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Lec 4. Condensed Phases, Solids, & Phase Diagrams

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Lec 4. Condensed Phases, Solids, & Phase Diagrams
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UCI Chem 1B General Chemistry (Spring 2012) Lec 04. General Chemistry Intermolecular Forces -- Condensed phases, solids, and phase diagrams -- Instructor: A.J. Shaka. Ph.D. Description: UCI Chem 1B is the second quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: properties of gases, liquids, solids; changes of state; properties of solutions; stoichiometry; thermochemistry; and thermodynamics.
sense metals marches sphere chemical bond gold Cubic chemical firm specific Computer animation cell chemical structures atom
water firm Computer animation density cell Cubic chemical atoms atom firm
nanoparticle sphere density sphere cell Library Cubic chemical
metals density Weinfehler density concentration Cubic Natrium chemical atoms end firm systems Cubic Natrium Computer animation cell Molmassenbestimmung atom
type density Cubic Computer animation density molar conversions Molmassenbestimmung Cubic atom end firm
metals type Urocortin Seltenerdmineralien type Alkalimetalle Cubic chemical firm metals molecule firm Natrium Valenzelektron Computer animation materials cell old standards chemical structures calculations
metals density density Cubic man chemical metals Computer animation blue periodic table cell chemical structures level period atom
Holes Computer animation Polonium cell chemical chemical
flame Computer animation age properties Library man
Cubic Computer animation periodic table Molmassenbestimmung Stoffmenge atoms atom
Calcium chemical formulae chemical formulae chain Vimentin case chemical food Columbia Records chemical end Oxide systems Niob firm Computer animation cell weight compounds Butcher vitamin Oxide weight oxidation
chemical formulae Computer animation cell Opium oxygen Butcher chemical
chemical formulae severe chemical formulae chemical Niob Computer animation Meeting/Interview nickel chemical structures oxygen oxygen weather Oxide atom oxidation
Calcium chemical formulae fall areas set Perioden growth media source case atoms firm Einschnürung Computer animation protein electron Radiology Butcher period resistance atom X-ray crystallography
conditions Computer animation race electron metabolic pathway factors nanoparticle water waves period end core
areas specific Computer animation race metabolic pathway function color Can (band) chemical reflection
type power Kohlenstoff-14 type bond NaCl Chromstahl diamond set man atoms solutions chemical reflection molecule Email <Beschichtung> Halite Computer animation materials coordination molecule chemical structures board soil
fall metals chemical firm metals Computer animation electron Molekülbau atomic nuclei chemical structures electron core atom
fall progress oil composition NaCl properties Sodium fluoride chloride copper proton solutions chemical Natrium solutions firm chemical water molecule Eisfläche Natrium Computer animation electron water cell nuclei
bond oil Allotropy diamond carbon Kohlenstoff-14 chemical graphite pressure graphite diamond water systems Eisfläche Computer animation temperatures form
areas composition properties container case chemical pressure chemical temperatures water Computer animation function temperatures Pressure
molecule water Computer animation synthesis Pressure case chemical pressure stuff blocks label processes
Computer animation model Sieden temperatures localization scale chemical pressure
body centered cubic is just like simple but there is a serious offense the sense the scout for 1 and this is 1 of the people bodies said Hubert for example is your range metal forms that structure and then this 1 is a kind of harder see but it's it's face facing Europe there's nothing in the center like this 1 but there's once on each of the 6 phases of the view as well but is 1 here year year year year and so forth and then there's the 8 original 1 and if we sell it and it looks like this this is the closest packed structures the as many as you and and therefore usually metals that have a face and structures are very different and gold is an example gold with material of 19 Grands Prix
cubic centimeters much more much denser than water each kind has a certain number of atoms per unit cell and the way
if you got 1 8 that it's on the corner 1 quarter of the on and 1 half of its on the face and any Adam that's entirely inside the the unit cell 1 because it's on the inside every time you copy units so you can copy that whole land if it's on the corner you gonna have to copy it 8 times their 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 before you get the whole thing and so for anyone the account 180 the body there's 1 in the middle plus the 8 times 180 so there Adams 4 units sell for body Senator Hubert and face centered cubic as the St. 8 times 1 8 on the corner there always there corners are always there and then we have 6 times a hat at 1 in the middle of the face the only here by 2 communities also recounted what happened with the results we want and then there's 6 times there have been 3 3 and 1 is for the 4 Adams per unit this should influence the density and therefore if you know
