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Lec 3. Last Gas(p) and Condensed Phases

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UCI Chem 1B General Chemistry (Spring 2012) Lec 03. General Chemistry -- Last Gas (p) and Condensed Phases -- Instructor: A.J. Shaka. Ph.D. Description: UCI Chem 1B is the second quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: properties of gases, liquids, solids; changes of state; properties of solutions; stoichiometry; thermochemistry; and thermodynamics.
severe phase Computer animation Aspartate transaminase Bohr Gamma Gases Chemical oscillation Uranium end man
severe Computer animation Meeting/Interview materials plant Stöße man
severe areas type stretch Gases Gases coal pressure atoms food chemical molecule Computer animation temperatures migration Spring Ideal
mixture Computer animation Gases Gases Maskierung <Chemie> The Helium Atom Helium
composition blue case man
areas phase progress properties Reale Gase man molecule water islands Eisfläche Natrium Wasserstoff Computer animation function Tonmineral Dipole Moment lithium crystal form atom
phase pilot Computer animation electron Tonmineral Dipole Moment crystal form period atom
flame sugar chain bond hydrogen bonding container hydroxyl groups Stöße solutions Wasserstoff flow gap water flow Computer animation Strength lead Gasoline Optische Untersuchungen Sieden blue Viscosity resistance
Cosmetics molecule Wasserstoff conditions Computer animation hydrogen bonding chemical structures hydroxyl groups carbon chemist resistance
hydroxyl groups solutions Wasserstoff molecule firm Propens Propranolol race color antifreeze power grade nitrogen bond Propandiole properties hydrogen bonding water Wasserstoff ingredients collection hydroxyl groups Computer animation Optische Untersuchungen oxygen
Bitumen flow Drops Computer animation Drops Pitch (resin) plant firm
Holes case atoms crystals molecule strains Clenbuterol firing stone orange Macromolecules Rubber core density properties stocks Tanning flow water Halite Computer animation blue chemical structures oxygen crystal form
fall power sodium hydride left Titanate container Knot Eisberg man water Phantom <Medizin> Computer animation Gefriergerät Optische Untersuchungen report Calcium ammonium nitrate level History bottles
molecular NaCl chlorine charge Thorium Oxide Magnesium water Magnesium Computer animation model Magnesium oxide salts Salzschmelze level Oxide mineralischer period
fall Hematite concentration NaCl Sodium fluoride plant fine Natrium food solutions water molecule islands Potassium Natrium Computer animation Propylthiouracil <6-Propyl-2-thiouracil> Dipole Moment salts carriers oxygen oxygen Soluble Salts Dipole Moment
Natrium Computer animation Dipole Moment standards chemical structures hydroxyl groups vitamin oxygen Natrium stuff
molecule molecular Wasserstoff Computer animation nitrogen Chloroform Chloroform Dipole Moment Dipole Moment AdoMet
hydrogen bonding charge case charge Dispersion molecule Clenbuterol van Dispersion Computer animation electron Van der Waals Interactions repeat Dipole Moment stuff
sense Gases formal current charge Tanning Einschnürung molecule Dreifachbindungen Drops Computer animation electron CO-Vergiftung Optische Untersuchungen Gamma Dipole Moment chemical structures oxygen Farmer AdoMet
Weinfehler Tanning firm Symptom Dispersion Computer animation CO-Vergiftung electron polarity Optische Untersuchungen important Van der Waals Interactions Dipole Moment Dipole Moment
severe nitrogen Fluorwasserstoff Carbon Monoxide charge charge molecule Clenbuterol Song of Songs Computer animation Sieden Common Dipole Moment standards separation Dipole Moment period
molecule Computer animation Optische Untersuchungen chemical structures packing case period firm
Pentane oil Petroleum Bitumen growth fish branches Wasserstoff Computer animation Gasoline Isomere localization barrel History Petroleum hydrocarbons
molecule Wasserstoff Pentane Computer animation Chlorhexidin Isomere Hexachlorocyclohexane Propionaldehyd
Stop Pentane Computer animation Isomere Dipole Moment Katalase Tanning firm
Pentane Computer animation Dipole Moment Isomere container crystals Tanning den firm
systems pilot Computer animation packing crystals man
Holes Computer animation blue Optische Untersuchungen Acepromazine packing
firm set Holes packing Computer animation Optische Untersuchungen Holes density chemical structures case end
Paste Zellzyklus Computer animation spirit Optische Untersuchungen sphere hexagonal chemical structures crystals
like to today is the last gasp continental face because we were talking about gasses at the end
we were talking about purifying uranium for various uses and
I this is a much more efficient way can love it where have you been what you shine a laser light the afternoon and the uranium to the clock absorbs the
life and new and the British actually I and II of the public then week there is inside and then what the separated materials but unfortunately there was a collision between science and policy of these kind of
plants can be very very very very tight so you can heighten the work and the
government decided maybe we don't really want to do and popularized technology because it'll be very hard to track who it was and Science and Technology Policy they made a new kind of bird flu the house were it's very contagious there's a lot of confidence about the problem so that somebody not going as write as about that make scientists would like to publish everything we believe in freedom of information but you have to be a little cautious some but here is the summary of
