favorable James rolls down here just let things fall and the gravitational field chemical reactions of
phase transitions start somewhere and if they fall and that means there is the other half of the fall down sometimes they can be like a bold jammed they're going to fall down but not yet that's where that's what we got and the only equilibrium when you're dead and gone the bacteria have finished munching on your corpse and there's nothing left except mineral spaniard equilibrium the reason we can't stay and maintained what we've got is that we consumer better if we don't then we got because we're actually expending a lot of energy to do all the housekeeping keep everything in order why these things happen all and the answer
is and I hope you remember lecture on solutions we have snow years on rise in the years laughter which was founded by the move around Randall and we look at what the world was the chance that they're going to be all on 1 side of the united chances small and when you have so many molecules as having the wrong while in principle should the rushed to the wall and then we all let there we don't fear that because that's so unlikely online but we How is it that it would start with a canister of air and the whole world that we open the door while creditors the laws that we were wrong because the molecules in the brain images go wherever they go and therefore this measure of this order has to do with probability it's much more likely to be dead than alive that's why you end up dead b the matter is that if we have isolated system but we don't think that we don't think we have closed this we don't look and smell like and we let for a very long time come to the equilibrium expansion we will have increased it will have just randomly move the most likely state and 1 of the region's most likely stated Little around the the recent fluctuations if it's 6 and 6 my finds about it only very rarely the 1 including the alleged and when we have a lot of particles the chance that it's ever going to do that so small that we could wait long enough for it to to happen would be many many many times longer than the age of the whole universe we can't can't wait that long for the area Russia over the side the and the universe itself is an isolated opened the honor system and so for any spontaneous process in the universe the entropy of the universe must increase that means when you flush the toilet when you brush your your teeth when you eat something whatever you do the entropy of the universe will increase the questionnaires How can we make that more useful because we are interested in the whole universe were interested in 2 systems or we might be interested in our own health and welfare which case I consider my physical being the system and the other things around me that surrounded and in fact that's mentally how people carve up the universe me and everything else but everybody's doing that "quotation mark we divided artificially we make a mental it has some part with we're interested in called system and the other part called the surrounding then the entropy of the system and the surroundings for any spontaneous process it's going to cause eventually fired the and that means that we have the disorder the surrounding forest and when you think about it that's what humans do do take time we wrap everything else
so we can have our you really saying the breakdown of the molecules take an energy chapter of small molecules as waste good produce a time he on start the "quotation mark the hotter you are the quicker you the answer by degree warmer than last nite fizzle out pretty quickly some of the things that have slow metabolism course can last for a long time but they don't do very much so they sit around polar lights and so forth and so there's so constant area under the curve you can be called like a spotlight that like it or even the long last a long time like a tortoise the entropy
is really a measure of how much extra chaos were creating and the chaos that pencil the current state if I'm at a rock concert 1 and people cheering and clapping the finalized but even if I scream I don't add much to the noise level but finding a Library of the Church and that quiet and I started reading in there and on it's very very noticeable the roof of the chain and likewise if we have a cold system and we add the 2 we disorder a lot but if we have a high passes them yet the way we don't very much at all and therefore to keep track of the controversy we have to take a radiation but that he felt we had because he disorders that gets things to move around more randomly and the temperature that were already and that is a measure of how disordered it already is and so we take a ratio and to make it a good quantity we have to add that he we added he as carefully as possible and then we measure how much disorder is created and then we will have a measure Of the entrance for an excellent there reaction then the reason why feel Thurmond reactions favorable is because of the a true forests that surround that's why they're creating a common In surrounded so a constant temperature and pressure the if we had some heat to the surroundings then we know that that's dealt page the constantly during pressure and that he had to come from somewhere so it's mine is built into the system forward the that's the change
