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Lec. 10. Thermochemistry: Work, Heat, Enthalpy and Heat Capacity

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Lec. 10. Thermochemistry: Work, Heat, Enthalpy and Heat Capacity
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UCI Chem 1B General Chemistry (Spring 2012) Lec 10. General Chemistry -- Work, Heat, Enthalpy and Heat Capacity -- Instructor: A.J. Shaka. Ph.D. Description: UCI Chem 1B is the second quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: properties of gases, liquids, solids; changes of state; properties of solutions; stoichiometry; thermochemistry; and thermodynamics.
metals islands Computer animation Spring gene Memorial end man
systems samples Zeitverschiebung Computer animation Expansion Expansion properties Gases basic pressure
flow Computer animation Optische Untersuchungen match media man pressure calculations processes weight
Stop power Weinfehler chemische Reaktion solutions firm Treibsatz water systems molecule Eisfläche machine flow Computer animation firing Gasoline Optische Untersuchungen temperatures Oceans Meerwasser Library detergents processes
areas gap Computer animation Expansion Sand temperatures Wasserscheide Sand active site pressure formulation
areas Clenbuterol Song of Songs Computer animation Expansion match pressure Tanning end processes
areas Clenbuterol power Song of Songs conditions Computer animation period
chemical formulae systems Computer animation Lochfraß Expansion derivatives History pressure Knot Ideal
flow physical chemist van Computer animation Expansion Optische Untersuchungen control derivatives man case
machine Computer animation Expansion temperatures Accurate pressure form end
fall delta areas surface type oil chemische Reaktion pressure chemical Computer animation frictional Ideal processes
fall Computer animation age function Dihydrotestosterone derivatives chemische Reaktion pressure calculations chemical
chemical element type Holes chemical element phosphorus chemische Reaktion pressure death end gap systems Computer animation temperatures standards CH4 benzene rings form ammonia standards
reactor type Beer Holes organizations nitrogen Carbon Monoxide carbon chemische Reaktion graphite end molecule Wasserstoff Computer animation compounds stone standards tool scale benzene rings ammonia standards
Gases Carbon Monoxide Darmstadtium chemische Reaktion graphite graphite hard Computer animation stone Carbon dioxide oxygen bottles poison Oxide
power power burnings Carbon Monoxide chemische Reaktion graphite firm graphite hard Computer animation firing standards Carbon dioxide poison
hard power type Computer animation graphite graphite
Glucose type Glucose chemical element chemische Reaktion end Wasserstoff Natrium Computer animation Gasoline storage oxygen form
chemical element type chemical element Double bond steps chemische Reaktion graphite Knot end toxicity Wasserstoff Computer animation oxygen Dipole Moment Tetrachlorethylen
reactor type chemical element Lochfraß chemische Reaktion chlorine molecule Wasserstoff Computer animation Isomere control Caffeine Carcinoma in situ mineralischer
bond oil Fatty Acid plant food chlorine atoms Tanning firm Computer animation Strength Isomere plant Isomere Soybean oil parents Carcinoma in situ form Silicon Integrated Systems atom
fall type chemical element sugar unsaturated Flour remove Stickstofffixierung Margarine chemische Reaktion case fat end water conditions combustion Computer animation Optische Untersuchungen materials remove standards translation oxygen Butter (2011 film)
balance capacities chemische Reaktion pressure water Song of Songs Computer animation race firing Toast Optische Untersuchungen temperatures stone stuff
reactor type chain capacities chemische Reaktion end water Computer animation function Optische Untersuchungen temperatures overexpression standards Zigarre processes standards
flame Computer animation Optische Untersuchungen capacities host welding end
Propan Haber-Bosch Gases Stahl stability chemische Reaktion case crystals fluoride originators Potassium Computer animation Optische Untersuchungen Potassium chloride theoretical chemistry salts crystal form stuff calculations
we have always do this Friday 11th all next week the week this Tuesday after that we have an exam it the problems
that everybody noticed on the 1st so making an encore appearance I don't understand again thanks to you the same kind of problem that we have the facts slowly with but person got that the government units over the next 12 the and I will be most interested in the ones where I felt people I didn't get like the example the enrichment of the least from now that's a lot of people that make sure you learn how to do do it and know how to do it at you can figure that out it's not hard but you have to actually make an effort to learn how to do it that's all it's not difficult to learn if you've never done it got real the news along watched the first one of the from you but after their practice allows look really good after they practice a lot they can tell you how use them they actually thought that somebody who's probe it's something they sometimes can't tell you how they Michael Jordan founding those that acrobatic moves thanks to the island and the top of the and I see an opening and then that's it no memory about a 3rd person like it's not very good children's for In you need somebody who remembers what it's like