gasses they're the simplest form of matter to understand that's why we had the simple dimple equations that model gasses fairly well an ideal gasses like a mathematical circle it's something we this stretch out the behavior of real gasses to all possible temperatures and pressures From Zero to Infinity and can possibly be true in all circumstances for a real debt and separating gasses from 1 another hard work because the atoms and molecules just move around on the and you're trying to impose order on this and they don't have any brains you have to do all the control but if you decide that after you read the note reported recently came out that said that it's 6
degrees Fahrenheit warmer this spring than average and lots of migratory birds appear appeared coming back too soon and then there's no food for them to be stand around moving to the wrong areas where they the normally go because it's too hot where they used to go that type of thing and you say I got an idea let's try to put the genie back in the bottle and after all that C O 2 that is going to be a lot of work and were in chemistry is synonymous with using energy the question is where are you going to get their energy if you're going to try and do something like that you can't by burning more coal we have
the kinetic theory of gasses starts from 4 assumptions no the 4 assumptions whenever you have a theory you have to know what the assumptions of the theories are it's gone helium gas because of the Maxwell Goldman distribution he added that go much much faster than our contract Ponzi even in fact they go so fast that they it's they achieve escape velocity and so there was a feeling that the land the atmosphere eventually to the theory that gravitational field and willingness to Umarov from behind in Spain but the
Unix server so important that have around his non-renewable resources and it's extremely important you don't have any MRI without liquid and so we should not be filling balloons and letting them go up as there's no tomorrow we should be but we should be conserving a lot of things but were using up too quickly the atmosphere
when you look up and he stayed away engaged and looks like he goes on forever because you're looking through it it doesn't go on forever it basically goes nowhere this pioneers the atmosphere this little thin layer it's not as
big as people think and you can change its composition by belting all kinds of things into it and then you're going to be spent without saying what we do that for the answer in the early days was nobody knew it was a problem that's not the case now what's happening now is a case of colossal inertia and the prisoner's dilemma problem being played out OK let's talk about the condensed phases 1st
of all never ever write TV equals an arty unless you're talking about an ideal gas were trying to approximate a real gas an ideal gas this equation of state is only for gas at the far no simple equations of state for liquids or solids because liquids and solids have some water and they they change a lot depending on what material In fact intermolecular forces play a big role in the behavior of liquids and solids because the Adams are close together the bumping into each other constantly or they're locked in place in a solid ladder there are locked in place by forces the only forces the matter France the molecules are electrical forces gravity in particular has no role to to play on the common scaled the island's don't have much matter but the thing that they're a liquid condenses the the ad see some that 1st tracks the movements not even remotely of and the area
of yes it's extremely difficult to Congress along with the knowledge progress and the result is a squeeze on you can you can crush sometimes you get from the a solid hydrogen in the 1st column about lithium sodium than all the others all ones in the house the solid is not but if you really really really squeeze on the collapse of the nose and then actually so it becomes a different material and that's true as we see what we talk about faces the difference at the same molecule or same group about India's differently depending on the state's solid C O 2 is completely different than liquid CO 2 gasses CO 2 same with ice water and steam they have different properties have and this is what I said the forces are
electrical so that the strongest political force .period and that's not all and fluctuating but I described to you when we talked about the vendor walls state term for attraction we said the chances all the electrons would be perfectly symmetrical at all times is very time so there have to be fluctuations and once
there's a fluctuation than anybody around here electrons to move toward positive side and there's a momentarily attraction they attract momentarily I knew I was going in send and letters to close when I came back from France and the flight from England was landing send and pilots we will be landing momentarily and then my heart started beating and I started to get up because the landing momentarily I get off the plane the momentarily this yes that doesn't mean landing in along the landing for a but it refused on I Friday you look up on to the neither usage but when I thought about momentarily having charged Monday momentarily OK liquids
can slow although sometimes they flow very slowly you may have to be extremely patient to figure out that something is a liquid now after watching very very closely over a long time and eventually liquids assumed the shape of the container and we have a measure of resistance to the flow call discussing the things you all know qualitatively what something like gasoline it is not very distinct of carrying around in a it's very likely that sloshing over there about nobody usually carries around the gasoline now this is very bad for the when I was a kid we would have gasoline and that's I mean by chance this year the jostling and went back and forth the new boiled the chain of command office and you do that you were 11 and there was nobody around all of the revision and there was quite a gap you firm but you knew that and so he didn't like any matches the New Flame again and the kids who did that work around the both of us still around where parties but with custody if we look at it this custody I guess will give us a clue is some kind of EU not the ultimate flu but some kind of clue about the