in entrepreneur further surrounding while this figure
out the the total sum we have not only at the feet of the surroundings but we have to see if the system itself is sort of ammonium nitrate he came in from the surrounding so that surrounds became more or less because the ammonium nitrate is it just move around and that many more possibilities than solutions among United itself became very disorder and it became more disorders than the surrounding became and so on that's how mentality that it's always the entropy of the universe and we could use Delta of the surroundings was dealt to the system but we don't like talking about the surroundings because usually we don't measure them we don't know that much about and so we replace Delta Hess of the surroundings With finest Delta the system over the and our good to go because this thing here only has state functions and temperature and that measures whether it's going to be likely to go if I multiplied both sides of this through by miners delta T I get minus the delta as of the universe is equal to Delta age minus the Gulf asked Delta has said the universe has to be greater than 0 for any spontaneous process and that means that minus the dealt as has been less than 0 because he is always possible that is absolute temperature of course and therefore this has to be less than 0 since this is equal to that this thing has to be less than 0 but this thing is so useful we call itself GE those he has been left than 0 for process to be spontaneous at a constant temperature and pressure and that's why we want to know it built into the front because we wanna know what kind of deal we can expect a for a good chemist and we do everything perfectly what are we going to get in there because we are perfect we always get less than that so just like the reversible work sets a limit on what we can possibly get so delta G sets a limit on what kind of deal we can get for any kind of spontaneous process at constant temperature and pressure OK
will leave Delta G there will come back to Delta G next a week from Thursday come back adults and will continue on and we'll see how we can use it to predict the ratio of products to react and other things like that Ronaldo was press on
and the use of review problem and I've tried to make this a little bit tropical they are problems but the stories like the thought that they have a moral at the end sometimes it through problems just to see how something would work so governance schwarzenegger races were all gonna be driving hydrogen cars in 10 years you can say no we welcome and that's that let's have a look suppose we wanted transition to a higher and higher scientists are working on this planet chemical engineer and so forth but let's have a look at that what we have to be able to do let's just figure out the volume of hydrogen gas in a thousand years that's pretty high pressure maybe not unbelievably hot pretty that wasn't the assigned 25 Celsius remember if you can have a tank in a thousand years size and you park your car in a parking lot in India we have to make sure that it doesn't blow usually that's been a means of containment vessel which technically is heading the more mass you lug around in your car the worst the efficiency OK now I've looked up an approximate value for the end of the of combustion "quotation mark I thought the the octane is 2 . 6 6 kilograms per gallon and Delta H of combustion it is minus 55 100 killed jewels for more very very acts Thurman that's why we use it OK let's go through and see what we can do let's start with name we've got 25 gallons of tank it's 2 . 6 6 kilograms per down the gallons go away I look at the Imola massive the and I could do moles program but I decided to do syllables per kilogram saying now kilograms are gone and I've got syllables so it turns out in the tank of gas 7 thousand 596 . 3 syllables of 7 . 6 times 10 of the 6 but fuel now that I know how much How many malls I have and I know I get 50 big fat jewels of acts permissible Her mole I can't figure out that idea 4 . 2 times 10 to the 10 village that followed that manifested as the but we're putting into the tank 14 billion villages palestinian fighters well for hydrogen we need this time on face of the war what I'm going to assume that it will make much difference is I'm going to assume that the loss there is to reduce as water vapor and gas because I find I don't think in this for working together the energy that is that we can convince the water the water right and then look out at the news that the I think that he just goes out the back we get water vapor coming out of the conventions of tailpipe this whole initially made the trip to water as the water there for this call they usually so I'm going to assume that the water is water vapor among blue-collar and live but anyway it won't matter too much we look up b and help formation of water vapor 25 Celsius and we find that the adulteration formation it's of Thurmond is minus 240 1 . 