not by then very hard to do that but sometimes it's hard the fight go too quickly just ask questions I don't where I think I may think something that obviously makes it everybody else in the and it is not clear until you know the answer to that now there is talk of very important characteristics that have during an exam and that is mind control and that can be practiced as well and I think it's worthwhile for us to take 1 minute and we will practice here's what we're going to do it sounds easy we're just close our eyes naturally and when it agreed to going metal account 1 when we read out again and we have to the only reason again without 3 along with value in the car 4 and then we keep repeating 1 2 3 4 trading was derived from the but the fact that the at the end of ,comma the end of the day that's a good way to prepare for and that most people can't control their thoughts at all and they don't even know they're not controlled 1 God this is a waste of time this is what happened you find yourself thinking about something else listening to somebody because of what happened at 3 and 4 many have come back and then you may be able to stay there for a minute and then some I gotta go shopping that comes notice that you don't know where those started coming from and the distracting and the more distracting about you have come in the you trying to solve the problem let's see what he was saying I'm aware of the square Jesus on what happened to the problem that it it's possible to to be in a low-grade panic for to our clients and never get anything done because you're undermining yourself all the time with thoughts of failure or triumph was not the last word of them I Assistant work on November 19 this problems and we there's 3 thoughts that did not help solve problems and wasted time but you want your life will just in the wake of and I spend all your time thinking being preoccupied the more time you do that option on the day of the year and another but the more time you spend in the 1 2 3 the longer you left and if you want to those distracting thoughts come up with your dismissal during the exam that focusing on the 4th we have to have a child from the let's talk about thermal Tennessee were being
handled the heat that seems to day the but the way working he developed sometimes fall to be positive or negative and bowl working he referred to the system which is that part of the universe that we mentally carved out this that and the rest of it we call that surrounds it and we are quite interested in the surrounding the flight of personal property is interested in the property of the along and they're not interested in the millions of bases beyond that they don't yeah but were dealt only with positive that means the system increases in energy the system increases in energy that means for example gasses press we have to do work in the the W is negative the system decreases in them and again after that if we have a system like power plant where were using the system to produce energy we want the system to be negative were so we get to work and we get used to the energy system goes down and we get him to drive our car car or do something else with and if we have expansion against the constant external pressure when the work it is just minus the external pressure times change involved so the change in volume is crossing but the work is negative that means the system expanded and so it's it's energy is
left and if we at reversible expansion that means that the external pressure always is essentially the same as the internal pressure so that expands ever ever so slowly and that means that we can just use the Internet for the reason we liked reversible expansion reversible thing is that the sample to figure out it's not that we're going to to do it's the simple to figure out and they found that the possibility of the work than that and so the best you can possibly is not good enough you've got to do some of that very important to know what that limit so requires ability
again is gone but reversible process is 1 of the reversed by just changing and infinitesimal amount of pressure in it's reversible then it starts to contracted for but a a little bit extra pressure on those essentially man In the beauty of calculus is that you can have something differ by a small amount that it's essentially 0 but it's not means that you can do an and yet also I will show you a lot easier to do than some on the media reverse ability is always extremely slow in principle it's infinitely slope so we can possibly do anything personally because we can't wait that long time is money more importantly we all live to a certain amount of time
that's why very few people plan because of the taste for 100 years mature you have to to really think weight far beyond the grave the plan most people planetary like eucalyptus groves like crazy and those letters long so that it will be made their lifetime that's why we need some kind of programs where people with further ahead to the future of the common good and just plain and things like that so that future generations and enjoy he said that if he was
