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Lec 8. Osmotic Pressure, Colloids & Sum Up of Colligative Properties


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Title Lec 8. Osmotic Pressure, Colloids & Sum Up of Colligative Properties
Title of Series Chemistry 1B: General Chemistry
Part Number 08
Number of Parts 18
Author Shaka, A.J.
License CC Attribution - ShareAlike 3.0 Unported:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal and non-commercial purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor and the work or content is shared also in adapted form only under the conditions of this license.
DOI 10.5446/19433
Publisher University of California Irvine (UCI)
Release Date 2012
Language English

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Subject Area Chemistry
Abstract UCI Chem 1B General Chemistry (Spring 2012) Lec 08. General Chemistry -- Osmotic Pressure, Colloids & Sum Up of Colligative Properties -- Instructor: A.J. Shaka. Ph.D. Description: UCI Chem 1B is the second quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: properties of gases, liquids, solids; changes of state; properties of solutions; stoichiometry; thermochemistry; and thermodynamics.
but usually on the back right without writing anything down trying to figure out where to go 3rd the mind the work by 1 of the fire minus 1 to 100 by calling than for the why . 7 the plan . 7 4 for the rest of the work that I think so the interesting thing of course is that that you get to 100 traders me only no whereabouts of 100 and the world you and so on you can then multiplied the number of Macy's the president said he was by 170 by the war of losses we have according there you have it and you know what I think so forth and so on I never used to be able to do that I just practices while I was out running and pick a number of factors square root I get home and the way off because I made a mistake the thing during the and then after a while I made fewer mistakes and then after a while I did make very many at all and then it seems pretty easily and that's the way things go if you practice will get don't practice will stay the same if you do something like what did you get done the reason why a lot of people can't follow verbal instructions which is very poor fault face Malta do this do that of course taught you can't answer boss would say Wait a minute I like best and slightly higher this because of don't what he deal did and if you think that the content of turn your back to the meeting and just listen to the garden when you realize you train yourself to not listen so if you've got time to watch TV you are even close to study part these should be a 0 this whole even if it's something interesting not as interesting as the OK let's get that I do have 1 announcement and that is that the embarrassingly I got the date wrong likened popularly referred briefly in the and so on To make up for that with a lower back on related property you describe if you want to try again the highest score in the last race you understand that take a week off your it was practices will make perfect and the Senate in those regions .period on modest pressure things on and it's also going to have a graph prom he distribution of the war the on the and I all kinds of drawings that was supposed to be the program .period I don't think would be the start of of the year all the time of the year and I think that went off to infinity like gas and the In the new line starts and there's a lot of traffic at 0 velocity that scoreless I think was the me to know where Indiana moving in that they can with not around I got a lot on theory that the pretty much OK let's but this is working last monarch pressure call Lloyd's and so a little practical chemistry today what we talk about laundry detergent and shampoo can you say about a lot of money if you know a little chemistry no I was modest pressure this is from last
time if we have a satellite permeable membrane and of course the trickiest part of these fabricated SMI permeable membrane that lets in something that doesn't let him other than that the correct but once you got you can sometimes use the cell membrane of model then you will find that because Kids function of the side with a solution is lower the pressure will build up there will be a record there imagine I've got to campaign in the water and they're connected by awful and Lawton right and their level and I lost while started filling with water right from the start because that's what naturally had and I can understand the gravity of the plentiful but now focuses on here that a lot things and I'm moving the the water presses on that and presses against with pressure right and likewise if I put in something in solutions it lower something sorta like this it's a little hard to imagine but it lowers the tendency of those solvent molecules and get out of it and so the pure solvent will have to follow in her side where you have the solution and we can measure the pressure difference because pressure is dead easy to manage and very sensitive and so on osmotic pressure measurement extremely good for measuring ion concentrations and also for measuring macromolecular concentrations because if I've got big guy then the big I think get through the membrane the membrane could be real cheap to make because the big I think it through so it says the duo osmotic pressure and if I have set up like this freshwater flows into the salty water side until the G Fund people and likewise that will happen in you you can