the density of a material you can kind of get 1 kind of units so it might have the density is low it's probably not face center Cuba and here's a
picture again just reiterating what I said earlier you can see that in order to get the entire purple sphere I've gotta have 8 boxes so therefore for any particular box of the count 1 and 1st here all there on the corner here after its share by price 4 an honest face in the center I have to share a bite to this one's right in the middle here on the corner of shared between all those
OK let's practice problems very reactive metal easy to melt sodium has a density of . 9 8 7 grams per cubic centimeter and at CU unit itself the present edge both . 4 2 9 nannies or 429 people How many Adams are in the units this is not of a reverse engineering problem we connected unit that it have was held in the interview only that you how long have been either way and I will show you how to do this almost without thinking it's dangerous to do things without thinking but sometimes it's better if you're playing catch you start thinking about what you're doing with your left hand on the ball of the you'll probably double fault set in the good old days that was aware Of the growing your own of the changes to the have changed to talk and then put them on there and they start thinking of ways to deal with the number of Americans and they get it wrong you can over concentrate on things that wrong but we we don't do things by remote control as the words you have a system check In the system that character the fact that the unit's work Grand Street the unit the year round because they tried right the end you don't need to actually know too much more than how to cancel units like fraction OK 1st of all over the the 1st physical principle is the density of the the unit itself is the same as the of the Estonian because solely in the just made up of an infinite number of copies the unit itself all :colon the number that thing volume so therefore the density and the molar mass we can find the number of atoms per unit itself we
have to look up the molar mass we probably wouldn't know that 1st the molar mask and look how
I just love canceling those units out I start with the density the bank if I have to start with something upside down highway killing at the end the nite from both sides over I don't think clearly that are over start if I don't know exactly how to do this problem on the agenda and they got wrong but in this the answer I stop . 9 8 7 grams per cubic centimeter I wanna know how many there are programs tho I convert to moles by using the mall mass and then I want to know how many Adams I use obbligato gross number and I convert Adams and then I want to convert to then so I know how many Adams but there are hints manager but I don't know if I don't recall but the conversion I convert 1st CM 2 meters and I have bird meters to man not that have repeatedly mentioned but I know how many people man-eaters surrendered units so and I think that the unit itself about some of the units while the numbers are not perfect that and use of a numbers that has been Maryland that how well you can wait things after all .period 9 7 founded India according to the contents of the surgery careful together for the time being usually only so we find about 2 out of 3 in itself knowing that and knowing that it's it's probably bodies give because the only 1 of the but the thing is if I ride out and cancel all units in problems of this type you can't just check you have made an error because if you end up
with some funny units here is a handful that's what you want we just said I know how many people around the this itself yes all because I don't believe that for a more rigid and I started with 3 then I don't really believe before significant but it came out in the calculation
Of the 3 types of CU unit sells that we pack body standards giving us here and so we would guess that sodium metal crystallizes into a body said cubic lattice and if you guessed that you'd be right because in fact all the alkali metal worker by you letter and therefore probably has something to do with the structure of the valence electrons in those materials but they prefer that crystal structure and here's 1 drawn smaller so that you can see the Interior 1 and then a on the the edges this big ones ,comma more realistic but a little harder to see sometimes with the unit's and and that's how it often transpires that if thought molecule with the Adams with correct it's really hard to see 1 thing is because they are out of reach of the up and if you make translucent it's still hard to see the humanity of on going through each other as the usually we structure where we shrink from down clarity but don't get the idea that it's like they're really quite close and
everybody's packing and hardly any wiggle room in most of the structures