kind of strength of intermolecular forces and liquid and hydrogen bonding in particular only the very best solution carbohydrates sugars I have lots of hydroxyl groups that make hydrogen bonds and therefore for a ton of sugar into water and then it's 0 we get much more viscous solution and we can boil it out and for the molten partner and then we can in various things like that OK let's predicted viscosity "quotation mark something
my goodness maladies structure so you can they're not the chemists get lazy because they have crossed structures all the time and if you have drive the page however minor resistance villains In a statement 4 it's taking so long as the draw but that it's like reading a novel letter by letter you go so slowly you really slowly but you can follow the the president taking too long to read the game was passed but we have a short man with short whenever we changed direction like that that means the card and if there's 1 line at a single on the way and we don't bother trying the 2 hydrogen is on the spot or the 2 items on the spot or the 3 higher on the because we know that part of the make-up for singalong we'll leave it all so we can get on with it and when they were again in the redrawing all kinds things my this very quickly ,comma again and you will be able to dry them so fast it's like signing your name because you have dropped so many of them see
what's going on this was now I'll just tell you that the first one is is 1 broken off if the 0 8 is in the middle itself I approach all -dash probable outcome on of news there things but this is 1 broken all and then we have this with 2 hydroxyl send than this With 3 hydroxyl but they all have 3 carbons and our changing is the number I truffles that does increase the molar matter but you never ever say g molecule on the writers have never it has nothing to do with it and don't use terms that the refer to grab it has to do with hydrogen bonding and electrical forces the more
opportunities we have for hydrogen bonding good and hydrogen bonding can only occur when hydrogen is on what happens oxygen nitrogen were and clearly doesn't appear that office the oxygen and I don't want to think about the height and on and on and on and on and then there's another opportunity like this around the same time that I on tour and that was the 2 molecules together In kind they were planning to stay together they are worried when they have on the start moving and more I haven't done longer that's going to take and therefore we would get us that 1 broker knowledge as 1 hydroxyl group is believed and propylene glycol which you probably have seen a antifreeze the ingredient for example this moment water lowers the freezing point the little water and radiated doesn't freeze when you go what's right I'm going break out of the race and finally glycerol but which is very viscous and if we look at that room-temperature these are approximate numbers then 1 all it is 1 . 9 4 newly Pascal seconds Solomon said people use the gossip 48 . 6 and then about the house you don't use this 1 to add sorry this 1 is about right the I
the freezing point but 1 of them will be a lot more inconvenient to work with because it'll you 15 minutes before the customer wants to get moving and of of course they have guys so that you know the villa that you should think about don't want to be it's going chemicals around and if the college which these are you can't tell where they are until you leave but there .period usually sound grade and then there are the colors of the other losing the guy guide :colon the trouble is thing what the hell they will address the House as the new knows all your powers that this and if you add colors William Beecher whatever you have to change the properties of the but it 1 supposed be no they haven't embraced colored liquids that doesn't market power during the but this experiment
has been going since 1930 the chairman which is also known as pitch hence the phrase pitch black it was black is this it turns out is only with the approval of a new port into a final get out on the final lap pool and then you wanted for 80 years it right we can do experiments these days like that very well because the funding agency comes back 3 years this will be done at the table and not a lot of popping what this thing barely moving there businesses they say we're going to ground firm sometime this year around it was so that it could put you don't want to see
people doing that in this part of distinguish whether there actually work this has dropped 8 experiments of sorry 8 dropped it the following year and you the economists during the prayer and then when doctors remains stalled the middle when somebody else stated it over and want to the plant 1 of your task is to not do anything don't have to keep the same temperature and be sure you're there when the drop actually fall because that's very rare solids don't flow
