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Lecture 3. Intermolecular Forces Liquids & Solids, Part III

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Lecture 3. Intermolecular Forces Liquids & Solids, Part III
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3
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17
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CC Attribution - ShareAlike 4.0 International:
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2013
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English

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Abstract
UCI Chem 1B is the second quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: properties of gases, liquids, solids; changes of state; properties of solutions; stoichiometry; thermochemistry; and thermodynamics. Index of Topics 0:00:07 Transition from Liquids to Solids 0:12:34 Adhesion and Cohesion: Liquid/Liquid Forces 0:13:33 Adhesion and Cohesion: Liquid/Substrate 0:17:56 Surface Tension 0:18:29 Viscosity 0:21:04 Water 0:43:20 Quiz: Phase of Water 0:49:35 Quiz: Pressure in Flask 0:51:31 Cloud Formation/Dew Point 1:04:52 The Atmosphere: Temp vs Altitude 1:05:51 Stratospheric Chemistry 1:08:39 Interioinic and Intermolecular Interactions
fall transition metal Stickstofffixierung man chemical stocks man lead cell division Kalisalze collection Lecture/Conference Spring Auxin weather
organizations Pharmacy school Lecture/Conference kPa
chemist Roheisen systems Tee drug Pharmacy school Lecture/Conference pore Medical prescription Lymphangiomyomatosis charge form
Chemieingenieurin Gases chemical Klinisches Experiment samples molecule function firing Lecture/Conference Library Spektroelektrochemie Hematite areas organizations substrates Chemieingenieurin chemical stocks Begasung Joints function coupling molecule substrates stuff
bond Gases potential plant case man Quecksilber electron Hydroxyoxonorvalin <5-Hydroxy-4-oxonorvalin> Spektroelektrochemie areas surface substrates glass hydrogen bonding spread chemische Reaktion chemical pressure end firm Dispersion Wasserstoff Drops molecule substrates
systems Drops surface flow Lecture/Conference Gases Chemieingenieurin Viscosity Waldhonig Viscosity chemical processes
unsaturated Gases density remove Stahl plant container Angular mil Glycosaminoglycans set Ethanol Eisfläche molecule Cubic Schiefer water temperatures glycerol resistance chemical structures report compounds Tamoxifen density galactose mode chemical end temperatures cap Kalisalze Computer animation Silencer (DNA) Iron chemical structures Zigarre Viscosity form Kaugummi
sense Candy density media Calcium hydroxide Columbia Records Eisfläche molecule Cubic water Lecture/Conference temperatures Oceans chemical structures Dessert storage level weather Permaculture Dipole Moment Drink areas density green galactose rates Katalase source fish coal man pressure temperatures Eisfläche young Kalisalze milk Lymphangiomyomatosis Kaugummi
Blood vessel surface orbital pressure case Columbia Records man molecule samples Quecksilber Lake Sand temperatures fiber control Medicine localization board Permaculture wear period Dipole Moment weight processes Küstengebiet areas chemical element Gases Perspiration chemical pressure stocks alcohols firm water orbitals level spirit coupling Can (band) Lymphangiomyomatosis form Kaugummi tropics
sense ozone surface plant radiation Columbia Records solutions molecule Coca analogue temperatures Library nanoparticle Permaculture period Holes nitrogen ozone man chemical pressure water Kalisalze level orbitals Computer animation Filtern Angiotensin-converting enzyme form
ozone oil Gravel ozone hydrogen bonding Verstümmelung radiation solutions Harnsäure Columbia Records man molecule Computer animation Magnetometer Lecture/Conference coupling important Genort report
van Mars man
OK solid yesterday worst lecture of the year except Thursday words more solid focus on but the stock market because of years of inspiring and in light
of the sold in 2006 I used to teach on there would be in the spring and if people take care would be in the spring it's either because they they we were qualified to take him would be in the fall argument in the fall they agreed to pay 1 PM actually offer can 1 conforming mortgage or they failed him 1 In the fall into a Khamenei in this weather and then took a 2 1 lead in the spring or the past year 1 in the fall failed in 1 in the winter and then we took a 1 0 lead in the spring so in this classes this are with every seat villages like here I had 326 students who had failed him 1 bit Kim 1 or taking can 1 so was a super-strong blacks are right on but on world and in that class a young man named Paul on came to me after the 1st meeting of the 49 class and end-user 61 is out of 100 points so this is probably the OK you're going all I got 61 was the Aborigines saying that a 40 noted the understand this is a class where more than half the classes fail a stadium but is it that come on company until the that's part elected so trust me this last nite is that you're going to use for the road I don't want my collection wants to talk about solids just can't get worse from here on and ideas that I wanted what happened what analysis you during the 1 that's you could see me and what I like about doing that together during smiled and waved them the guy the went so so what we have the last within weeks to and I told the students as it was Listen if you approach this class if you feel like it would be last time you approach this class the