OK there's another 1 that lets go the other way now we have a soft reactive metal but I have faith in you the crystal structure but the density of 1 . 5 4 grams per year extending a lot of blues right there if the radius of the ad this . 1 9 7 animators but is the man the most important thing in a problem like this Is this which bread crumbs you have this summer we're going to have to try to identify the only way I know to identify and that is identify smaller mass and then look on the periodic table crossed my fingers and hope I find it and hope that it is a matter and not it's often reacted because of the madam turns out to be tight think probably not therefore I needed to figure out how how to get them all and man out of probably well I have the density and I know the density of the unit itself is the same as the density Of the entire period therefore I knew the volume of the unit itself and I knew how Adams were in the unit itself I don't know how many had there are little volume I couldn't convert the moles prepare and the likely compare that with Washington applied for a grant and then I'll go home and the mold in the the mall and finally that carefully I can find them all in there and figure out what the only among the how we go about it while the other a little bit of information here said State Senator Hubert Pirker and the radius is . 1 9 7 and therefore I have to be able to play at his level of play said you brittle and I think fears in mind and I have to figure out that this was the radius . 1 9 7 but what is the status line of and if you do that incorrectly this week cut off because it is very hard for example to take 3 years and then was the 4th year on Martin and then you OK How far down because it actually goes the plane of the top 3 that promises to our formal peace they think I'm sure you can but you have to think about how far down as a percentage that 1 of them and you have to kind of have some geometric intuition about how to set up an extra things where you can measure that and I'll show you 1 way to do that right now OK the density of the unit sells the same as the density of the material so we have identified how many Adams's itself and how large its volume will be while we know
how many Adams relatives for because it's face Senator Hubert and we set a course in chemistry we have 8 times 1 8 but 6 times one-half of 1 plus
3 and they're idiots as the polonium 1 again if you look this way say Jesus once jammed against this 1 and then there's a hole here and then there's Jan that was a mail law you're never going to get the volume of the EU very quickly that way it's very very difficult to figure out how these things Our are going in because it's essentially the problem I told you about 3 and 1 on the pop out of and therefore we don't focus on that we only focus where the fears cops where it with against each other and then we say that this is ah this is ah this is a large this is hard I
have diagonal of the states but if you don't happen to think of doing it that way in the problems of the people around them it's not that hard to think of that and I do now
is to be and I I only care about the the like the so I know these continue on out but I don't care 1 all are part of our for and then I have for this side and for that and I happen to believe that the factory in there interestingly enough In the Dark Ages said apparently about 3 4 or 5 right past the great new library at Alexandria burned down people there they can't even make a right angle anymore because of the Museveni met a string of land Finland 4 3 1 but not the I north of the West Rail land navigate the right angle your property lines are crossed the year-long war this is my the violence and that's a great example and with we went backwards for a long time and it can happen again knowledge is like flame when I can I didn't think it would be unless I lit up and you it's gone Everything I do is gone the full-body elsewhere will necessarily know but I hope that won't happen well OK back to to this To well squared is for our squared and boy do I like putting parentheses because I always put parentheses before I square things boy I swear everything in there because I made that mistake too many times instead of 4 quantity artists where I write for our squared I get it wrong and then I get a 0 on the exam because it's totally and miserably wrong it's not right it's not part right is completely wrong and that's how I was great I'm careful I swear that I guess you ought to elsewhere in 16 square or analysis where are now I about the volume of the face of the year itself it is spelled hue obviously it's cute and that's a crude 8 minutes 22 . 6 2 7 4 roundabout and then as we know what the radius of the Adams it was the volume turns out to be .period 1 7 3 give man that's the volume of the units I know it has for the
soft reactive atoms in it because it's facing you therefore I know how many balls the opera you because I for Adams that's a certain number of moles it's very tiny but I'm going to convert OK for
Adamson . 1 7 3 man-eaters convert centimeters here and then the moles and we know how many balls on a cubic centimeter today I start was forgotten Per . 1 7 3 cubic man-eaters I convert Madam leaders to Tomita but I'm more comfortable doing that finding the want you know I take a sure-handed converged at the center of the careful sometimes people within the alliance of some of the funding and they get it wrong doesn't take too long and the 9th 1 liter per 100 centimeters total here 1 mole per 6 times credited 23 Adams boom-boom boom boom boom I find my units left over R . 0 3 8 4 moles per cubic centimeter but I know how many grants the opera .period centimeter because they told me therefore I know how many grants there are animals all I need to do is divided number of GM by the number of bowls and I get grams per mole well that's pretty easy to do I take 1 . 5 4 grams and I divided by . 0 384 mold I'm sorry . 1 grams more and 48 . 1 periodic table and I said you ask