8 killer jewels for more and that's what we're going to get that's the only product in fact is page 2 but a handful to equals 2 well so this sent be of formation is actually the NFL .period combustion because it burning with oxygen and therefore we need to get 40 billion and then from all of our age to all we get minus at 241 . 8 killer jewels and so we can figure out by the bounce chemical reaction that 1 mole of H 2 gives 1 mole of H 2 0 so everything goes away we have moles of H 2 left 1 . 7 3 times 10 to the 7 moles aged but it seems that kind of big but it doesn't offer an immediate the that yeah it seems like a long the problem is that the gas has low energy density even at a thousand years side and so the volume that were going to need to lug around is going to be uncomfortably lot let's figure out how large it's going to be but we are given any then walls constants on hydrogen or anything like that therefore all we can do is assumed by regions an ideal gas good enough for the back of the and here so without any further assumptions we just use the ideal gas inquiries and we say the temperature will assume that the temperatures 25 Celsius and course whenever we see that we not state and that Celsius 4 Fahrenheit whatever the public more possible the people and upon the we know how many malls we know reality and we know a thousand years who the last time were was that what we have to to convert to atmospheres because this is atmosphere if we write all the units we don't convert we have addressed fears over PSI times leading Indiana and that's who we are a we converted 14 . 7 PSI for atmosphere and we find we need 62 million liters so the question is how they all leaders not not so big that millions of lives it's going to be large and if you work it out this requires keeping bank was about as tall as me and that's what you need in other
words is almost as big the whole this deal by the way is the smart bombs Montuori only if you don't value your luck the smart card doesn't have very good mileage even compared the house I need look and if you have a collision when another car the Mercedes-Benz many like the regulars sedan the smart card is annihilated and if you figure out the acceleration of the crash test dummy your debt and the other car to stand here Scotland sound like paper hearing and he trial hasn't slowed down at all the Smart car is called bluff where you get 50 people on and you're getting the same mileages smart cards and you're completely under most circumstances OK the 20 five-gallon gas tank is only 94 . 6 liter and what what this means is that even if you can't get around all the problems with refueling and stuff who's going to be driving a car with this huge then on the back well can you make the pressure higher he said 3 thousand years but there's a limit to that before you need really really have been sold and there have been very and that wrecked your mileage compared to a lighter color my conclusion is that the hydrogen
economy is going to face a lot of practical problems before it it's going to contribute to mobile transportation so I wouldn't I wouldn't hold my breath and keep in mind that although we figured it out with the it's really delta G that we need to figure because if we figured out she we can tell how much work we can do that we'll get to that later but Peters this is reasonably good it's close on list try another "quotation mark hydrogen it may not work let's let's tried some of clean-burning fuel something not reduce particulate particulates and so on and stuff that gasoline tends to do and diesel they and let's see if we can make go out of any of those let's compare them the energy density of methane natural gas that thing the UH-60 a settling the wage and hydrogen staged for mobile transportation the age values of formation for these guys Our respectively minus 17 . 9 go jewels from all 4 methane minus 20 killer jewels from all for ethane and plots 54 . 2 killer jewels from all for a settling OK who will start with those analysts just go through them 1 by 1 and see how how it pans out we have to do 2 things we have to look up the Delta for many in the crowd and on an exam of of course you would be yet but it is of course on an exam of course you would be given a table of development formation all these things don't memorize the number you you can look we want Delta H of combustion we have to balance and then we have to use has the figure out what it comes to and the delectation formation values for C O 2 Armed minus 393 killer jewels from all and for water vapor and assume they're all making water vapor least it's a fair playing field is minus 241 . 8 villages from we balances and the way we bounce it was we start CH and we right also to and for complete combustion which we don't always get vehicles we get 100 per cent C O 2 and an age to all those years the Prop you the word if using the phrase complete combustion that means C O 2 but states to if you feel that nitrogen and I think the quality of the parable of the different things depending on the condition I have 1 carbon atom so that means I have to have 1 to facilities only thing will part I've got 4 hydrogen so I have to have 2 weights 2 also because this is the only thing fighting and then I just figure out how many officers that the major oxygen atoms are disappearing and there I go and now I can figure out Delta age of combustion it's dealt formation of the proper minus reacted the alternates formation of C O 2 was minus 393 . 