hotter than the flaws into the system and its if that background process called in and terms that absorbs heat from the environment it's going to be feel whole In the past reaction tends to get colder than absorbs heat from the fire warned back up there aren't too many favorable reactions to do that but I think for example resolve Sony in water it gets cold builders all I think early of free every favorable reaction that would just producer the met problem through many of the library gasoline was many things but some don't so that theory that it's just that he was wrong if you it's negative then he closed out the system and processes XO and that's the kind of thing that we used to create power we run reactions and we use that he In some kind of can producers were for example the Spanish Caroline and generate electricity we were told we produce the reproduced the Ukrainians were you reduce electricity we the honesty of his views on board nobody thought it was better and social revolutions start he can only be transferred reversible if you have 2 things at the same temperature or within the team I want to thank the at different temperatures if you bring them in the normal contact it sold you just lost because if he goes from the hot bodies the cold bodies and then you can get it back you can do you can magically separated he fighters waving a magic wand but you certainly can't stay boiling water and many who make them together and you get water at at some intermediate temperatures that that Nafta and you can see microscopically that happens to the boiling water hits the ice and knocks the water molecules the eyes and they're all there and they also called on the same b because they're all hitting each other and all that can happen it's the the most likely that it's very unlikely part of water
to suddenly start moving in recent times interested said genetically to to abide by the water that is moving fast and suddenly boiler that's extremely unlikely and so we don't see ever see that happen although many of the greatest frogs and science there the proposal machine is that essentially does that they have proceeded to mark the people are hot pot and then he run something with a lot of the submarine you go along Interstate in sea water he found that you out back and creates the image and the power the propellers the submarine you go along feel free using the waste heat in the ocean the power his stop work reversible he if there are essentially saying that this also OK I remember we
had this and we call the masses all we for the landmark began working at least let them off more slowly we got more work and we made the grains of sand and just like the the mom then we end up with the most sand piled up the highest and we get the most work and here if we have 4 masses that initially we we announced and the pressure goes down from 6 to 4 and therefore expands intelligence this which is the PD member states at a constant temperature B is a constant an arty and we pull another mass often drops to 2 let's say and then goes out here and we call another 1 off let's say drops to 1 goes out here we capture them this government game we get a word in the game and we lose the work and the so we say Gee if we wanted to capture this thing we have to drop down maybe 2 5 million would go here and we can't go out a little bit bigger rectangle and that we didn't even more slowly we we go like this and then finally we get this and this is if the external pressure is just the pressure of the gaps at all times and ironically this from the area under this it's a lot easier to calculate the adding of these when but if there is a lot of square Back at the the formulas for
some the formulation rentals or not this would be the site takeoff mass I was just the pressure and
had each change in volume times the pressure that was union said that at that time and I this is hundreds of things like that up maybe with a spreadsheet on computer but we managed it at all times so that we get the area under the curve then is some magically turns into an animal and even tho the article is intimidating when you don't know what it means exactly the end goal is much easier to do than the song and that's why can slot reversible process these because they can just slap a to easily figure out what the most they can get and then see if that's going to be good enough and then there you're not going to get back to you have to work on what decisions in years so what will give an example here the intervals look intimidating In fact quite clearly remember when I was violence said because I was still on the East Coast my father had a book at all these and I was absolutely fascinated by that book
and what those possibly meet and when would I learned what they meant what I learned that in kindergarten and my dad said no you won't learn it Canada but you eventually learn set you may have heard Maurice Sendak wrote where the wild things yeah the no but anyway I showing you there is a trend Maurice that he had a I think on Friday and I think that it a really that's another thing I really remember the Giants reading book and I thought there are monsters because in there in the book we have to be careful just because you can imagine something doesn't mean it's true even if the product doesn't mean and even if you think this doesn't mean anything this year to verify these for years example
here's a song clover and square 2 events 1 was 1 for us and I was 16 of 23 and against the question is rather what is that what is that exactly bartenders do not spread spreadsheet the disease is that an infinite number of going to stand back and use the power of the human mind and the you have summoned the numbers of the computer can't by comparison the of role this pretty healthy the from 171 over overexploitation when you learn how to use them as much as 1 over efforts to evaluate the next equals infinity minus 1 over at the about of the world want to my son's away so the area under the curve is 1 and this is going to be better than that obviously because this is outside before the rectangles were inside the