calcium saw reactive to there were recalls the day in food is not on the matter because the Palestinian people Of course that you taken food and that is used to make peace and your bones you can take extra calcium if you think you don't have enough but unless you've actually figured out how much calcium you've got and how much you need it's a very bad idea to just shocking natural chemical just in case vitamins and things like that are not an insurance policy unless you actually know what you're doing I wouldn't do that all your ancestors distasteful and you're here that means they survived and they reproduced you're the on-stage survivor public use long chain of people wouldn't screw anything up if you do what they did depriving a survivor if you do something different than what they did your conducting an experiment on himself it might be great for my back and if the backfires and something happens to you that's end change eventually the only people left will be people who don't take vitamins if they turn out to be a bad thing OK
let's let's do problem now about conferring story geometry if we have a clear enough picture of the unit-cell Kemboi Dulaimi clear enough that really about that software little role in the world but in this case if we have a clear enough picture we can infer the molecular formula for the company you just have to be careful the Countess fears on the faces and corners with the rights fractional weight usually the only kind of promise them like this has to different Adams and they want to know is an ACL or is it an ACL too for NAC 3 or something like that it's usually not more complex than that because if you have 3 different Adams and they're all colored in different sizes it's extremely hard to see so even if you know how to do it it's very hard to actually do it it's just very hard let's try practice problems the unit's overnight oxide I'm deliberately leading off the oxidation states and I hope we can have several observations that the system by creating the offer they said and I hope you do be you the answer to the problem therefore this this nomenclature it's not right and you got there I
think I only 3 "quotation mark for example that based on the picture of the units what's the molecular formula for a opium boxer well let's let's look at the unit itself OK there's something more
interesting the I blue and the oxygen out anybody want venture that but love I want 1 and all ,comma National the How many many of the molecular formula 3 before that differently and take care here's how I look at these are clearly cut in half the the they're on their own the cut have their sexual on against it's hard to see 1 2 3 4 5 6 but the effect therefore the there we have to count these these are not on the corners but there on the middle here and there but the 4 they got for their 1 2 3 4 there and then I see this 1 boy that's just speaking out by symmetry and others for not fair to have 1 missing on the corner that you can't see and therefore be
free and the but then I would like to the Jericho formula as myopia 1 not really oxygen 1 and 1 and 1 with the lopsided like Nigeria and I think that would be the formula then that I would yeah and I I've just written this out so that
you have a record of it if you want here right now if you forget the here it is again and they're beautiful 1 advantage of the weather that they're beautiful things that are rendered with software that is half the purpose and sometimes very expensive would don't have and you can see the beautiful picture of social structures and you can really appreciate how beautiful things are we going to somebody will and here so I went through it I said it appears to be I put nickel here I'm in state by myopia all switch that and I 3 oxygen 381 . just right and I'll be in oxide and in fact there are several other oxidation states of myopia this would be Niall beamed to oxide there's also can be 2 that would have a completely different crystal and in the 2 0 0 5 that would be probably more complex because when I even or odd but it usually get the seller gets bigger before it starts repeating sometimes the problem is the unit itself Is this
enormous there and and then repeats and for protein crystallography unit-cell usually has 1 or 2 copies of the whole protein units somehow and very very complex to figure