5 last List to moles best so I have to make to about whilst 2 times minus 241 holiday why this is an element data formation is 0 this is minus 17 . 9 told so I find for methane I get minus a 859 . 2 killer jewels from all that's a lot better than hydrogen and that's why you see some cars mark CNG on the bumper already because they're running on compressed natural gas but and the reason why it's better than hydrogen is that unfortunately most of the people comes from forming the open but the other 2 is the villain :colon burning any kind of carbon fuel and forming the old 2 and letting the gas go up that would going be increasing the concentration of C O 2 guests well we have to know that we have to know the complete combustion means that the product is C O 2 and H 2 that's what we have to know that we have to no complete combustion really means the other 2 on a stool and then we have to balance and then we just use the numbers on this story geometric
coefficient OK let us go to CIA and the next 1
staffing yes for everything we have to Providence therefore we get to moles of C O 2 we have 6 hydrogen so we get 3 moles of H 2 0 and now we just have to balance the oxygen so that we end up with 7 on each side and so that 7 have moles a little too the computer that controls how the their intake and fuel and waste flows into cylinder Passineau would fuel you burn or it doesn't know what this coefficient and therefore if you take what computer with fuel injection and you just put in some other fuel would have different story beyond your car won't work right it'll it'll be awful Italy the bump and chunk around real produce smell terrible it'll knock you get all kinds of problems we have to use the fuel that they're assuming you're going to use and here we do better precisely unfortunately because we're forming 2 walls of the old and C O 2 the 800 pound gorilla has that use -minus 393 . 5 in its favor it's very favorable to form it's a very stable molecules we take 2 times minds 393 . 5 plus 3 times the water and then we subtract the delegates of formation of ethane and Delta formation of 0 to 0 0 and we get minus 14 92 . 4 jewels from all therefore ethane is much better than that if you had to because 1st of all a gas takes the same volume and you can go a lot farther With that thing and propane will be even better and then you go all the way down in using gasoline again not that
is superior to methane in terms of heat release we get almost twice as much not quite as with CH 4 now let's look at settling 1st
settling we got 2 carbons again but only 2 hydrogen so we only get 1 wall of H 2 0 and again we do the 0 2 at the end it doesn't really matter what is on an exam because this isn't going to contribute to the delta region about the fear and I heard don't even need to balance appealed to the was government changed the but this 1 then we take again 2 times 393 . 5 plus minus 241 . 8 -minus and and this is a positive numbers this now gives us extra we get minus 1 0 8 3 killer jewels from also settling as follows To ethane not quite as good but settling makes much hotter flames and the reason why it certainly makes a much harder line it because it only makes 1 mole of H 2 0 1 8 2 0 has won high the therefore if I can burn something and not make as much space to well then that that's released can heat up the rest of the products to a much higher temperature and it's for that reason that we use acetylene and torch to do well and things like that require high temperature and you won't see anybody using methane and in a court in fact it's :colon Nazi acetylene torch for precisely that reason acetylene is quite quite an explosion has however acetylene just if
you look at the wrong answers you say something blows up and so you have to take that into account to the propensity for something to go wrong as well has to figure in and then finally the hydrogen we
get this thing the little minus 241 and it's just not competitive the sadly while hydrogen is the better environmental because it only use water and doesn't use any field to the greenhouse gas but because it doesn't produce a carbon-dioxide win because it's precisely reducing the carbon dioxide but this year we have so you're kind of in a Jan is yet to choose 1 of these 3 choose at as the best energy intensity but it's still much much worse than I
thought "quotation mark let's do a vapor fracture problems let's go