see some kind of candy that the sugar substitute pure alcohol and it says on the back Paw on whatever it that overconsumption may lead to a laxative right that laxative effect is also modern pressure stuff and your stomach can catalyze a very quickly because the whole idea is it's not true and so it goes through your system and your large investment and changes the office similarity in their so lowers that and then water rushes in from Europe last year and the pressure is here and that's why you better be able to spread it because you are going to make otherwise and it's a very unnatural feeling very unpleasant so they warn you of course but it's hard it's a harmless effect could be very embarrassing nothing more than that OK here's a here's a
market from a book on by industry we've got a solution can then we've got some membrane here that we stretched over the ball and we throw in some solid into this festive there initially equal and if we do nothing if we do nothing what we find is that this solution creeps up to a certain height and the high depends on how was that we all depends on how many malls particles are in and that's important because if we measured in grams and we know how many balls with no grounds for always might what if instead of letting it creep like that we press on so that it stays the same we'll find out we have suppressed draft with the pressure to make its staying right where it's supposed to be and we can measure that pressure and the pressure is called the perhaps we measured easily and it's a very good way to tell and we use a Greek symbols 5 which is sort of like pressure but fancier to
indicate the osmotic pressure and so the trick is we've gotta
find their sunlight permeable membrane that lets through the solved but not the sole use and then if we can find that then we can quantify the reduction the G function by measuring the pressure the solvent will always want to reside with the sole use in solution and so it'll tend to build up from that side and as I said if we allow the pressure in the park compartment to increase that eventually will counteract the tendency the solids from Fujian but we're pushing back was the same thing amount of pressure so it can come in that's the idea and it works especially well with big solutes because big solutes are easy to fabricate a membrane that they can't get that's that's pretty
straightforward trim be much harder was something else In that case it's not a good should not
cellular membranes and so much permeable they let in certain kinds of ion and deep out certain other kinds of vinyl and all carefully controlled usually the interior of itself as much higher capacity and much lower sodium then the outside but they have similar possible errors they have similar numbers of particles so that the cell membrane doesn't have a lot of pressure put on 1 way or another but of course if you change the Osmo larity you can change the US moderate pressure experienced by itself and this is not a very good thing to do here it is sequence here I've got a red blood cell if I have the correct amount of violence inside and outside the government building them all and I'm not gulping down water I'm not walking around with a bottle of water making it all the time and I'm not theirs Kirk and my red blood cells will look like the and that's the good shape the pages have so they can we used to capillaries in small spaces and meet your blood flow if I go wild on salt then might last month has human soul so it has a lower its function and the water rushes out of the cell and self-critical some like crude the crenelated form and so it changes shape and then there fights on and with spikes on and it was jammed in capillaries the other cells on the other side remember these are delivering boxes negativity oxygen and there is a God and the have microbes stroke going on all the time the fate of the probe you may not even know noticed 1 year on this year probably not the feeling your mouth on the other hand if you go wild with water you can actually feel yourself with what it's usually only the people who are mentally ill who managed to do that but they have an idea In their ideas extremely powerful and why you have watch like a half the ideas and purifying myself with all this Hua rainwater long long long China drinking all the time even tho I'm not very thirsty and I'm making my work like crazy against all this stuff and I'm also having my red blood cells puff like the big Blue and finally if you the killing they start popping like balloons you don't want that
I assure you then 1 that starts happening in Europe Donna you can get to that point these membranes are pretty tough tough start but not instantly tops b 2 some marathoners have
because fragrance policy this is pretty interesting exercise associated type only premium not enough sodium in your blood drinking oneself that this was April 9th 2012 leaving can't but 22 year-old male fitness instructor finished the 2007 London Marathon collapsed and despite immediately immediate emergency medical care .period the serum sodium such markedly low and the cause of death was found to be high on the train subsequent this doesn't happen often but let me know if you can overdo anything subsequent investigations established that he had been concerned about becoming dehydrated and therefore drunk a large volume of fluid this guy's .period to they not around America primary In health needs of the right that's not the have said he had not and that he was inversely when he was thinking that but he thought that he might perform better and then they looked at the Boston Marathon finishes and found that there are 13 and 12 per cent respectively in these 2 races that hibernate premium by the time they finished because they were drinking too much during the raid and it's interesting because never used to be a problem so and threaten won the London Marathon in 1983 he drank nothing usually the the fastest guys don't drink anything because when you're running hard it's even harder to swallow In the wake of the huge gulps of air and my joke anyway you don't want someone going solution who flew to London trial and that thousands of that whatever it their is that and so they can what they think more quickly there are about 6 hours pounding their needs and the jailed leader of slightly over the along it's very light holiday but then In 1975 the American College of Sports Medicine published a position statements advocating regular fluid intake during endurance events suggesting this would reduce the risk of heat stroke and then people started following them and whether they were 1st year not the start meeting was