same way that last time you're going to fail again you don't get smart you don't learn the material by sitting in the class and not paying attention or not doing the homework assignments to just a few people who made his 2nd 10 times you might get a city but that's not what you want to get everybody in this class once a OK is not 1 person this class that there are people is plaster whom the woman to settle for the but there's no way this classes were like and can so that the 1st exam and back in those days folks you could drop the class until the 6 six-week so this is like in the 4th graders or so the 5th week comes to my office to talk and the question is located 1 dropped class to agree with but this young man had something in addition to being able to drop the class because he's getting a D in the class Turns out he tells me that he is in the army care that he is in the reserves and that he was thinking of just dropping out of school and going into the army full-time whatever this is 2006 and I ran you know and and I like I closed lower with and I said that we need to talk about and so I challenge divisiveness mutants you and through some things that these other students have I said you know you're smart enough to do well last year just realizing I mean I just told them the truth of their and their students in this room who are these can always and they should so I said I know what I have on my conscience you go on I reckon getting blown up and going back and feeling bad because the hottest features and so on so I said Look I'm challenging you to do what I had to do you see a lot of them were I I started on this that we hold 2 quarters to do it I challenging union 1 and I so anyway I I although I didn't we started talking that we we met a lot but in the 2nd analysts OK so this was just not terribly bright get what I mean by that right is that you all right but some your exceptionally bright most of us just average right again I'll have a right OK which means that I have move on again so this is the called any got on last unfortunately the
unit got :colon this is fall some worry that the industry on the following year 2000 and that the situation was actually on this is him with a
little luck I'm at the at the field hospital so they came back that
pharmacy school 2010 he studied hard we came back up the years that is organic chemistry did this continued to meet with me we thought the study .period the accepted a at the bottom the school he was his 1st year class president I had 3 points and unfortunately in his 1st year get yanked out so right now I I think molecular that over the weekend and that he tells meeting Kuwait he is
with the 349 combat support hospitals the form part of which is more than a place where they bring in what will people they landed the tree on them they get set on to the hospital in the area and that he is the 6 thousand channels noncommissioned officer in charge which makes me very proud this is
him on the other rights joined Kuwait can same be
system 2nd from the system right here that away pharmacist guns with the FIA prescription drug problems or something I'm OK I thought I had
1 more of him doing something much you open it will be back and that and will go back to pharmacy school I don't know of 1 sees a pharmacist whether he will continue in the military as an officer or not but anyway but Of course he didn't you don't have to be data them 2 1 more thing and this is
another but what she has to be a student here use organic chemistry are is an undergraduate and my research look at the shoes in the Navy if is a matter for 6 or 7 years she's been active reserve for 3 years she still does her weekend stuff about once a month at his kidneys fire over the weekend on she doesn't read research what I mean by that is she approached me on through veterans organizations and asked if she could do research my research group might so he actually comes to my group does work it's experience and that when she she wanted us to do what you want cool she will have a letter from somebody who actually can say something about her and her characters in some of you ,comma office hours something you haven't we a the class in a couple years now will condominiums Minnesota offensive like I was in you can 1 be class 2013 I'm applying to medical school and applying to the School of Applied Pharmacy School of applying to graduate schools and letters recommendations everyone this can be treated any school you go to that after hearing that quietly look so I'm not encouraging you did to get chummy with 3 professors but what I'm saying is that all eyes will be on what the right for a student who comes to my office hours OK so Nancy has come every office since the first one probably will be she might get in class I hope on studies hard but the 2 or 3 years now when she comes and asks for a while I will say she came the office hours she was attentive to set the front rows the tent and that's all I will say Beyond I can say something about her character I can say some because she is better than I work with her I've talked with her I know more about her so what I'm saying you folks is that not doing like but there are opportunities for undergraduate the undergraduates search on the arriving engineering chemistry and biology you name it you can do it now have to have produced great again we don't let somebody joint research group has got a C average I want to reassure told student you need to spend more time studying the doing research but you got a 3 0 or better he did you find