back to next year's remember we've got mixtures of 2 things and they both contribute molecules to the vapor and the more volatile 1 will have more in the state we've got to substances there you are here compounds and and we measured the total vapor pressure with dismantled preferably a measure of how much of each 1 there but we Americans the are number of mold 1 and the they're all a all the or something in between and based on the data images from the vapor pressure we want to ask the following questions to a and B form an ideal we have to remember what an ideal solution as we remember an ideal gas from the ideal gas equation of state for an ideal solution we have a different I remember we had these mole fractions I and 5 we start with 100 per cent of the and the vapor pressures 152 and then we make 28 166 160 . 6 46 the 169 . 9 6 before he 173 . 9 8 to 1 172 points and then 100 per cent 107 and we want to know 2 a and B form an
ideal solution an ideal solution is 1 that follows Rowell slot after all opposition that's the definition if it doesn't follow wrote slot all compositions it's not an ideal solution and Rowell's lost says that the vapor pressure is the mole fractions times the vapor pressure of the pure liquid that's the partial pressure of each so if I had the Bob total pressure he
which the vapor pressure of a In the solution possibly preferably in the solution it has to be a straight line therefore it has to go since the end .period 150 and 170 it has to be a straight line In the 20 otherwise it's not following around law and therefore it's not an ideal solution and remember there are positive deviations from Ralph the vapor pressure is higher and you would predict and there are a negative deviations were the vapor pressure is lower that means that a and B a kind of sticking to each other the sort of sticking and so they are bothering to go up in the vapor hang together if it's a positive deviation it could be that 1 of like the form hydrogen bonds and pushes the other guy out to get out of here so
the vapor pressure is higher than June's predicted therefore we make this plot were given the data we all have to do is make this plot and if straight and if we make the plot we see that it's not
it's not straight and therefore this is not an ideal solution and that story because it's quite and in fact in this case it's making a positive deviation from slaughter because the vapor pressure then we would have predicted from a straight line and that means that a and B "quotation mark dislike each other they prefer the Secretary and push each other out Of the solutions and therefore it's not ideal OK another
1 us to Henry's Law the
solubility of C O 2 Johnson pure water it is known to be 34 million Moeller at 1 atmosphere pressure sealed let's ask What is the solubility of C O 2 in water under atmospheric conditions and let's assume the partial pressure of C O 2 in the atmosphere is 380 ppm I think it's higher than that of let's assume the powerful pressure is 3 . 8 times 10 to the minus 4 actions that's the best part of Russia of C O 2 by the way is you're run and you're getting tired the the reasons why it thought also 53 the 1st reason is attitude of most likely the 2nd reason is that your opinion of office so you should really concentrate operating in a like I was very funny you are exhausting enough C O 2 the reality series In fact it's usually the 3rd reason what you year flying a running commentary and there's somebody on your shoulder and new winding in the the red and then suddenly upgrade their jumped on his back In a very unpleasant that's because the pH of your London's changed when the nature of your blood changes your brain says that be enough of that when he's off that's the signal and then the other part Ukraine's no way because of way that's quite a battle of wills because you're fighting against something that's kind of an automatic mechanism and you have to override In order keep going and there are limits to what you can do anyway let's assume that C O 2 follows Henry's law we know that CEO to attend a hydrogen bomb CEO who wasn't on polar molecules waters of polar molecules formed a bond there no way the a former ideals but we still know but if we don't have much of the there still a straight
line initially the 4 of those haywire but the straight line has a different flow vanity actually the rest of the year material and that's Henry's Law which we usually right as the concentration in solution is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and this proportionality constant here is is something different it's just some constant K the concentration In moles per liter is equal to some constant once the pressure the partial pressure of the gassing question above the liquid let's have a look them that at
1 atmosphere pressure the concentrations .period both reform always and from that we can get that Henry's law constant because we can say it . 0 3 4 Moeller at 1 atmosphere so Henry's law constant OK is . 0 3 4 bowler brands now refer to go up to really high pressures we have to be careful because it will fall in law because I keep squeezing and squeezing and squeezing C O 2 women and disrupting the water just making it go in that it may not behave the same wh but we're going to be below this because the partial pressure field and the atmosphere is very timely but will follow Henry's Law and we can use this constant 10 and then we just insert the other pressure was saying the concentration in solution In most per liter is equal to the Henry's constant which we figured out times whatever the pressures of C O 2 in the atmosphere which we said was 3 . 8 times 10 to the minus 4 and so we end up with 12 . 9 Micro mall as the concentration of C O 2 we have to be a little bit careful here the following reasons we're assuming that C O 2 dozen react with water but CO 2 dozen react with water Over time we get carbonic acid aides to see 3 are the