Of course you could say how do we know maybe we shouldn't watch them even longer we carried out solid stone flow because the molecules or atoms are locked into place In a 3 D structure and they can move until you know Crystal and solid ever at Headingley structure and they everything former Prime Minister repeating structure with blue collar in itself we movie units In 3 giant directions and we reproduce the whole gigantic thought the it was the smallest piece that has all the authority he may be tho sometimes the unit-cell is quite clearly in the case of macromolecules sometimes it can be quite small In the case of something simple like rock salt so unit itself the time the unit itself has the right story geometry therefore if I have something on the order once they get 1 oxygen the use has come out the 1 who want it to take that for 1 or the other but at the same story geometry the fire material that's because you just make the entire material by translating the units sell around space just like a cookie-cutter boom boom boom boom boom just move around
we'll talk more about that later amorphous solids don't have such a nice structure like that they it could be very long molecules usually round molecules are at the time In fact very efficiently like Jason Hart or oranges at the supermarket and they therefore tend form stressful and solid but if I have a material that is long once again my name can I teetered on molecular and it's all wrapped around them and I'm cool with that I didn't have time to reorganize their situation they can track this not only status through and now I removed all the energy and there's stocks like that they're the different places therefore I have this disordered solid they have different properties sometimes very interesting properties and you can actually make molecules that can to show that the data usually you the core of the Senate and then you put on strains like Medusa hair Nathan coming out party for all these things in and you get some evidence that it is basically more of a material that you can use a mail clerk on like stock In specifically make a material To do that can move you don't want crystal and carved on because crystals and shadow when you said you want something was more like rubber mallet so the back up and it's not it's not only that the proper prevents the car From there damn it gets a little bit usually solids denser than liquid what is the nature of major what Water is really a
unique substance and if you I'm sure you've all done you leave something in the freezer and is twofold or is it's not to fall if you freeze it wrong you would have fall is "quotation mark time what happens if the toppled phrase now it's a solid and it can't move not arrested the of and forced his crown and so the just blows of chatter yes this phrase the report that it could be that frozen more slowly but you can freeze things that you do it carefully for example if you have a long history of liquid like the landmark to my left and you want the story not just put it in the freezer but in the of the body and and that was it good thermal contact and so it freezes from the bottom up and that you're OK has the liquid can still move what you don't want to do is grappling with and then have to decide and so it can depend on the shape of the container to power it's it's going to be susceptible to cold damp and engineers know that it was in that differentiates them they say they know that fully well this is a market obviously it would be hard to think of it like this so what they did was they turned of appropriately sized )right parenthesis on the part realistic and really I can see why the Titanic Brown because here's what you see and so you say wall sale way over here and I'll be very far away from an underwater the you can see a clear their ears and then you running here and there in the unlucky it's like opening a can of sardines the unsinkable ship read along the whole length well in part by the time of but it is rare for comparable innocent modern thinkable nobody on as the ship comes off and the champagne bottles cracking and nobody ever this ship is unthinkable I think the bad luck 10 OK out I did want to point out 1 thing on on this yet we have icebergs the amount they don't raising the level of yours not because they're already under water and therefore very on women they fall off Is there but we have on land
there is on again In the National that prompted In view of the world goes on lot not a small amount of all along as a new and old bathing here which would be good OK the
strongest forces obviously ions and if we we have a ionic solid it will typically have very high kind not on because we have an actual positively charged ions and negatively charged on to their stuck together the boy makes a lot of energy a priority of the park and move around you probably have never seen a molten salt period you can play 4 lanes you can try to take table salt and the like crazy and nothing happened just a brilliant yellow light but it doesn't melt if you wanna know that you have get much much much much much much farther what you shouldn't do on your Europe magnesium oxide the fastest twice the charter we can model magnesium plus and oxide to minors on and therefore was placed in charge the WHO Long the Energy is much much bigger banks can we would expect that magnesium oxide that would have a much higher melting point in sodium chloride In fact if we look among so important not to 801 Celsius where is magnesium oxide melted 28 150 feet associated Press and if we take it to the next level and look at chlorine oxide were Florian is probably best model the father for I and to 2 miners on that's 33 9 sometimes the trend suddenly changes
In melting point highveld .period suddenly local point if you see that you just say all that that last 1 is not alone solid alternative it's not really best modeled on on the left it's doing something else something happened we can judge whether something is or is not an ionic material that way you can also dissolve in water and see if it conducts electricity the molecular thorium side dissolve in water however we can test that on the way to be sure that the salt dissolves and that can be tricky OK the next