children's inspire someone teacher or so former college teacher Solomon Juncker what on that you think this is interesting and and talks about the research in the same room as this sounds like it could become interest on then I encourage you to ask that person if you can do a great research I don't take undergrads intelligibility OK just because you need to have enough chemistry to understand of organic to be in my research group with their some wild group that will take people's fresh so I'm encouraged it is because once again on its it's more work what it's actually more exciting error was an undergrad at trial that he was an undergraduate here he didn't register to search for and got the news stock would you if you are interested in my group goes on trips every 3 months we descend into the South Pacific or something to collect the samples in the library and my group whose he did the Pacific Northwest by thinking in June so anyway that just might but but that signed courage you to look into doing a directory search it's something that you see I actually prides itself on in terms of trying to get students involves a lot more popular here that it was 1 of the seal on 1 of these sales very few students to the direct research in chemistry when I came here I was amazed at how many undergraduates doing rhetoric aggressive search for really something you should try it as a savior is 1 of 2 might do a little less as a medic in an area of Marine who was in the dugout reserves I think he was in for 6 years when they 11 and that it was did some bad things and then came back OK any questions about
a register any question but OK so the definitions of what we have and anti-Asian and collegians and you've abandoned on team along with scattered Geiger some sort of thing we talked about a cohesive unit never heard that there was a cohesive group that means that there was a lot of you can count on the next person OK there was an attraction park that is cohesion and even if I could easily made sticks that things are OK still going on through the right here and also you know that the notes abandoned their post right of so you got a little liquid forces which is the attractive forces between liquid molecules the governments of which is the attractive forces between liquid and the substrate that filters like a true false questions on exams OK you need to be I don't want to I want teach toward the exams and watching people to just say What do I need to know that the thing which you need to so scandalized the good exam and is a question that is exactly what I thought was going to be asked of him so why you need a lot of the original about you know the answers and if so how can you ask so here the
difference In this case we have these droplets and they're sort of grabbing on regional performance overwhelmed rather that holds its cohesion that's a cohesive unit in North America in here like this you got the U.S. you got with the water in the area and you got climbing up the side there is actually an attraction between the water and the Century turns out this is me of Seoul about it's what its last OK I ought to have longer Electric will electrons like some got legend Bonnie potential still waters that actually bonding To that surfaced so there is a cohesive and so you see something climbing up like that and this is a nice example of cohesion so we got that handouts once again this many Asian than there the liquid substrate is bigger than the substrate or the liquid liquid and therefore it claims of cohesion it's not yes on the that's all of melodic pressure it's hydrogen-bonding makes plants really big and tall but it's a little bit different that's that's sort of like I pour water into onto the dirt and it just sort of spreads out I would say that that's 2 good question moot anyway 1 answer it was a question question was that when you have roots KMB routes usually it's the onslaught pressure reaction to last only .period pressure I think we're going to do lot of pressure sometime this quarter asked me and I promise it will be at the end of this that's a good question that I actually answer for loans good so we said this is
on the writer of the article this thinks that this Kool-Aid something new and you see the increase of the avalanche of mercury Mercury doesn't hydrogen bomb Mercury is just dispersion it's just an admiral with another round of mercury and and there's justice attractions of this year's and looking at the plants on instantly because it's almost like the water runs instead on the surface because there's no attraction at all To the glass wall areas so on so it has this call for this spherical top where this goes the other way OK so this is a case where there where adjusted I liquid liquid is stronger than we would substrate here in the liquid is not as strong as the substrate for climbs up so this is cohesion and this is an this just a nice little
pictures I'm not sure how they made this work that some waxy plan that doesn't really have much stickiness to it and so these drop water for and the forces always inward and if you have something that's inward it just makes a drop of complete figures that's just a nice pictures of the surface tension of this gossip so you