house and in a more advanced math .period you will learn the fact that integral parts the knows something about Fourier series but that's actually quite simple :colon and that's what turns out to be that's about 1 . 6 that would members of the public and start over you know you can guess what by the number OK
get the final volume is bigger than the initial volume works now because the system has lowered its internal energy and supplied with work that around and if we don't ask equation of state that we can figure out exactly what what the reversible working so have the pressure external pressure is just the internal pressure I know what he is so hot the over the and our antihero cost there's nothing else here the indeed be so I have Maserati the over the and that's the the entire derivative of 1 of the leaders natural law so it simple formula here might also be natural the final over the initial I want to see but not required to do finally he rolls on and saying this is not a matter on the other hand you must be intimidated by things just because you don't understand that I found out recently to the right brothers knew nothing basically nothing about just In fact in the history of engineering of the engineers or assigned because they're just France and that they see what works and then scientists Novak said well that means there's little on
the other wing maybe it just the way things like this makes you have this kind of her on and so forth and so on they can improve once they understand but you don't have to understand how it works the floor leaders of the 2 be willing to get in there I don't know get out of that accident this is a get off the ground as the universe that an interesting the longest time ,comma legs look like they came out on the Agenda became that and then suddenly doing started coming out this summer the Slovak economy and going and that turns out to be much better gas mileage so you can actually modeled after some bright guy said that if we just put this little thing to fund and we're going to get much better mileage out of our city and then all of the new that now there's no reason not to do it but they just father so long as we can
solve our people yeah as part of the weekend so for example we can do about it all staff last year but I can isolate the that the and then I just turned over but in the role and in fact there a secret controls . com will solve any growing again you don't really need to memorize the United route is the way I see it as 1 of the things I did I memorized all the tricks Spalding and derivatives handing over to direct substitution you name it so that I can do and also quickly because if you could do it grows quickly it's like I to look up every word in the dictionary when you try to read Shakespeare you can't get the the flow of the
play or anything because you're bogged down Read what's the definition of what it means for the sports and that you can't get any floor and if you're doing a lot lots problems in physical chemistry you can't see the problem if waste too much time getting stuck with the Wallstreet 7 million people many key moving as like running as the certain cases which is comparable to if you run too fast you get tired of but he deliberately tried to run to slow then that's very awkward man takes more energy than doing it in a more natural way that you can use mathematical is thick and for which I recommend that you do you'll learn how to use it and it's really unbelievable software like OK I want to go start ,comma hinted that this is what I did all I get turn that like the other
term but now it has this said that volume of In the end I get an additional term which is due to the practice for which has a different forms and that would be the most work could expect to get out of federal debt sometimes we have to use a different much more accurate equation of state figure of reversible were especially it's a really high temperature pressure you just have to look things up you really going to be important work to become
familiar with the case for new calculate what you and whatever you calculated for reversible when you actually make a machine to try to use that word it's going to be less than 100 per cent efficiency but said if we make a
small change In internal energy use we can write a small change make this a little dull did you find the yesterday's send and I feel a funny every all here because these are not the only thing you can agree because those things don't correspond to an area under her if I have something that corresponds to an area 100 per minute I go to here and then I go back and then I thought here I get the same area under the curve because it's a good thing that holds up if I have something that doesn't correspond to an area under the curve is like for for example having a spiral of violence two-dimensional surface and if I if I have spiraled so I go around and I come back and above where I was and then I go around again and I'm here that I can't tell but that doesn't respond to any area under her and that's like friction if I the rubbing something it depends not where my hand starts and stops but it depends how many