August 4 His between islands and dipole for example between sodium ion and water the sodium ion 1 we do dissolved sodium fluoride in water and make salt water the sodium ions not moving around on its own because this is very positive charge and so the negative part of the oxygen in the water tends to sidle up to it it's attracted to so all the oxygen face for the I'm like that and back up to it crowd around but of course they get hit by other underwater the knocked off and at any time you may have between 4 and 6 water molecules loosely bound the sodium for some mental the 1st 6 waters that go along that's it this 1 here 1 here 1 year 1 year 1 year 1 year and it is basically right around with them I'm gone forever saying 6 this 1 exchanges because it's only a false 1 your following the trend for sodium and potassium it is very important that the right concentration sodium and potassium this year too much the of another major we for your heart stops beating such which has happened people if you need a ton of salt which most Americans do you just put a tremendous load on your nearby chemistry salt was hard to find historically plants don't have any result he puts all the lands they and therefore it was rare to find out they want to all the cows in the field come over start licking was all and they after all fines and costs money and therefore you're gonna like it faces this is never going but now
that you can't get enough of its like who you have to be careful because directly for for communicating to get rid of salt all day long your kidneys are designed to not get rid of salt there designed to producer get rid of water and other wastes and heat the your that's what their designs now of course just like a car you can run kiddies in reverse but there's a difference if you run your car forward all the time and right properly until last for a certain length of time because that was meant decried period if you shifted into reverse after it started going like this like a madman down the freeway you will find the transmission doesn't last that long because it's not meant to run that way that's why health authorities said don't be so dominant fall the track look at processed foods have a common salt since prop carrier needs all too we can make it hard others
just based on capturing Saul and there is 1 when that there's the structure by while the structure interesting because look I've got all these oxygen demand that these hydroxyl so that got all these negative things like a little cavity and then positive ion like sodium comes along gets trapped around and I know
that the bacteria 1 to use that sodium the run standards madam like them they feed this stuff to cows by that time as far as I can tell which is not a good idea OK let's talk
about dipole dipole forces instead I all work on the hydrogen bomb dipole dipole forces are between molecules that have died therefore the molecules can be symmetrical it's the molecule is symmetrical and dipole pointing this wh the molecule symmetrical and if I turn the molecule around the dipole would have to turn around follows the molecules but if it's a magical it's the same molecules and there so the only thing that can be opposite itself is 0 and therefore that a symmetrical molecule has 0 dipole something like molecular nitrogen has no direct formal In liquid with chloroform them started polls move around and they have attracted in red stories come in and repulsive in blue forces these 2 positive guys repel each other but this negative guys closer and on
average there's more
attraction and repulsion because the molecules boring himself so that that's the case therefore this would probably have gone higher boiling point something that they didn't have those forces and finally the
weakest forces are version for follows the 1 that arise from a momentary charge fluctuations the molecule itself may not have the dipole moment or a charge but nevertheless the electrons get out our loss the molecular framework just 4 standard too and that's enough time for the other electrons which can also move very quickly the slosh over and you get a momentary attractions when you get I'm mean countless repeats of the and on average you get the stuff sticking together much more than if that couldn't happen these will always occur but if we have something like a charge Radikal basically that that so much bigger than wants the dispersion forces so usually we only talk about the dispersion forces being the main and if there is no charge and there's no dipole there no hydrogen bonding and we go looking for dispersion and as I said before you can go back to the material
on gasses and where we introduced the band all parameters in the attack and I explained that Infineon in terms of this moment momentary charge fluctuations let's see if we can rationalize differences in boiling point by looking at these intermolecular forces years of practice problems
2 molecules and is farmers and CEO which boys but unfortunately odorless are isolated from the have the same number the electron which should have the higher boiling point and was without looking it up qualitatively who wants to get CEO and my argument would be CEO has a dipole moment and if I only knew a little bit 5 yes that's because oxygen is more Elektra negative the heart of the oxygen inside the CEO is negative and ,comma inside the CEO I just love but the wrong because factory current vice-chancellor of research that manager when he was a graduate student proved that the Congress side of his neck oxygen size is In the drop directly structure formal charges as a triple bond you that with positive charge on on and the negative charge on our and when you look at how carbon monoxide poisoning this is the heart inside the states to meddle in the world among the oxygen inside and that would make sense departments later in the middle of positive I'm think the