crazy and that's when this problem here the few I'm thirsty don't drink anything waiting at 1st the you'll get a signal that you need to address there's no danger believe me the danger is thinking Well I don't need a signal for anything and so I'm going to just decide what to do OK not that the pressure don't freak out
because I will require you to be able to the right that I don't like the way the book at this level .period equated that hat because of the quality of players now have it doesn't make much sense to me quite hard to remember you will have to remember or write it down so that you've got the next exam but in the years since the word comes from the news and see the rationale so we're going to call the solvent and the all and we can calculate when the solvent will have the same gives functions for 1 things of the balance on both sides of the membrane we lowered achieved by putting in some particles and then the pressure races she Back to the same level as the salt so I'll show you the
calculation but you do not need to be able
to do it or do this whole derivation so beautiful right partial to 1 when you write the funding we just make you feel so much smarter instantaneously and that's already in the region the stating that so that you can actually have a vantage point look down on the Taliban and understand things clear that matters is the clearest way understand what's going on that's why we invented but it is a foreign language and like in a foreign language that can be hard to learn the reason harder than most men natural languages because it's so press you can put some much information and a little equation that is part of a package really saying word was but in fact you'll learn and physical chemistry if you take it but for any change in because this is a change in the height of something yet again it's given by a small change in pressure times the molar of all minus the bowler and should the be hunted small change in temperature those of the 2 things in come in and that means invited by both sides flies the and then I'd say fire-safety T is 0 which I you by putting this little find things to be out here years 0 when either by both sides by the than I have the chief of the DPP is equal to the molar volume but I have to be mathematically rigorous I use the funny the when I started saying the derivatives is in this direction in a graft there is no direction they're just left and right and it's clear the derivatives but in 2 dimensions the derivatives 1 way and the difference the finances of walking on trail that nite and the walking this way and the British /slash but I know what that would be very so I say I want the slope of the hill said Monday in the slope north of the West or in some other funding director and here and taken the slower in whatever direction to constant that's that's just what the notation means and we have an equation the equation .period she for the pure liquid on 1 side that pressure it is equal to Cheney all of the other side In a solution With mole fraction because I've got some soul and with an additional pressure he was high on the par-5 with the osmotic pressure and then I have to figure out what I wanted this means but this is the principle is that the 2 sides should be balanced the G function well I can take this side and an expanded out and again you'll learn you don't know this now that the chief function of a solution of
all fraction access is equal to the G function under the same conditions of the pure liquid was party logics said and sense ex-aide between 0 and 1 of the largest always negative and that means that the G function for a solution is always lower compared to the G function of a pure liquid that's just exactly how much it's lower we can use the
dependence of Cheney on the pressure nowadays Our liquid fury at the Oct laws and now that people are spotted we wanna get the peace so we can pick get them compare with and this is equal to the chief functions at the initial pressure the Annagrove girl from the people the molar volumes but in the very 1st lectures we decided that the molar volume of liquid doesn't change much with pressure and 5 small it's not lifting ,comma anything like that usually we're going to assume that the volume is of the molar volume is not a function of press and then you learn from calculus is something is a constant can bullet outside the Union but there is about equal to their last full this thing out and beauty and it will be the all the inability theaters he but I think people 5 minus the when I get there this thing is equal to the molar gives function of a pure liquid last the notified the start looking suspiciously like an ideal gas kind of equation and it is actually related would put this together and what we said what is that but the function of the solution that ,comma mole fraction