times I rather than how much energy is dissipated as fractions of friction which is alone it's not something that's concerned you minimize friction with oil you get much better work out than if you have high friction and then you just wasted time and energy framework he if we all use pressure volume work we know what we need to work is that's just the external pressure to was the change in volume was on police said change last week do it constant volume while constant volume means that the 0 and that means that the change in internal energy cost and volume is just the change the cost and if I agree this becomes Delta and that's just because the among the editors of fact ,comma fall and there's still that we eat something in constant volume and we as practice the that's just going to change the internal energy for part this process following another idealization because most things when you need them they expanded very hard in the letter that he thinks the cost involved so this is kind of interesting directly but practically not that useful since it's very hard to do the experiment on the other
hand almost every chemistry reaction with you Is that constant pressure because we usually have early Myint was swirling around it the last at 1 atmosphere pressure and so that we do offer as very much interested in that he had constant pressure and that's and we must the most
reactions on the bench constant pressure and we figure out how to to calculate the really who that a state functions and so that we think the fact that no matter how big is the reaction because we don't know what the reaction yeah and attractive we make a new function you a state functions and the use of state funds because of we specify state we specify the and therefore pages a state function and then take a if you can always do a little calculus we think it's derivative the the Dodgers DAG can always DHT yet if you've done that and that the end get rid of all the DX while the derivative of age it is the kind of you plus the derivative of the product you is this if it's reversible and a derivative of the product of the and the is the 1st time that during the 2nd it was the 2nd time in the 1st and then the reversible work there is minus the so beautifully goes away and we have reversible the and and then we think that we don't let the and what we find is that the change in this state function we made up which we're going fall and Delphi is that he really stirred storm at constant pressure and that's very important because that's how we that how we do chemistry
react we usually do them a constant pressure to get the
ultimate careful review have extreme situations that are still in the it's not pressure is pushing down the expanded so more calculated much more difficult than that but anyway this gives us an idea if we want to
figure out this is what he will be released or absorbed a constant pressure we need do everything possible chemical reactions or we could find have a system where we have certain numbers that we know and then we add and subtract names because the state function we don't have to know how it happened we subtract things and then we get what we want and the most important of invention along these lines is calling him about the formation it's the heat absorbed released the constant pressure when you make 1 hole come from elements in their standards state With the standard state is usually at 298 . 1 5 Bill but it's always at 1 atmosphere or 1 bar is probably of the pressure and the most stable form of the element at 1 atmosphere pressure and usually 298 or something the list another temperature and then From there standard is danger that to accept white except for Foster were white phosphorus is the accepted standard you know that's not the most stable form OK let's do problem let's right down the correct reaction that referred to the end of the year formation for a moment and then said and death now we have to write some pretty improbable reaction but we don't care whether these reactions will build or whether they can be carried out in our lifetimes we're just writing them down we 1st have to to know what the security alliance meeting ammonia it is managed 3 Benson sees it states that it was select with another CH 4 gaps we have form each call from the elements in their
standards state and we have to balance the equation using fractions is necessary so that we get 1 bowl ,comma 1 hole when the savior of the formation is blocked Lovelock killer Jules per mole this from of the compound from all of reactor or something else so here they are and I love the most if I play
1 have into to guests and I don't want nitrogen and I think it's really have staged 2 have to get 3 higher that I think this the and I can make and I can actually do that's down villagers income scale at the end of the formation and sex of the American it's minus 46 . 1 1 killer tools from all of ammonia 4 then the final they said ,comma announces graphite that's the standard 4 plus 3 molecules of molecular hydrogen and I get 1 mole of sees states 6 liquid and it's lost 49 kilos jewels from all and if I make that from graphite and this this reaction I certainly wouldn't want to wait around for it to happen I get mine 74 . 8 1 don't jewels from all and it's time rest and the and formation of censorship is and no 3rd and you'll learn more about that in organic chemistry that seems kind of special place in many ways OK let's try to figure out how how we can determine in the laboratory the Standard amp the formation of carbon monoxide carbon