don't need to know what generally speaking what is discussed on no so viscosity is a measure of how so fluent something if you have a selective measures sold for different liquids in attest to a new dropped not all of the members of all into it 1 process that this is the last of the least viscous says let's see what this is Honey again candidates I remembered water not the 1 you can pour easily won the new so forever appear molasses or that the server service between honey and water right before you know it didn't can hangers-on in Biloxi no Europe without the banking system like this you go like this long strange that can have another him united the bank has long been a gigawatt dropped his demand that the viscosity of and there are measures of discussed I did not expect to know but it is
unclear but I knew that if I need you again this was wrong flight Tony Parker and I think it's got a very big discussed is the biggest disgustedly moral in resist flowing out of my game this at prices here 3 years ABC did and I said Here are the 4 discussed the coefficients for this and put them in the right order you scientists 1 this was a I want use released 2 new water and all was too strongly but anyway this was freed from Saudi we say things of this now we can make things less than How can the same sum will happened on Monday that's barely able support this room how would I make it so that for easily beat out a throw you can change so this is a of gags I can change how things for by heating it up a cooling it down on discussing remember OK now we the
water is very very special to us I wish they'd put 1 last heist human will run as anything seen that exactly flowing the most common moved the solid form is more intense than the liquid form almost all solid that way but there is good thing that the solid form is denser than is more molecules with cubic centimeter of her report volume then a little nap with what can that's why excuse that's why I want on the top and doesn't seem to have all good for us OK so water is very special to wouldn't over this for a better because I like water and I actually understand OK so this is the structure of life and it real reason life this the soul treaties the structure of life what I want to really understand was this once again I'm I'm trying to teach you think I'm trying to think 20 chatter think critically to look at something for which you have no background and yet be able to understand something so I want you to look at this right here and just think OK it's something that you're not challenging that the on the 1 minute of silence I want to look at them and think about what does this mean OK this is 0 degrees is right there OK right right there 0 degrees just so you know I'm not going to revert chapters the so just look at it and what does is this new attorney David Watkins listening date OK what does this mean to bring look at the current come on but to what Have you ever just stared at a plant like this from me and trying to think what what does this mean OK because folks this is the kind of thing that is passed on exams like an end cap or maybe an SAT and was a scoping out as a note of and this is 1 of the police should see the effect of coming was his meaning what is this happened to us what does this mean to the world what Laura and I get crazy only In can you ask a lot of questions about you really loud so as the temperature increases going this direction the density decreases only 40 degrees folks Is that going right it's not shown where 40 agrees is where the density of water is that it's absolutely most what does that mean what does that mean folks if I've got a lot this is 500 cc's right here "quotation mark if I have an absolute set this thing and get on with it let's say it was made steel iron steel container all right exactly as follows exactly 500 cc OK then at what temperature do I need this continues to be and the water right Intuit the absolute most molecule In that contain drink OK and was just saying my world that at 4 degrees I can put 1 million molecules of 1 nite section but more than that but that's a million molecules of water In the voice OK at How many molecules guide put in that and if instead the temperature were 40 degrees the answer is beautiful all of them 43 the girl only molecule maybe 999 thousand or maybe 999 wait 90 100 a 19 thousand 990 thousand you know I want OK last valued the the last 4 games unless I've got a number of not passing calculated using less requirement OK the point is that at 40 degrees the density is about .period that means I can only I can put a 1 per cent less last molecules in the happily OK where I have 73 In the last good answer 97 a half per cent of the molecules that were in there I will say again what happens we will From according to these 2 0 In Thomastown of millions maybe to put 990 thousand 900 and it's their right 999 ,comma 0 0 0 and cheating I don't know why forgot my numbers of or let's say we cannot change the number of molecules because I have a happily 500 cc's exactly still rated a very strong at 40 think about this I the also a right there for a reason and exact and we get letters from the room temperature we should do this express this is a good Nancy remind me In this Indian in office hours to write this down to his office OK so my question you know is that I have this sitting here it's exactly unlike in its along the wall what happens it warms up assuming no elaboration I'm going yesterday and it's going over overall well because the number of molecules stays the same as the density changes the cumulative cost space look at Australia soliloquy please come out and so were then that spilled on the table right yeah understand OK for spokeswoman Anne Patterson is the greatest now look at this