difference between however not in the world and the accident comes along and they come back carbon-monoxide comes on and that's it and got bright red like the red tomato because the clinical and even rather than normal and that's when you find a body like that bright red like tomato tomatoes and 1st of all you don't stay in and both very long and 2nd all check for carbon monoxide poison what are the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning the 1st symptom this confusion that's why it's important nuclear plant because if you are really not know you're here if you're confused and and post space for any reason yeah outside there could be a fault water heater could end you just there safety of confused I can't think straight but I think I'll just sit here where you wait too long the news over the years he decided not to go out and .period for a year after the asleep at the very unfortunate OK please but it was a happy to symmetrical doesn't dipole moment carbon-monoxide can and does we would against the wrong polarity but anyway it does have a dipole moment and we expect the dipole dipole forces to be stronger In
carbon-monoxide them the London dispersion forces in and to anyway since they have the same number of electrons we expected this version forces to be about the same In exists
if we look it up nitrogen
boils yeah 77 Kelvin and carbon-monoxide boils to you not very reassuring because not heard the song .period well that's because in fact the dipole moment of carbon monoxide is very small at about 1 1 2 2 come molecule like KBR and destination like homeowner about standards by most molecules that form the material and therefore this
isn't very low and hydrogen fluoride is about to the device is a unit used to characterize the Stifel home if you want to but it is a new period looking up look how much charge separation corresponds to the Commons positive charge from its negative charge of are the part that's a good thing to know if you want to characterize belong
now we just talked about boiling point we talked about this but what about melting .period and here the point I want to get across to you is that melting points are very very much more complicated the boiling point therefore be given a proper Montana exam about melting point yes you look intermolecular forces but you look a lot more than just that because solids the structure and you have know but the structure is how things are packing before you can he sure it's all down to the intermolecular forces shaped matters a lot right now there the things like football team and packed efficiently and Funds to molecules like 2 0 In fact is sufficient therefore for a given amount of intermolecular forces a solid data out around things like beach balls will have much higher melting point than you might expect so it's not just intermolecular forces but it's also it has to do with packing efficiency In a
solid lad there also influences things a lot in this in this particular case if you have a molecule that's round and that doesn't have much In the way of intermolecular forces it will have a very very small it would rank it'll take forever and once it melts forces there pretty small the limited Boylston shortly after and that means the liquid range is very low let's have a look "quotation mark duties so long saying
once called an entertaining 1 2 3 4 5 and then I just moved 1 of these guys from here already here and I moved a hydrogen bomb here over there and I know a branch of the business along like a snake this is a branched hydrocarbons when they're doing cracking gasoline and 1 a branch -dash cars we don't want these guy it's hard to more runners smoothly on the whole history of how to do that fish unfortunately it involves a lot of energy the 1st thing you use in a barrel of oil did you unique thing about it was crazy and that energy to heat the olive oil alone this practice the name kerosene gasoline growth it said and then you let it roll call local asphalt
there is a lot of it as long as you've got lots of loyal readers may wonder what would burn and the girl was only and then Burnett overall and yet but if you start running low you're going to be in a world of hurt if you just run along entry even if you have a crude oil will be in trouble and then what'd I do here well I did the same trick again
China 1 of the here on this side and I put that hydrogen over here and I've got CHG here see as securities the here this is 2 2 dimensional propane I'm naming them directly but I don't think that you know name from on the and I wanna use of incorrect
names it but I don't want to memorize mentioned by the car OK let's try practice from the these let's discuss the liquid ranges of these 3 molecules after looking up the data now will have to data not yesterday but then you have to explain the data by is it but it's this way not that if you look