instead of salt and higher pressure is equal to the G function of the pure liquid on the other side but we know that what this thing this thing is in fact equal to last year what's that therefore this class that must be equal to 0 or and that gives us the relationship between the US pressure the molar volume of assault and the mole fraction of the solvent and the temperature of the and look we get even harder than With the gas constant comes in minor Saadi exit is equal to 5 times the molar volume of the solvent but we don't really want to focus on the mole fraction of the solvent we want photo focused on the mole fraction of the solutes because that's what we show then so we have to add 1 other thing the mole fraction of solutes insult that has to be 1 but we substitute for the log of X said the of 1 minus X B and as long as XP is small any program that will tell you that's about equal to
minus X B so we can substitute for the log of X a minus X B but we got to minus signs so that's good simplify things quite a bit if we do
that and so we can write simplified equations party times the mole fraction xB this is equal to the pie these now we have a relationship between the mole fraction of salt you and the osmotic pressure and you notice it depends on the kind of soul here because it depends on the molar volume of salt if we've got a dilute solution then the mole fraction xB strictly speaking the number of also being over a plus B will just assume that be small so a plus B is pretty much a and therefore the mole fraction of XP is pretty much in the mold of solutes divided by the balls of solvent and the most number of moles of solvent over the molar volume that's just the the volume of the song and this gives us a kind of of ideal gas equation called the event at the higher the the sequel and the party we usually don't leave it like that we usually isolate the osmotic pressure we can make 1 more simplification to do on the number of malls and b of solutes divided by the molar volumes of Avis solvent yeah is about equal to the number of malls of the divided by the small volume of the solution because the solution doesn't change much in Volume 1 we had a little bit of the and then there's the number of moles heard Leader of solution if you like it's just the concentration of the and usually we write that there are 2 ways to write the same the osmotic pressure is equal to the mall larity of these solutes times Artie for which is right The Times where C is the concentration Of the solutes and the key
its the number of particles if you dissolve something that falls apart and gives a lot of articles the osmotic pressure will be because the effective concentration of now we have SMI
permeable membrane and we have ocean water on 1 side and fresh water on the other side billion incredible pressure fresh water will just try to push him there like crazy and while the but a lot of work on it the fresh water from rushing but who could have enough muscle we will even more force than that and which freshwater out that's how we desalinated water by reversal we just outmuscled the onslaught pressure and force the technical that instead if we're going to do that we might want to know How much work we're going to have to do because if we've got do work to do something like this it's going to cost money because we're going to be compressor and it's going to have to be pressurized and then how many leaders of fresh water we need 2 make it could be a lot so we we might need a lot of muscle In fact I think about near near-daily they're proposing to put an end to nuclear reactors who supplied the muscle the desalinated water because by irrigating all the fields in the sound of the invalid over time you start building its support more 2 of the residual salt and water urinating on and so this week following stuff out there really needs and good water and maybe a lot of the proposing to put into nuclear power plants while they won't make any power with useful desalinated water federal squeeze also the Mt and then there regenerate sealed bids you don't do this from time to time what happens is your crop yield it's going down down down plants don't like soul they don't have any assault at least not much finds a lot of passing it on have sold you never see it fertilizers uses lots of sodium think that's what the Romans the right old soul that in the field so that means not only do we conquer you now but we make sure you start in the future you can't grow anything so try out on the side and then we take off not a very popular move but there was so the way this works that is we however producer lower entrance the product were actually unmixed himself from water and we're going to have to do work but if we're willing to do the work then we can we can produce what we want ocean water recall is about 3 . 5 weight per cent salt to about 35 grams per kilogram or 600 million mobile and human blood recall is about 150 million more to solve this process is
gonna be energy-intensive you'll see why we need the 2 nuclear power plants the reverse osmosis .period they will be generating electricity because the work we have to do against the concentration greater however I we may need to do this and here's why the