for 1 minute so worried that that yeah this is a war going on there remind you that that out of 6 editor collapsed some of maniacal whatever up I think that's I announcer ever what the letter alleges that means like where the action is like this class this is worked out this is the only viable way OK the latter guys laughter and too much violence class so I think this is the cost of milk and it's the 200 meters down and I think this means from that but some like it's true and and there's a lot of plankton and fish and can you say about 47 OK but you could say the OK so what is it with you so why ask what I said what the density was yet you 1st as the White Pages OK so he said that is the pressure OK so you could look at that and say OK he said that as the pressure which is the down as it decreases the temperature the fastest increases decreases that that is a literal interpretation of the and exploded OK so far it's as sort of the "quotation mark it's not it's not me it's getting cold day maximum density OK arms but it's also learned that we got on top of it's also because adjusted according to the sources of income OK so this is just sort of 40 about the ad is actually from here down 43 OK what does this mean to me go back to decide before and think about density and then look at that yes I would like to work with the people OK that's what that's what this is about let me give media him OK my research involves global warming so we just had this little discussion about 500 cc's 43 the water can afford agrees we said it's gonna warms up it's going to spilled on the tape look at that this as was happening in the ocean what happens if the temperatures of top those like those of the people or the smaller in movies quake or there yes futile yeah that's what I want of sea-level rises same never molecules are not controlled about runoff from the later OK I'm not talking about the South Pole not playing in the sea level that abortion is all done talking about here if we don't change the molecules of water at all in the ocean if we let the temperature increase government the average here once again with the average temperatures it's for down here but up on top the top you know thousand meters the average is sort of right about their about maybe a leader who knows what if that value changes and it warned that folks look what's happening
warms up which way we had on this measures this when his interim ,comma were headed in the direction of cat anytime time you're warming or cooling K if we're having a problem cooling we got where the water is getting cold and 4 degrees they would also give Ford raises the maximum density madam densities so make sense to download 240 greens and yellows pressure business but as we warm up folks no we're not going to get a look at this right now let's see I asked this question unchallenging leader played OK said could this is only Maryland yeah occasionally you need do a thinking outside the box here the question violated the ban on exam I will give up on the next examined communal acquiring and 2 OK it will be actually think and write something so divided that I want and I said What know Ringen Rangin comes in the class with cool water 1 gallon of water just for the fun out there need a staggering and because of the product she puts it way here Gallup OK much bigger than this young ladies leaders were so kind this is a lesson 4 although the categories OK can agree not I I need some more a copy of the Jewish OK so let's say you can do again this will probably drop 1 but it may be a good idea the 1st 30 40 minutes and had copy in what temperature what temperature you get I never understand people drink your like do you do that half of all its room rates like this initial idea you know from the dispenser Is anybody actually that get back there I mean I understand I mean I got like a sissy mouse In our life I can't drink anything in this like with about 140 reads I can't drink it has the not warm I could be warm cop but I just I see the images them so let's say that person again actor who raised his hand brings in the company of vigorous Celsius is warmed by 130 agrees I think as for the 200 grams of again bullets said and what is the density all the water in that copies at 50 the result is later right there that what is that a 50 degrees what is the dancers the man I'd say politely . 9 8 5 now the same what is the density of an ice cubes at 10 "quotation mark more than that so what what happens folks if I is it's 10 degrees lows the Robert that guy again they about the leading Ivory you I that guy's where do you come back what is that a student smarter as that's not the right focus that's what happens with the Hutu let's OK that would be an acceptable answer on the exam but I would probably say something like what happens like instantly it was a bitch thanks to the bottom because the density of the ice cube is greater than the density of the liberalization of candy understand OK so you .period stabilizing teaching and can be I just want to know what to think I want to learn analyze things and and the because I can make 5 Houston just put in something warm water yes and it will melt him about frequently but it would we would see just pool I went to the bottom of the Is that true yes but I really like this said by the Japanese about 15 minutes now so how much do you want to forget so the density of the ice at this temperature is about .period 1995 they understand that that means that you can put on 99 . 