source of your misery when you're sprinting for the day producing too much of that making your blood said and unfortunately I think it's going to be the source of some misery going forward because ocean
acidification results from dissolved CO reacting with carbonate which is in the ocean and unfortunately carbonated bottled marine or is use of coral and anything with shelved problem what they used to make the exoskeleton as we increase the C O 2 powerful preferably after we increase the concentration of C O 2 in the both now we're talking about a separate problem has nothing to do with the planet warming up this is separate from this week consumed then all the carbonate ions in the ocean by adding a lot of C O 2 millions of tons then there's less around for these
little guys 2 make the skeletons out of and here's what the measurements show
where is the the O 2 starts in 2009 get some more data it's not only going out not only is it going up faster than linearly but it seems to be going something like that as everybody in China is on the rise if you look at the seawater partial pressure of C O 2 that's going on and if you look at the seawater pH pH is going down and that means that the ocean is becoming more acidic and that means that these guys are dissolving when they dissolve the diet when they die there's no food for anybody on the planet because most of our food comes from the
ocean 1 way or another if you send me away what happened these terror these
guys serve food for everything from Wales and everything else and if you put them in the pH that we predict would have .period 100 in Salem In their shoulders all they won't be able to survive they will on when the guy at the bottom of the food chain everything above them dies too and then there's nothing there seafood may become scarcer and we may become scarce today because that's nature's way if the slain things way out
of balance you can do that for a while and then suddenly the pendulum swings back the other way and the only way it can bounce out as if we go at then everything will be hunky-dory again and it'll be Paris millions of other kinds of animals and will be gone like the dinosaurs OK let's do
another 1 this is a different 1 Back to the good old days why while on a lazy professor to you're sitting there and thinking knowledge is like that of a new problem which exist in the manual the I call on the I think 1 problem we've got a of banner walls guests constants 5 . 4 6 leaders squared atmosphere for Molesworth for baby attraction to foreign and . 0 5 leaders from all be which is the repulsion part of something to do with volume of the liquid and we want a study and at half an atmosphere of 100 degrees C and we wonder what volume middle occupied because we're going to do this in melatonin we have get a container the Dill what we have to remember the vendor Wells equation of state that's not too hard you've seen that many times and then we have to ask which variable were solving for I think I've told you that yes if you're selling for a that'd be a very strong was there if you have an obvious Warren what's the that's all easy because you can isolate them peacefully with the the problem that you cannot really believe that you get to be quiet and they forever solved and very from there With and it's a little bit trickier because ends on both sides navigate when this thing is on both sides at least get everything 1 side because if both sides chain when you get through this if the loan is provided you get from other lenders provided below the authority to better that that part the 6 so that you can get it the the is on the left-hand side only and we start with some gas In the absence of any better knowledge of the gas I'd choose is always what the ideal gas would I start with an arty over he I know all these guys I plug in and then I II just guess values of the until I hit the target strike I always set up a table the nature and I'm I'm not going round in circles I'm going set up a table I'm going to have the and I'm just calling effort be that all it is is the left-hand side I put in .period 5 atmospheres I put in 5 . 4 6 the number of Molson's 1 but it is and be careful because didn't work Over the square the and then the number of Moses 1 -minus 105 there and I just plugged in and the 1st the NRT the value of 1 again I put in the 100 Celsius and so forth I get 15 . 3 1 leader atmosphere my 1st guess is an over he he is Safin atmosphere so it's 30 . 6 2 just twice I guess 30 . 6 2 I shove it in here and here and I multiplied out I get 50 . 4 6 3 15 . 