scientists in Crowell Hall tell me that they're predicting far less snow in the Sierra that means in the summer of 200 water if you run out of water it suddenly serious this is like running out of air as long as you have an affair there is no work the 2nd you run out it's a big instantaneous so you want to guard against that yeah credibly get all of our water needs from the ocean there's lots of water and there he just can't drink right so could we have just a massive series of reversals Moses plants saved the day for us allowing those dependent child the 1st thing is to stop doing the kind of job you're going to be showering like they do in the name will little water on book so so so no water rinse or better because they have to purify all the water they use on the side of the machine they have rules about how you use it you don't just leave the the capital costs for these plants working with seawater are really high and the operating costs of energy parts and maintenance issues the main part of the maintenance issue because the the membranes that followed you're trying to squeeze through water and you've got tiny holes that all that's all through while whatever Lotus seaweed and their stuff comes through the New year membrane gets clogged and you have to swap it out and then you have to keep making pneumatic breasts and that cost you money and where you get the materials were get the energy to do that when you've burned up all the fossil fuels a long time ago and I got this estimate from the Army Corps of Engineers the capital cost is 2 thousand dollars 4 meter Q per day capacity and the
operating cost is a dollar 25 you per day capacities that's an estimate a cubic meter
is a lot water it's 258 U.S. down but a day is a long time 2 people use water for all kinds of things a the public water use for 240 million U.S. residents in the year 2000 was 43 billion gallons of fresh water that's a lot 31 per cent indoor uses toilet 90 per cent of showering 25 per cent is watching long that's a lot of weight you can cut way back on most of that this year cognizant of so for Southern California if we estimated 24 million people we need to desalinate 400 30 billion gallons of water well the way I figured that would cost us 2 million dollars a year I'm going to go would cost 3 . 3 billion dollars the bill also plans to get this thing going but he conceded climate change the current about that deal economic problems somebody has come up with a 3 . 3 billion somebody is you and me the 2nd you get a job and earn money still the people flying around like crazy to get their share then the certification moment makers have to do that so we we should consider people are planning these things even as we speak if you go out to the aqueduct and just go out to the last mountain range but in have those kinds they had 6 12 thousand horsepower running full
tilt to pump the water out over the last down so we those are used about 100 megawatts of power and when you do that because the Californians on wildfires in Southern California developed in the event ,comma the water all the way down here to do that but it won't help you if there's no water ,comma you won't help you at all villages be sitting there and you don't have to get the water or some other way yeah yeah OK let's figure out how much muscle we need
practice problem 28 was the minimum pressure that we need to apply to a suitable cyanide permeable membrane in order to squeeze fresh water out of salt water in other words To do reverse because most analysts have a look we have to overcome the odds modern pressure I'm going to assume a temperature of about gift worse as temperature highs Over the hot the US melodic pressure depends on the number of particles remember for each mall of sodium chloride we can estimate that there are 2 malls part and if we estimated to moles of particles and means that they move in Japan which is not true for restoring water because of his last mines they tend to stick together in a way that doesn't really look like to it looks like a little less than a little better than the is measure measure the osmotic pressure you know what it is if it . 6 smaller . 6 miles per liter times too most particles from all of sodium fluoride fears are here 300 Calvin just a guess it's like about 29 . 6 30 or for 130 years foreign variously sized by law 1 atmosphere is 14 . 7 years at this pressure the flow of 0 the vote about not yet actually want get things moving the other ways to do that was shot you can switch to moderate the rate at which however luckily I it's a little bit less than you could be on spending congregate a little bit and the US market pressure turns out to be about 24 bar rather than 30 people so that's good but still you need about 40 to 70
by To do reverse most so you need to take all those millions of gallons of water and you need a push on like crazy and that takes a lot of energy to do that or rather it takes a lot of power 12 now let's determine the mass of macromolecules with no
1 here Gold calmodulin it's a great protein the greatest calcium it does all kinds of things and we've got 35 mg of the let's assume we we we haven't without counting the leader of the words of calcium and often making the extra pass purified 35 milligrams of that protein calmodulin and had dissolved in 1 milliliter of water and then I mentioned the US model pressure it's time 41 4 but I can measure 41 for easily if I measure that there was the more mass of calmodulin OK well I just say I know the osmotic pressure now I want soften the concentration but then I just assume 300 K I was given in the problem on a test for toward you have been redeveloped yes Leicester's gets about temperature on on a warm day the US model pressure was 41 foreign selling costs on the converted atmosphere by divided by 760 awards go way too far I know he is editor Kelvin and so it turns out the concentration is 2 . 1 9 Billy Ball the . 1 9 times 10 to the minus 3 that means in a leader if I have 35 mg in mail leader I have 35 grams in a leader so 35 grams is 2 . 1 9 times 10 to the minus 3 malls because remember this is moles per liter but this figure out how many grams per liter 35 and it turns out that the molecular weight of about 16 thousand GM for more so it's a big guy that's typical for for these guys OK now suppose we are calmodulin we want freezing point depression you'll see why are osmotic pressure is far superior for these guys for big guys as modern pressure the way you selected do not you never use boiling point elevation of the void because usually when you boil programming you know what happens when you boil an egg the