5 per cent of all molecules that would be could the maximum amount that would go in water for areas that had been there so this is a little bit less dense than he would float in water were agreed just know what I don't know how .period windowless where we want to minus 30 or 40 I don't really know whether Tanks goes like that I don't know you can look it up but let's say most people want use the coal 20 degrees below 0 prior and so on look at something right here and so on this piece of ice is not In any thing that is between courses is the scissors 0 right there much reservist maneuvering but it's gonna float in anything that is from here to there this is liquid liquid from year to year OK but which starts right there at 0 so this thing is going floated anything that is above this on occurs when he come already here the temperature and the density of water is lost in the desert a number molecules per cubic centimeter for is . 9 9 5 an over here it's about . 9 9 5 so right there it's going to just where you put the said it alone with his where you put it wouldn't be same exact density just sits like the weather as it warms up with the water that you put it warms up and density decreases the following the July the density of Israel that's right where means things so that's what I'm saying is that right here density that's is pretty hard but it's obvious lower limit would be in the 4 agrees but anywhere over here from here down it would actually sink so that's a kind of a question where you know I would it to challenge you understand he that make any sense when you said you question future of OK so this is
a question this is a case where the poster here is a multiple-choice question right now how long delays agents found multiple-choice questions about 1 minute of cable was questioned 1 minute 2 minutes at most so here today got 20 grams water now people think differently in my mind thinks differently on I would fatah life this way but I would look at that morning GM stock I would say that's about how many medals 1 more 1 moment water 18 gram right now I think in all of this is going to the body you as we continue in the quarter on hold back alright so I I just immediately put things in all because I know that we need more and more us to make them a less than a certain amount of weight of so no 1 mold about water focus How many agree with you that that's Coastal mall OK close to home little more than will now I told you on I think they want that rule of thumb the rule of law what is the volume difference the 20 liquid and again a file thank you how they remember me saying that that it's about quality and can it could be 1500 it could be fun but it's about a thousand so if you were given 25 brands and I've already got over the fact that the water is 1 so that point but at 20 grams really 20 cc local 20 or I won't let my house again how many leaders would that yeah .period below 2 leaders and you know what about 20 leaders you understand 20 liters I have always wanted to they actually did you 1 it's a closed flat located close and the other 1 liter is that enough to have all the water molecules new liquid no you need 20 OK To be able to have all the water molecules In the gas that so what happens to the water molecules that are not in the gas phase 1 would favor the liquid fat so you look at this you should be able to win in 20 seconds answer this question can you look at it's OK I got 20 and I got a mole I'm all of the gas how much falling 22 . 4 liters for 20 years kids run 20 leaders and only give me 1 so only a small amount to only a small amount of the actual liquid started his debate they are we are we understand that having you don't have a clue about how to locate in my mind doesn't I I think that's least 1 person who's on Monday raced to the continued to follow bring Norris regime when you say actually but somebody really OK what they said was I'm not quite sure so what I'm all the leader note he knew that initially like it and malls this circular that's more than also take up 20 . 4 liters I'll have 1 leader in the former only a small by process of political waters is actually a good gas phase that means 95 per cent of so this is the only 1 that has scarcely will not instead if either said a flat fee of 100 years under the leadership post what's the answer right but it's not it's only a small bustle and therefore it's there now that is a 203 . multiple-choice questions because the intense .period free response question then I would then have to give you the temperature at all but I would have to consider what can How many where the volume of liquid right after this when you get to do a lot more you have to actually figure out of of the temperature figuring cities only son you know if I started with 20 grams only 9 teams . 1 1 gram of water are here the other 2 . 8 9 grams is in the guest that's a lot tougher that's what I want that were spending in all fibers 10 minutes on but you should be able look at a questionable choice until Scott promises that this is all the KIO can tell so this is a close vessel once again next question cannot battling with answer I like the way they do it so now you take this too Aspen Colorado downright awful killed this is bogus question so we have to get lower average so you don't even know where Aspen Colorado how can they have security questions about geography what they're trying to say is that if you know that half supposed choice that means that close that the Denver certainty there might be interested in Michigan but it's not what you think that this is added :colon is a mile high stadium my stadium so there's sand pressures unless they don't know where we don't within that City which is tendency to notable using both likely when as the pressure was now it's a flask OK it's not a it's that using the shape of this is going change they guaranteed this on their airplanes this is encouraging can we should let the people that have it's not going to do to them which is what happened you know you when you call upon then you taken during any land looks like this that because this is flimsy this is how are inaccurate changing .period that happens when a truck over the effect of and so that's what we're talking about here said volunteers as you move around and nothing changes of cases to question but that he had just it does not change the Sania local