monoxide is poisonous and it's against analysts tend not to like deal with poisonous gasses suggests that getting away from the once they get out of the atmosphere they're very hard to get back the genie back in the bottle
industry for allegedly by far but we have with gasses sometime here's the literal reaction we just look it up we want have total molecular oxygen was CIA's Graff carpenters graphite we get 1 carbon monoxide sex of their earnings to the tune of minus 110 . 5 feet below jewels from all however we can't do this reaction in the lab because we can ensure that 1 of the 1st part we only get part of modern oxide because usually when you burned garbage get carbon dioxide and there and how we can started adding to losses does that very easily if they did we all die carbon-monoxide
poisoning because every time we lit fire we get tons of carbon monoxide tonight and we appeal so usually it burns to give carbon dioxide and therefore we can literally do this reaction we can use reacts in the lab but we can get to go to this product were we get carbon dioxide so what we do that we say this number whatever it is doesn't care and how we made the all ,comma on access because any of state we have to figure out a way to go around it so that we actually have to easy experiments geared to ease firm 1st of all we burn
grass completely it's easy to Birdsong completely crazy keep burning and burning and burning it till the that we can do and that we can make to the get C O 2 and then we can get a canister of carbon monoxide somebody's purified you we can broaden that week as well so now we have 2 reactions we burned graphite to get carbon dioxide and we've earned Vermont get carbon dioxide and then all have to to do is standards of practice we can measure you have all these most problems we reverse the 2nd reaction and added to the 1st we get this situation and then we can cancel out things that we don't need and we get the reaction we want therefore we just this 1 gear maturity to the measure this 1 and we reversed well on the and each reaction is pretty simple because we just the completion and this really is the power of the Madonna is that you can get something you can get a number for something that you want to get that is extremely difficult access to measure accurately in the laboratory by measuring 2 things that are easy to measure accurately and then using the power of the state funds To tell you the answer 1 year and what that
means then is that if you look the table of all center these the formation they all about random number at 1st but in fact there not because they all have to fit together like pieces of a puzzle because the violence of fact is that it has to be this number over here it's also on the table or something's wrong so they all we get the thing the government "quotation mark because the study
canceled initially it nationally together 2 years I have a whole load too and I happened over the years so when I canceled that I thought I have here the C O 2 it goes away with the seal useful it's out of our hair so that's where it wouldn't happen and that's disappeared of 10 and then the only the pattern of and see graphite and and the only thing left on the side of CO everything else is gone that this is
the 1 that I want OK at the other end of the year
formation is just a way to standardize the use of reaction with respect to the but oftentimes the reactions that we would write downs just never going to actually have left for example you can look at the end of the year formation of a new world there's glucose in the open form circulating in your blood at the top of the 80 milligrams per deciliter or much higher than that if your pancreases given up the ghost because you've been so much glucose is highly regulated like sodium in your blood you but it does not want a ton of glucose circulating in your blood glucose is fuel for energy but like much like fuel a car I was in gasoline in the tank In the 80 I want more energy so I think I'll stop putting gasoline in the passenger compartment all over the roof and everywhere else in the car doesn't work well it reacted over her glucose literally Telegraph hydrogen and oxygen and get this and I assure you that you can never there were about to carry this out unless we can write it down it
has a number in for the end of the formation this doesn't matter whether you can actually carry reaction out From the elements often can
once we know we have uniform and we can figure out delegation for any reaction because we just decompose all reactants and the elements and then just reassemble the elements into the new products and we've got numbers for every step we want to react to those with something we 1st will pose and we started the carpenter's graphite hydrogen as molecular hydrogen oxygen and that take those and we assemble them back together in summer from this and beyond we've got the end of the for the reaction for example there's not a summarization reaction yeah yeah this guy Lauro F. Lee the Florida on the same side what you've got a double bond you can't rotate anymore it just like a flat plain sitting floating around the single or against them and they spend from about 10 of the the 13 times per 2nd which is pretty fast the and therefore these 2 are different when the warrants a across this has a different dipole moment then this has a different boiling point and this has a different human toxicity to you let them and so we call these