changes by reacts with itself and turns into a map and if you cool the at it doesn't come back to to where it was you do an irreversible crosslinking all of the material and if you go out on Sundays and let you be like in your face all day long which you can easily do without it then you will be from your face like an and know at all kinds of irreversible crosslinking and you look old and in the days before sunscreen when people were sunbathing along if you want to see the results of that go out on springs you no you don't go out on Halloween because you won't be able to tell the truth cost must take the same route solutions and let's measure the freezing point of track instead let's let's just see what it would be so 41 told or I assure you it's that simple management any pressure remedial measures that that's not now let's take our same 35 milligrams of
calmodulin dissolve in 1 milliliter of water and let's do an experiment to try to determine if smaller mass but it's not a good experiment we will see what I will try to measure the freezing point of production well we know the concentration from the forest 2 . 1 9 million more and the mall lethality and the mole larity indicted solutions are the same so it's we can guess it's 2 . 1 9 times 10 to the minus 3 no and that we look at the price got a constant Sunday for water and find its 1 . 8 6 deg C all and so the freezing point oppression delta T it is 2 . 1 9 times 10 minus 3 Molale times 1 . 8 6 degrees from all out 4 . 0 7 times 10 to the minus 3 degrees that's going to be hard to measure you know what you can say it is frozen for 1 thousand the living greasy you know what you've got to have a very very accurate way to measure temperature and at that level the temperature on the edge of the container in the middle of the container and tonight hard to control the
this never work that's why they don't they don't use freezing .period depression the measure the molar massive homers and by former osmotic pressure is much much better where you OK let's start now we talk about solutions let's talk about some is not a solution must talk about following colonizer
interesting materials but they're not solutions what they are a lot of small particles of 1 kind of material that are dispersed in another kind of material and you know the size of the particles is much bigger than atomic or molecular dimensions usually the size can be of my grandson and things better of micron-sized instead of life and so often times colloidal solutions can look OK they aren't clear like like a solution of salt and water is translucent white goes through the fire Milken and Gladys and look at it you go back problem this person and there and so I can't see through it that's a call there are lots of examples of that examples a of witches small liquid water droplets dispersed in the atmosphere and again last fall it makes it hard to see small which solid particles dispersed in gas and Manet's which is like is liquid droplets dispersed in another liquid but there are lots of different examples of this we can
stabilize sometimes we can make a and then if we let it sit around and sit around and sit around and around separate if we play until and let sit around then the would rise to to the top and the same period lies in the and then they speak about the agreement make and then during the rest of the mail or they try to assert that if they wanted to Richard Mills not so good for your heart but if
we want to stabilize at what we can do this we now surface active agent of fact the detergent and things like that and we can use them to stabilize the call at and that is in fact exactly how detergents and soaps were they take things like greens they're not going to tell you as all water and they turn Greece into small particles that do dissolve in water and then you watch them away there you go by the way if you're washing your hands how to it I have not lost a lot of people wash their hands and concluded we need a tutorial it's because it's not this is not very good 1st of all he wants them
with the strongest disinfectant so far 99 . 9 9 per cent in the bacterial let's make sure that they're really clean no not electorate when you do that you kill all the beneficial bacteria on the skin as well a slight landscaping by spraying your whole yard with Roundup if you spray a whole yard with Roundup the 1st thing that comes back as we received held everything where you'd prefer to have as something like a very dense along but he maintained and you don't wipe out all the time and then that dance along the the bad guys the weeds from coming in and likewise utilized intervened to claim because we want the good guys there standing guard so you just wanna wash with soap and water and warm water makes college more effectively than cold water so it'll make it easier to clean your hands and that's just what mom told you that you don't use hot water really hard because then your skin swells and and of other issues you're more likely to get stuff in and have your standard irritate know you have any more than absolutely necessary because you are stripping off the boil on your skin which is starting From a lot of bad guys and if you keep doing that you're likely to get some kind of dermatitis irritation Connors like people wash their hands all the time the surfactants are