out where all the atoms are and the way they do that is by X-ray diffraction you know that X-rays tend to scatter on areas of possible future yet Wyoming you don't have that is the empirical formula but in principle it's very hard to tell put it this way if you actually did have 389 albeit let's in triangle and then he started laying off in the way that I would say for sure OK that's not only in 3 oxygen-free give it flight by looking if it's like this and noticed all packed in there and I see no reason to think my IOU 3 oxygen-free rather than and so on that and so in that case I distributed down 1 but it is a little bit of a problem depending on how it looks usually in a solid can be difficult just who is fond who they're all lined because they can use the source impact get what I was going to say is that you know from your own experience you have to understand it that status of regions of high electron density and that's why you can't see your phone where action because the X-rays that scattered by the Palestinians involved among other things and they take X-rays to different than way they can figure out how much calcium is in your I can give you a stamp and they can say you've got ask media we will progress if you let go on the old growth and then we will look like a giant ?question mark and finally surrendered although along because you have a lot of things there is involved you want area of your bones strong but on the way and do a lot of things like John the reason why men tend not to get osteoporosis is because men tend to carry groceries to the car still women do less of that especially with their arms and so neck you can get to be very very fair and we and the forearm and then he slept and then to snap to like that In fact in some cases you step off the curb you're seeing more break right the ball as he stepped off because it's so we can then you fall after that you don't fall 1st you fall after if you don't what I say look at what happens to people who go into space those guys are big and strong and they come back and there wheelchair because their bones of Balsawood and their muscles there's just nothing because without resistance of gravity your body sustain what supplies out always bones and all these muscles easy to move around here just offloads yes to force your body and your mind to improve they won't do it on their own on their own in both of them too OK therefore X-rays will scatter electron density in periodic lattice now this is different than just making a lot of radiology them look you fall there'll be a crystal structure reviewable looking at how much doubt then or something like that but if we have a periodic lattice then we can get the fraction of the fraction we can measure the period yesterday all the land you might say Why can't we do that with visible light and the answer is visible light is so to 2 longer
much much too long so say what can I threatened needle With gigantic piece of rope it's the wrong side X-rays the right way wavelength that atomic dimensions and the father-son team of the press are known to the particular equation relating the scattering angle which is conventionally called later to be distance d between the crystal claims here a
kind of a cryptic you'll see and college this year while still in this thing was not convincing I accepted because I wanted to tell the core but it was never convincing to me and I was given a proper article was set new elections but let me give you rhetoric 1st of all have this is at right angles to this factor here and therefore the difference in the path length between just ricocheting off here and going down here it is just this accident month here too because we that writing where we are you also arms race it when I look at right angles furiously from all over the world these are going to go the the same distance back here but therefore what they're like this if they're gone together they're all going to be going together like that because of all the same now they are in the same place in people get and then we have another piece down here which is the same distance and the difference in Papillon both to the fact that there are all those 2 pieces relate to to the statement the queen of the period at the end electron that With this test centers around Jack but he doesn't have a lot of electrons sitting on yesterday's bounce off that now why doesn't matter that these are not actually on top of him the answer is that the kind of attack here is not a mainstream game the fact that bigger than that therefore involving X-rays coming into the factor on a line like that and they come in In light of the way breaking across the whole sure when I get a lot of people coming in 1 cent to 5 years in advance film developed the prayers I credit get card but if the actress coming in was going up someone's going down then I think they had to cancel out the dismantling of Iraq's the difference between Malaysia and particle particles you can never be be if I if you can handle I can on the 1 hand ball of another but by the way if I take the Indian can try and 1 about the other grinding and those that you may be traveling wave when they get to the other than it is here that the from the other side where can and often do and the thing in the plus or minus a therefore if they don't all add up when they get to the detector I'm not going to be able to get a big signal and therefore I will get a spot on the sale I I don't think anybody uses so many more and that the the condition then is that the past differences should be an integral number of the life that means I have to use X-rays that same way of life they can be just random X-ray