I insist on the same side France's crossed across the track 2 let's 1st
decomposed this isomer into we made last hydrogen and chlorine and the authority to do this we that he will be the minus delegates formation because delegates formation His starting with the 3 and getting bit of I reversed reacting reversed the sign of the old age because of personal the products in the reactor and then I just take those same free and I reassemble them into the train and I look up delegates formation for the train In the disabled and the delegates for their reaction which I can do I can go out there with the leases and just go like that every molecule I don't have that kind of control but I can still figure out what delegates through this hypothetical reaction would be from turning into France's miners delegates to form a new person plus delegates formation for a trend and then I can figure out that
excellent there remain or an older people that really see when I turned his chair or well it absorb heat when I turned OK which isomers
that without without knowing anything I realize you don't know anything dress "quotation mark but I will this was you can look at which 1 do you think is more table since the chance to Florida and what it the more stable 1 of the 1 will tend to get if 1 of them is valuable and the other one's not and while it's not valuable is more stable I'm in trouble because I'm going to get tough so I don't want so it can be quite important enough well if you don't get they all have the same number of stuck together because they they are highest that's essentially what I and so the bonds is probably nearly the equal strength and I would guess they cancel out pretty much but chlorine atoms and we just Ferrari's these letters we not really drawing of the these are the big chlorine atoms are closer together on assisting the right across the liked to the balloons and knowing each other again at a and they preferred a more of and so I wrote this over the chance where further apart that's going to be more stable and that's the factory fortunately for parents trans fat is more stable but the actual fact which is the SIS summer which is produced by the plant if you look at fatty acids the unsaturated that means they have a double bomb plants also produce things the current change them down on the same side and they tend be avoided White Form soybean oil all of oil what can still when there was a big worry that people reading too much larger Is this will
produce a without long it'll be unsaturated and fortunately was the translates which interestingly enough didn't spawn so you put that fat hinted Twinkies they would be good for months and months and months because bacteria in like the I think the bacteria don't like they're not good for us and things that filibuster not good read and so what happened was a lot of health-conscious people switched from butter to margarine indicated that trans fat said these days and then got hot and the health authorities said what since then those that promote heart disease and it turns out of course promotes like crazy worth the market worse than saturated fat so it I don't along In fact because it was prior to state and trends this fall solid materials flight and just terrible and you just throw it in Jamaica ,comma long or whatever was and then people people tend not to be on that's all I know is seen as latest abundant just but if you think that flour and sugar people go wild and the same amount of fat but they don't realize and shoppers rulers is the fact that is solid at room temperature I don't at least not In language probably better off OK but not about as long it turns
out are summarization reaction to this special case law In fact has lost nothing other than the end of the business they function as of the end of the year reactions is always the some of the other the formation of the product might react for example if I want to figure out the combustion gasses he was asked used IN fingernail polish and all kinds things the smell and I take acetone and burden Wilbur With oxygen August 3 Molson C O 2 in the malls of H 2 0 the heightened asked all what is delegated this reaction and the answer is finally dealt formation of all these guys this is the talents of delegates formation of an element in its standards state it's always Europe then I have these 3 that I look up table I can start to bite slow amount and I have multiplied by the numbers because Delta for 1 whole and I made 3 balls Sunday to get 3 times as much therefore the cultivates the image of combustion it's just 3 times but at the end of the formation of carbon-dioxide plus 3 times whatever it for water was the 2 product minus whatever the formation is for acetone and to being formation and 0 so I didn't bother to put it in that I could put formation of and later but in 0 and that's how you have to do it you just have to be sure that you lose 3 year because it is and you make extreme also 3 times as much and that's why you you
without chemical reaction because you get the numbers wrong when you don't reactions when you get the wrong that everything wrong not surprisingly the very 1st thing teach balanced chemical equation OK let's talk about he said the fact that probably the last time I have raisin toast was in college but I do recall but the raisins are always hotter than the toast but readings at the same temperature so why is it that the race and always seem for White said that if I get in a steam room it's much hotter than a song at the same time all that yesterday was the capacity and if