get there was something about the atmosphere is all waterfowl OK some you know this scenario only got the skies kilograms but how many of you have ever been to win extremely totally hot and humid place directions you know where they can then brutally hot it's not as human as absolutely but OK what the New York OK tire wear yellow Vietnam Thailand been there done that the military and terms for a harmless but I hope I can see that the lake in the city in the city's like I can and I guess I have to do with board OK the East Coast and me and all the world there are some places in the tropics suggest killer apart and and I was in a place called the beyond it's yeah it's right the I mean like within 10 miles at noon time the sum of exactly about all mine gasses water it was miserable OK How 32 but what makes things really bad for a person like me who selected OK I'm not too bad if I am in Palm Springs became or a place that is ahead of them in water nearby 100 reason I sweat a lot it turns out that the water molecules that the West jump off my my body but that's true jump but I have to give them the energy jumped call you vaporization gotta come from somewhere comes from done the like cooled until to that's why sweat can get the bad news was not entirely it said the molecules can just because the water is followed by the heirs 1 it's like a 95 percent looking it 100 reasons ranging book you I'm just whose elements of that about 100 Israeli in thank you so you have to select gets what it does it accumulates on you and if you can't have the molecules job often take the energy with then guesswork it stays with you so on walked around sweat an uncomfortable because this would will mean absolutely no so at higher temperatures the air control water at 1 time the sample books and at the South Pole that has not been warmer than minus 23 in sort like formerly year you have and yet you know what the relative humidity the relative humidity at the South Pole 23 below 150 because it might wanna guess what the relative humidity at the South Pole was I was there 60 below 100 per cent however there are other arguments sounds bad but it wasn't it was called the point is this the temperature of the air determines how much water it can hold so minus 60 the amount of water that you can actually had been there before turns into a cloud is like kind of carried the lesson of thousands but analysts fear of water if instead you go to a place like gender in Saudi Arabia where I've been in the summertime and at the Red Sea right there all boiling it seemed like stages pardon son of a gun this is the air temperature might be 50 degrees and not quite close to 50 at 50 degrees the alcohol this guy looking like explained that has likened the right now so conservative yet airport other than that at this moment 32 degrees it's not like the disciplinary times when sewing California could be that you have this volume that moves out this volume later as it moves up because gas explains that you can sell 32 degrees in this .period to insist that it is the figure by With the amount of water into this area to increase 2 degrees it can hold water anymore because the pressure of water at 2 degrees is a couple taught the couple mm maybe like 6 so what this is saying it's 6 6 millimeters of mercury water in a bowl of water in the other of the amassed now the beginning of the year the whole area what's the next phase Augusta that's how quota form you bring more air and water in at some temperature it's not facility agrees sometimes attending yeah there's a lot of our economy nearly 12 goes up and at some point informs class a few that's how White works there In terms of so at 25 degrees you can have this much of an atmosphere at 31 well there was no lots OK so it's a tiny bit about 1 38 although the spirit world Japan and analysts Water In the against
20 grams per 1 kilogram OK 2 and a half of the picture looks like and what you have that and the other 1 at 25 degrees you are 100 per cent relative humidity OK you cannot get any more if this number were increased to 21 there would have been included in years OK any more than wrong toward routinely is to but what happens if instead at 25 degrees Willingham 109 if this many outside .period on this many where some of the at the same temperature what will happen over here if your mom there questions science but 32 per cent the folks on the when using only the relative humidity is faring recessions not mean 30 per cent of the maximum we can then obviously the temperature determines how much is going on so if you can't be useless cannot make about 1 or 2 can only models are actually in that US 1 looks like 6 6 molecules in that box Thurman said there was different so symbolic you'll never box again if we change that temperature from 25 to 20 at least 1 of those who have dropped out and become liquid get melody that went to