3 1 it's too bad not to figures well deliberately make and then we will see a of pressure the here's what I'm gonna do I'm going to say but then is about 17 units or so and so I'm going to subtract the same from I'm going to subtract the difference between I think I want to make the smaller so this comes out smaller and if I said while it's actually more like 15 guests 15 but by subtract . 1 5 from there my next guest is 30 . 4 7 and then I see that it didn't come down to 15 . 3 1 it only came down about half the 16 . 3 9 and then I say Why is that the answer is because the pressures have an atmosphere and it's basically Pete times the is the big guy and then the rest of geysers small instead he is Safin atmosphere I have to go down twice as much as I thought I'm still don't have it it's still too big but now I say OK it went down I'm still 8 units to be so I wanna come down 16 unit . 1 6 4 minutes because it .period to big and I see that when I lowered it comes down by half as much as what I change and so my next "quotation mark guests seems very smart I come down the 30 . 3 1 and I've been going at 15 . 3 1 right away and then I'm done the
bank usually together with 3 guests and that's why guessing although it sounds kind of like it's a joke it's not it's actually extremely powerful and very fast and it cost you check answer because you've actually calculated that so you know it's right and you know you haven't had a bad but because you see the trend it's very robust OK here's a challenge you
set up a problem I say set up this problem but an unspecified and you tell me what can thank you no end to the 1 mole we have an unspecified yes the from the ideal gas and then destined yeah because you can guess for any variable much as OK let's do 1 more this 1 is definitely worth paying attention to suppose helium gas occurs at 7 per cent by volume and methane natural gas fracture what would be the percentage after 1 stage of the fusion through a tiny office into a large evacuated chamber what would be the percentage of helium after 2 2 such
processes in succession we're trying to purify the helium get away from the natural gas and as you recall the rate of
usually because is usually a random process your chances of going through the hole depends mostly on how fast you're going because because the container and a small hole this year a little molecule around the island around if you're going to be in that basically find your way out pretty quickly if you're big they're move around slowly you don't 1 of it takes a very long time to find a way out of the hole because it takes you a very long time go anywhere and that's why it that the ratio those where the masses because that's how the most probable speed means being in the room means where the they all had universe wearing the mask and 3 are the whatever on top and T is the same for both of them and they're in the same thing that goes away so the rate of fusion 1 his and to over and 1 the one-half cup of the square root of and and once in round figures methane 16 grams or more and unions for and therefore the rate of helium compared to the rate of methane it is the molar massive methane 16 divided by the more massive helium 4 square root of 16 over 4 square forest to it's a little different from that battled that's the rate but that's not the enrichment because the enrichment depends on the raid and then highlighted these guys started I hope we let the rate of Association of methane be want relatively and then that of helium is too so I really ratio matter there we can figure out the percentage helium the per cent of helium is how much helium got out it's how much we started with the times to the rate at which it gets out divided by the total which is the rate at which methane gets out which is . 9 3 9 3 % method fans 1 last 1 times to possess so much healing but I work this out and this number comes to be . 1 3 1 or 13 . 1 per cent that's the enrichment after 1 stage other and that if I do another stage of fusion I start with the 30 . 1 and I just do it again and I'll let you work out if you do a lot of time there's a slick will work out the formula without going 1 1 1 1 1 after another but anyway for now let's just do the next 1 we now start with 13 . 1 per cent helium it if users out again through the 2nd hole twice as fast and then we start with 86 . 9 per cent methane because that's what's left it comes out at 2 8 1 was . 1 3 1 again and this works out to be pointing 3 2 but now after 2 stages were up to 23 . 2 per cent enrichment and as we get higher and higher in Richmond and Richmond it gets harder and harder unfortunately to make progress but for example if that mixtures are 99 per cent yearly and now we have user through the offices we in Richardton 99 . 5 and that means to get the 99 . 9 we still have to do a lot more we want 99 . 9 9 it's a bunch more and if we want really really pure were going to get really tired of doing that and that's why if you take any material and the
specified that its purity is really high it's ever so expensive no matter what it is even pure water is relatively expensive if you say can have anything in it that's a special products the only specify the purity that you actually need not hire OK I will leave it there will continue on these kinds of problems on Thursday disposals 1 of them