the capacity just matters if I put on so many jewels of the Thomas temperatures go up a point of saying the sentence the temperature goes up different last summer see their ability to absorb the without actually raising them temperature all that much Water for example very good and things like that during the cool stuff a lot because this sort of while these waters fire and whatever it is proportionality constant here this season so he could you call their incapacity interview cost pressures the constant pressure the past and if you ever forget all that is has used of fuel for more from Cal it it turns out that CPU itself and that on temperature it's not just constant to make changes to the stuff of energy 1 of the actors were you take into account the temperatures than of and in
fact you can look it up in tables the tables of the basketball fans there and they just something like that
I started this equation and I'm in a great from the standard temperature which might lead to 98 I can look at the alternate table at 298 and I can look up I can go to some of the temperature let's say a thousand Hills where I want to run chemical process and I can take the difference between the end of the state function is to temperatures and that's just people to be in the role of the of the he's so I know what the best years as a function temperature and if you look at our new book they usually do something like that they said that the capacity of water is a plus policy T square was sometimes do your ought to a 1 and they give you numbers here and that means that you can show in these numbers you can go into rolled up on just do the unilateral and you get expression and then if you put it in the final and the you get the chain and 1 that lets you do Is that lets you start to 98 felt worried look up the end of the unless you got late in the year reaction at any temperature nobody has to help you just do it sometimes have to handle the matter at 1 temperature in the event of an accident at another 2 inches defense we just do this fact every reactor in every product and I just want to see is a lot to do with but I want to understand you can calculate the end of the year any reaction at any temperature if you know the and the formation of standard temperature and humidity of the material Over the temperature
range and few have you can estimate the effect you can still get past we don't blame
we've got a welding torch we've got a flame the usual assumption these reactants coming in at 2 298 there yes and then the next he some the products so that cross the C O 2 NBA stew or whatever the products are that are coming out of flame at the end really hard can if I know the capacity of the product and I assume no heat is lost when I'm ignite the flame is burning so quickly that I can't figure out how the flames and possibly get and that's very useful if I want to use the flame for example make a welding
for the research and gasses that I can combine and spark and I can get caught and it's going to be really really hot so I can well steel was interested the some of the dance like liquid propane but if I use that in a welding torch it's not going to get hot enough to make a proper seal of actually melt stuff and well together and therefore of I know How can I get it and out of choice lying on the gas pipeline 1 it's going to do that's the 1 I have works not 1 that goes to 3 thousand dollars that I don't need photo actually focus we wanted time to finish the question said the the narrative we know
we can write down delegates overreactions that we can't do and there's lot special reaction on which is the latest in the obvious crystals but a lot of theoretical and her chance so we might get a number for because although we can reaction terms theoretical chemist and physicist and calculate what should be and they know if the calculation is right on the money I agree with experiment or is their theory about how all the forces you know salt is wrong so we want to be a list of flight and with number and here's here's the latest scandal is a very simple reaction to write down we assault for example potassium chloride which is a solid and we vaporizes into the potassium ions in fluoride finals we just this big Crystal has unit-cell please go home and we made potassium ions in borrowed on Tuesday we can't do this reaction Melanson original work because that is the kind of thing the same opposite chart but for a guy with a computer and time on his or her on this thing is funding calculate because when you calculate the attraction in principle it's safe to use dancing here and arrived here trash In this case is not passing moment for their repel there is no authority here they attract new tax and this is a greatly puzzled to write down and analysts and you take different amounts and say out how many tests resulted in the and people worked out how to do that and it's quite interesting didn't statistical on that and because we can't measure the similarity theorists would like to know if you must so they can compare with the calculation we instead have to find a bunch of reactions that we can venture in Milan and then we have we get what we were after all this is that the
amendment was not on the best time to get photographs released by the