at the melting point and boiling points these all all that reveal names and contain so containing and now look at the melting point of melting point and then it's minus 129 . 8 the melting point of ISO 10 is minus 159 . 9 this 1 melts at lower have I don't think you're going to stay in we rationalize that they had very well and on the baby the size like snakes and online where guests was discussed for a time and then look at the melting point of meal it's it's you know on hold that the opening rated it's that much higher than that can possibly be the intermolecular forces because the open thing is symmetrical and doesn't have a title and they all have the same number of provinces the same number of lack and it's huge it's hundreds of tips on how to reach them In the point here is that this anomaly the dispute the fact that he opened his round cat into a extremely so we had the reopening of the surroundings jiggle around that they can't go anywhere because there's no 3 spaces there's no water supply on it's 6 efficiently I needed in movement we this is the last stop moving and it was not this 1 can they all have the battle on a lot more than we do that but then look at the boiling point this was the highest and that tends to be true these launching 1 and this 1 is intermediate
and this 1 is now the because it has no plans moving around a little bit of a problem that we were just talking about forces and therefore boils very easily the important thing is to be careful could is not to assume melting points have everything to do with intermolecular forces this particular has made the rounds 4 30 yeah because I was given the but it's still around and people still can't explain the study OK I think this is just what I was saying I give you the data again neither
and container need Pariseau panting impact that efficiently but I still pending and smaller forces so as the melting point but meal contained and suddenly packed extremely efficiently and that's why it was much much higher melting point very small liquid OK let's talk about crystal and on let's start with
two-dimensional will start circle and will put together a like anybody not have and there was a closes when we get to that of and this is the way the use of work this out of course there is a
hexagonal segments there's closest neighbors if anyone central and I couldn't find start playing with the 2nd I can kind of playing with final where that's I know what good now if you look at a soccer ball I thought the ball had satisfaction with this summer but the soccer ball at around 1st therefore I don't know this otherwise it would be less and occasionally look at people find 1 with when the 1 with pilots are carried down and you know what you're doing you can make something wrong with this system but you may also want to shape
crystals with different facets of 6 5 and so forth gets complicated but they're very very beautiful objects to the understand how to put together a much more interesting than you ever thought now there is only 1 way to do this and you might think
it might model and I fully understand that like there is only 1 way to do it as well that's what I thought but surprisingly that's not true there are 2 ways to do where the what was there too and there will be a tightly-packed responsible here's how it works 2 on top of the Red Book a layer but blue ones you can see at bottom right did here's the blue 1 on top of the 3 red signal that but then interestingly there some holes in between so there is a blue 1 here there is a blue 1 yeah but here there's whole so lifetime flashlight through like through of that hole and there's a bunch of holes along with the soaring on here where there
are these era red nor a little and every other player cover these you can see we now have a choice that but on the way and the choices I can certainly look in this field there's 3 little ones
I can put another red was right on top on the other end In that case the light still shines through or I could cover the holes In that case the light
doesn't shine through we both have the same packing and density but there are different let's see now I hope the red 1
on top of the other red ones we can see him and now and now you can see here is a blue 1 behind here but here's a whole started to pick darker blue there's a whole year's a whole year of all years but if I do it and this is called a and To tell us that the 3rd layer is the same as the 1st just moved up almost same position just a short but we can also put the 3rd layer of output you now it's lights out no that's because instead of lining up the yellow With the red I move over 1 to cover the holes especially in view of the month of Ramadan playing around with you all the likely and this structure is called the show that the 3rd layer is different from the others but the next thing that business
Have we cover all the possibilities in terms of the proposed pact spirit we have there are no other possibility they're both
close-packed they both can make the dancers structures we command with identical sphere and the DAB structure has hexagonal similar it's just like to be paid by like what a honeybee might put together and that's called hexagonal closest packed for the abbreviation is HCP and the other 1 has cubic symmetry and is called Cubic closest backed Gore CCP "quotation mark here's a question a mathematician would ask I suppose I had Crystal made out of foreign hands over the years How many ways found different ways on the past you may have to think about that a little you probably can't imagine what a four-dimensional still looks like most people can imagine the 4th dimension involved because for 1 thing a surgeon with love work dimension you know because they had the
sigh everywhere the problem here is thinking just like when we look down here is that the two-dimensional circle they can't see inside fine how are you going to others what you can see inside the but not on the event looks down on me conceal their guts inside everything there and we have forgotten and we could see all of us spread and the other those of foreign nationals face much cooler that's what you might have thought it might be and 40 here is much more complicated then you might have thought to OK look up next time the people involved