cool the engineer so that they have a part that's like Greece and they have a part the likes to be in water and the thing the likes the waters a charge His than the water line up near the charges is great and that's how you design a detergent and here's 1 that you'll see in everything will see it and some ingredients sodium laurel sulfate you'll see that on you really start looking at things you an understanding Watson and they may not buy everything was placed on the market you can make it from Paul oil or you can make it from petroleum product but it has this long greasy tale and then it hasn't charged him the sodium justice often the water and then I have this so this isn't
an iron and this is called in an ionic surfactant you see that listed when the manufacture don't want tell you what the secret formula it is a N I fact you figure it out we don't want to competing with STS promotes the formation of myself which are approximately spherical drops with an oily interior in this case ,comma charged exterior but this is what happens I've got some research and you don't
want to face with water and Frank and that is all that water might have some detergent when I what happens the tales of the curtains they their streets making a lot of the trees around the plunge into the breach just like that but then there shot the charges had still like the industry whole thing lifts off like a helium balloon that problem was released but now you can dissolve in the water as call solutions but it was still on the way and so think .period and that's all you need to do Is there is the oil and grease that you want get rid of and there's your surfactant there are
lots of variations you wouldn't want use sulfate group very often In fact I was very surprised to see that Holding I think it's called some were completed something anyway 1 of the ones that said that everything as sodium laurel sulfate is 1 of the 3 that's probably a little bit too strong characters and I think some people care about irritation for the redness around the mouth is when you this strategy employed while forms like crazy and then you get around here and it's a little bit too strong and you can't have staircase from the needle realized why it's what is being passed by but if you switch to Paris and then go away thank may also get down here so this is just a regular so it's got a lot of when the head it's not as strong as a detergent Have we believe this is what you want users it'll do the job the clear this is 1 that doesn't have any charge this is 1 that Dow invented I think call tried time and then X depends on the facts and a number the number depends on how many ethylene oxide units they have this is used in a lot of products this fact and then this 1 you'll see in shampoo this one's not operated hurricane really for what this 1 there a a foaming agent and the idea is that people don't think their parents their plane unless they come the polls in ball so we have a perfectly good the burden that
doesn't follow people say he had not working and not working perfectly there was on 1 the phone sometimes they only had the following there would be called on mild or hypoallergenic not just doesn't have a strong church yeah and sodium laurel sulfate some sun instead they don't put this in into laundry detergent however because you don't want following coming out like a cartoon of the dishwasher so they leave it out they specifically paper detergents and don't fall for that and that's why you don't see a fall but the detergent is very strong In wanted to
but the real commercial products have a lot of ingredients and some impurities and the reason why you had these are as follows 1st like I told you to create songs we're getting cleaner this isn't psychological pressure has nothing to do with 2 PAC detergent you know wanted somebody differed in the 11 they have a bad reaction to To start microbial growth they put in things that Stoppard's bugs can actually grow on mold and it's amazing but it can so it wouldn't stuff and the Europe of that stuff all over yourself you are I'm not to work in hot water if the eye on the island's tend to go to the head group instead calcium now it's not charge now the so doesn't work so they put a stop to grab all the calcium ions and nature that sold waters they control the viscosity again it's an impression 4 outside minutes to win the end then I don't like that's no good so they just put something in there and make it effective and then they put in a lot of ingredients to impress uneducated people because I do some provide in great style all natural strict 9 is natural natural means nothing please don't know if it's good or bad and added please not I got
news for you clean doesn't smell what getting because there's nothing there .period so the planes now is there the Iran some but again it gives the impression that you might think and the oppression is important because you have an idea in your head that you want the just yesterday Procter & Gamble found this was on
the defensive because of the claim is that time this you know gentlemen we're whatever it contains this is the headline cannot read the small print so let's see what they did but last year in its dirty secrets report that found the sound environmental groups women's Voices for the Earth sent 20 different cleaning products out an an independent lab to find out what if anything the products contain beyond the ingredients listed on their labels results included a number surprising discoveries including the presence of 1 for dialog saying assault on the EPA calls a probable carcinogen so very very dull the concentration of 1 important thing is essentially