light white light they've got to be like this laser pointers about specific :colon and I use that specific colors the China often this might be something like offered area also here's a what I think is a
little bit clearer drawing I really did there's that then the angle of incidence angle reflection poses data and how can I show that this little this little angle here how can I show that it is stated well these are at 90 degrees this this thing that I do because I said That's how you measure the race the distance America 90 degrees and there are 90 degrees and this part status and this on the other side and 90 -minus because this is 90 degrees a half but if this is not only minor status and this is obviously 90 degrees between horizontal and vertical this is not minor stated and this guy status and I have a right triangle this is this state as well so I can label them all this go through labor law without knowing anything and then I do need to know 1 said if this angle stayed and this is the hypotenuse can turn final along side by the the hypotenuse then the opposite side over the hypotenuse the definition of the sun function this I'm afraid the opposite of that spot news therefore X upon the His equal the scientific data multiplied by the axis Sunday the path length on actors to act and therefore way is to be signed later and that should be an integral number of of wavelengths so that when 1 comes down to comes down to the comeback and then made are going out together so that they're going to go back
into the detector and that's are conditioned French and the land is to be signed the In a freshman chemistry in my experience and it's always won but in real life you you have to know what you're doing because you get all kinds of reflection sort of like looking into a kaleidoscope you get what you get just all kinds of things and you have to sort about you have to figure out what's going on it doesn't necessarily reveal
itself to you OK let's talk about 3 different types of solids UN atomic solid is interconnected identical Adams and here John I didn't draw but I might do that a piece of diamonds in which you can see that the Chatham has this beautiful Tetris Nedrow coordination of 4 other carbon atoms very very very hard material there are materials nearly as hard to find what we think of them as users of diamond drill instead fighting anybody knows well yeah you wouldn't want rather involved but you can have stainless-steel surgeons use stainless steel entitlements cut you up with we'll never see a big draw like that do it do however because time and that he very effectively never wonder you're thinking of phoning them I the needle in the deductible and then you because you're supposed to crimes in what you ,comma on 1 side and the needle carefully on the other side is unusual in the new parliament extremely sensitive the people of the computer or by calling out computer boards I don't think so and on days when they suspect that on the 1 side books the the main thing was to find the but OK the impact of the power on money and the time and will not be like crazy and sadly the colony info and the longer the management Singleton and the Dennis was to pull to see away because if they do appear to be at that time very high for 50 thousand rpm they don't want you to the heat up and explore and they don't want to smell like the cooking above with a magnifying glass either man is your enamel burn and that's why they use dining sodium chloride is an ionic solid as the so-called rock salt structures that were the main Mangueira and then use of molecular solid rights in which we have discrete molecules that are then locked into place if can't molecular solid set of
structures that depend a lot on the the molecular geometry because these things are no longer spheres all these funds shape you like boomerangs that have the packed together and they could take effect together in all kinds of shapes
mammals that Adams on ladders .period but then the Adams seem to have lost their identity when it comes to the veil on the way out the electrons literally find themselves in an orbital the extent of the environment they're all in there together moving around but they are not associated with any look at the more likely would be in favor of states of the same the I'm a big positive charge in state court because they're the big heavy atomic nuclei and they have some in course of electrons that usually makes some parts of partially positively charred metal never liked United with and then the rest of the electrons kind of go go around in space we will laugh the angle through In a letter from way characters and they can go right through and that's what I'm most metals will conduct electricity was taken by Jack electron on I think it would also improve the other they were the electrons in Stockton-On-Tees online last fall I like think
therefore I use copper wire and ideas on that last round while the a thank you for having something 2 OK let's