the library higher up the atmosphere would use some other place in the world if you have the same amount you have 6 grams a water around same numbers have 7 molecules of water in that box just like bullets the 7 0 7 against guess what role the new-media artist because at 5 degrees the most molecules you can cram that 7 you make it more or no you can cram more so that voters would tell you about how so the letter writers outside said the got ahead of him OK so that's how it works temperature determines how much can go only so this is 100 per cent right here so long as I said estimated use this to escalate what is the on well when you have this 20 grams of Water per kilogram 1 the temperature is 35 degrees C 35 degrees at what would you ask the but b relative humidity when you only have 20 grams per kilogram so no word yet the same number molecules but now 1 of 35 degrees C what would you ask make role committee this you it was 60 per cent greater day why because we're since we actually could have more molecules and gave you said 90 per cent I wouldn't bring any answers would say it would be less than 100 per cent but had 65 and the particles the suicide who doesn't get it you don't know if so what I'm saying is is that let's use this room is an example of a maximum of October's market so I'm not sure this is going to even make any sense that that go with it so we have ruled that it was that holes 473 people focus the law might feel very small school was cannibal With that an analogy for me this is not so easy the ones trying to come up with something where it was like unlimited limited size here but OK this is not their minds about what would not cable you guest as I've tried the point is is that it's OK it's relative to the maximum in about give you something like this this says right here at 25 degrees you can have 20 grams of water per kilogram and that gives you 100 per cent of women if I gave you authorities with this is what In this close contain this is 1 kilogram of their own In 20 kilograms 100 cent well what I need you 30 plants 30 grams of water however there is no water would be sitting on the wall 10 right this is what I wanted to do it and you can't get a rains is actually Ranger makes far OK I'm not the moving OK now this is what he and I expect this is what the atmospheric temperatures should look like OK captaining because that's where the opportunity and this is what the temperature of the atmosphere 1 inferior except that's what it would against 1 look at that was worried he said his falling out with pressure the pressure decreases attempted decreases consider starts off coca trends as well as an endurance event that starts this way eventually it actually would go over that well during Nova remember that from
day 1 day what I should do this I told you you don't have to know it then I just want to show you how ozone protects us OK now look at this again I said that an art student molecule it said why certain wavelength wakes up and if want to have not so a man could go together without a molecule that I said there was this that turn and any form those known as the important thing that ozone Man comes here and it absorbs radiation get this happens a lot forms radiation hitch it hit by this radiation makes an 0 2 or 0 0 2 0 goes right back up here inside this is a cycle goes a lot and it goes fast this doesn't happen that often and this doesn't happen this is what really is going on and on and on and tell you what the M 1 it was the 3rd Reich I got this as too much energy and wouldn't you had a low ozone molecules here with radiation if you have enough energy to break that molecule why the intergalactic gas you broke apart during reason sad it ends up giving some energy to this 3rd loss which is that in the office and I actually is a 1970 option might so it runs into options for nitrogen and gives up territory that I am sorry filters that and just back that installed in the ozone layer the causes that
whether it's in the ozone layer with on the ozone layer series captured goes up it's all because of a hamstring it's all because ozone broken apart absorbing these some someone's radiation and then what happens is the radiation it's sort of turned in the heat of him by that and stop molecule comes along gravel energy it's exciting want things up who would have thought that Labour's election was a comeback part the 3rd launch that should help brilliant I had his plan from the beginning you know we have a good chance I just had no knowledge of at dozen licensing
and so do you understand what reporters this table I will e-mail at tables all of you that it's a nice little she give you some idea of the rangy inside all different intermolecular forces now hold on all of you leave early but not this year the importance of the kind I hold very strong political there's a lot of laws that entitle and hegemonic now 3 you don't you only have a couple of hydrogen bonds for molecules of gas but said it worried that to reach what you OK so 2 times 20 is 40 I told you about cooking oil however Voldemort jerrycans of water and you got a handling it's true because you have many the longer more spaghetti like molecule the more to you and so you might go it alone might have on of these little Paul and I knew that these so it 100 times to the 200 or so that's how you can have with all these things are bad enough cool so I'll e-mail you this OK you get this time of the way they
got on the the last Over the years this is a prominent
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