0 but the analytical chemist and finally eliminate of it if you're worried about then you want stay 15 miles away from anybody reading out the it is about the same time relative risk but nevertheless he gets a lot of press and if if you say To me I wanna buy a virgin the mandarins of my follows the end of the day and I want to to know the IOC saying that offers little that is possible the make something 100 per cent here but I want to have so long solo we can do it but the 1 area 105 for a Apollo church because it costs money to do that likely cost money the reunion of the the fresh water not cheap I'll have a chance to wow
look at all these ingredients there's so many but I had to blow it up a half 1st ingredients water the profit acknowledged problem that of the sodium laurel sulfate sodium laurel sulfate and all these other guys and there but you just don't know this 1 aggravated political garbage disposal here they put in I guarantee you this stuff with somebody was getting rid 11 appeals and said this is reality of what will make land shampoo man will pick up the thought what are all these ingredients doing here's what they're doing this is claiming your hair this president you know this is making making your hair fall beginning tons of about OK Laura sulfate and Copeland and this this here this 1 here is in a lot of ingredients it's a mild detergent it adds viscosity and it the name of that type
things that you met track while you're here when there is little residual left on and then there was blind and we call the goal line out OK I don't have to worry about the age citric acid another 1 to control the viscosity and so forth and so you can see that they they formulate these things and then they have cement and Microbia I should have market thank you here's the chemists approach go
supply house and if I Bethea and you're done with and since the vote founder of you can say can
save an awful lot of money now you might say well all these products are doing a lot of good money here and to which I say no until the 70 nobody laughter there more than about
once a week this is a region that and then fairer faster than Christie Brinkley and they said you know if we can just convince people there harassed during all the while we consult tongue-in-cheek you look on
then says laughter Reynolds Red means do again How many you want your twice completed wasting a lot of kids as well well if you if you do that if you watch apparel what happens
usurpations plans go crazy because they're trying to keep you there for nearly enough so that it is protective way it supposed to be and you
stripping all your along with detergent forming myself and so they respond by saying :colon what weird world we're living in Lisbon in the tunnel the course at the start that they stop doing it too but if you never stop doing it then you never know that this is my herald amassed by the end of the week but after a year or more last maybe more here so the question is how much you want people I can tell you as I head toward I've lost a lot you may think well you you to seat you don't know where I started we think so I can tell
you 1 thing 17th for a
while and crazy there are all kinds of things you didn't have to worry about and people don't worry about them and they went crazy of telling 1 to OK that's good close-knit by by looking at possible there are 3 the fossil that wait week cannot use lost the
phosphate makes a great effort but we cannot use it because phosphate is a nutrient 4 growth of algae and other things and if you pollute rivers with phosphate what happens is the microorganism go crazy use of all the oxygen in the water and then all of this stuff and float to the top and that happened was in the city when people used Boston character and a stun gun hidden in the river which sulfate and you really look for stuff that's phosphate free this is kind of interesting 1 that has a back-to-front and of its spirits called they use this in some products like skin creams but put various things on the inside and some drug delivery and they put things on the inside and then at the time these kind of leaves out of power and this is our myself again with fossil that they conform and this might be a cell membrane that has had troops pointing out that the plasma and sell and there is greasy interior that segregates the outside of the cells from the
inside and sells these things just formed naturally so the 1st self probably just form because there was a certain concentration but these molecules around and then they started forming something want you got an inside and outside then what goes on on the inside can be different chemistry than the outside and the that you can get it it OK so here's our summary for it today
collaborative of properties they depend on the number of particles but not the type at least 4 diluted solution freezing Point depression 1 .period elevation and outsmarted pressure all properly call laureates have larger particles may may be formed by using molecules whose specific properties like surfactants and commercial formulations when you look at them closely are driven by many other considerations other than safety and In other words there driven by whether they sell not by whether they're safe or effective there are probably safe
enough about it OK I will be punching about to distribute the standard exams today have looked out and if anything is wrong with metastatic politicians residents out of that
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