talk about faces a is a state of matter that is uniform in chemical composition and physical state for example liquid water is affected solid water is a different face solid water and liquid water don't have the same property at all With respect to very important that it's a molecule but different physical state same chemical composition different physical state equals different states and then I could have a solution of sodium fluoride in water and that would be uniform throughout the fall that's again 1 phase of solutions you have to be a little bit careful because the question is how closely you love the answer is no don't look too close don't get inside the sodium nucleus that's going to close another those with uniform there's a bunch of protons and neutrons here and then a big space and then some electrons doesn't look beautiful take a small representative Chung like a cubic man-eater and look at if they all at about the same it's 1 thing if they look radically different they are not once for example if I put oil and water what's salad dressing that I can't see the boundary I can't see region where the oil floating on the water because less than there was a loyal 1 faced by a little proper will that I've made progress and analyzes I'd go down to the water and we think that they cannot coalition has heeded the but I
see if they found 5 ice used flowing water I see where the solid ice liquid water no question the likewise with oil water that's at Tuesday's system we could find a blob of pure oil World a Club of pure water Allah tropes
there is a fancy name for different faces of the same material for example carbon His graphite or carbon as diamond graphite is the more stable form at atmospheric temperature and pressure therefore determined dynamically diamonds are not forever Bill eventually degrade into graphite however it would take an awful lot of energy to take all those territory Hedo carbon locked in that big giant network and then suddenly changed melodies hexagonal involved the the Honey Co and at room temperature there isn't that much energy there's certainly has enough energy to break bonds therefore diamonds Ahmed a stable they are strictly thermodynamic stable there do eventually but eventually is a very very
long time in this case and so on there's still a reasonable investment from that standpoint but they are a terrible investment OK let's talk about phase
diagram a phase diagram show shows the thermodynamic we most stable phase as a function of temperature and pressure or if there's more than 1 kind of chemical present sometimes as a function of temperature composition and I think it just depends for pressuring compositions sometimes will tend to focus on phase diagrams that just as a single pure material once we know the phase diagram we can predict what we will eventually find in a container at a given temperature and pressure keep in mind we've got imaginary contain I always imagined a soldier and I can put on their testimony in the region pressure ahead with flame from below the only thing that happens when you feel that there is nothing else water only water and it's not hot water coolers In that's not it's just the you're material what insiders say that what you think about when you look at the time when you have water in areas that more than 1 face more than 1 chemical in this EU oftentimes the the behavior is similar the may not matter but it's important conceptually to keep them clear there could be many faces almost an endless number of especially once you get in the solitary liquid crystals you get many says all the displays see for there is a LCD TV liquid crystal you have to 1st discovered liquid crystal phases some guy was doing that isn't what you do it I said Anglican critical phase that is so useless while you do something useful by contrast the properties of the systematic and of their faith why that is totally useless and 34 years later every single device is
using those molecules that change refractive index and so forth with an electric field so you never know it's important just to know what is the case in what's the truth don't worry yet if it's useful if it's interesting that will be useful believe me there is the
phase diagram for water and water is unique because this line goes backward the left a few blocks pressure conventionally but pressure on the wide temperature on but not always and expressed the from the date of the when you look closely at what the actions that could react to the label that's very very practical navigate traffic the acting on political community here is a solid what this says is if I start here and I put pressure on the solid it turns into a link the we have not how to work that means the liquid stances and solve all that's what we know to be true to what this Americanized view about the world as the job you can't put wouldn't let a lot there it's just a nice if I start here and I needed the solid demand and the liquid but the pressure is very low look what happened with solid the sublime never become delinquent therefore I can purified thing but distilling them under low pressure rather than just eating the stuff and then it may actually have a side reaction does something instead what I do it
reduced pressure and I can to boil glorified increased the pressure and I think that is a liquid well into the very high temperature
range In here it that local model Lin engineers like to use large plots pressure here is bar and temperatures and Taliban's there's the triple .period and look at all these different faces of solid player
of fail to I that was that