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PostgreSQL on Amazon

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so right of under some kind of he was with consultant with of course you are experts in I want to talk a little bit about those of us who are running with this your on Amazon's virtual hosting services so 1st I want to admit to a little bit of selection
bias about the information you're about to receive which is you know cops generally criminals and doctors usually makes me sick people and its consultants really cold and for the people are saying my like is perfect I cannot imagine of the world of posters so generally are contact with people running posters on AWS or people who were having meltdown so so there I'm sure there for everyone on the described the thousand people saying you know but it could be that it's it's of my life is a Dream but to
have 3 or 4 times so as of
about 2010 having dealt with few these customers might
opinion of posters all of on Amazon was something like this that you that you kill yourself is like the 1st thing is well whether you moving off was the 1st thing we will talk to unleash customer of
and then the promise that doesn't scale very well is like 65 per cent of the issue on the minds running on amazon on and they think that this is not the way want introduce yourself as a consultant is this great now replace everything that's just what they want here on and event logging were very good match afraid US so we regard and you
meet new a more nuanced view of AWS as the avalanche of AWS customers was poring over us
so that being said would you just a quick levels said I'm sure everybody's told the familiar with but with cloud computing but I wanted to just limit because when I use the term but so what is the just too many
definitions and do we need to use the service to to mean this means is if there's iCloud cloud there's Dropbox and then there's a AWS these are all cloud services what the heck so this just talk 1st about cloud hosting and the 1 thing that you will get really talking to anybody is of course this is a total revolution getting that is that it has no precedent before you and so
you would like this the underlying OS allows offered by the Europe into series petitions would fix parasites isolated from others this is of course straight from the Emirates literature well no actually for more 360 of circa 1966 so
OK so that's a little more about cloud have with the it's about dividing physical machines up into multiple of of multiple virtual machines using a hypervisor kernel of termite rises by which 1965 just out of the old guy stuff out of them and providing these virtual machines computer resources of the hosting provider manages this mapping of the virtual machines the physical machines these waters of that the the physical machines give some of running and provide the API get them and so that you can use them as if they were real machine real individual machines of
EWS Amazon's offering in this regard as a ton of services like every time I log in the amazon there's another tab up there you don't usually with like 1 or 2 letters and digits for some new service but overall we're going to focus on really just too easy to which was the original offering which is basically the computing so the compute service just like you know a lot like the node or any of these guys and the forgery network which is PBS so there
will be a elastic in the cloud which is easy to there's a huge number of the of commodity servers spread across the centers worldwide and divided into instances when things that Amazon using local anything by its proper name you don't get a virtual host you get an instance in which makes it seem like something freaky new and different is a virtual votes nothing special but
there's no magic here is just it's just a machine running your code of everything goes a long way to make it seem like something really special it's just a virtual machine
what differences types of the vary from micro up to the it ends and means there is this is to make it seem like he should sizes in a lot a of blood and quot xl is the largest which is know to Arjuna each of and they go and as you go up you get more CPU basically you get a lot bigger hunk of the CPU that you're running on of and more memory and more instance storage of a hunk of the distance physically in the box you running out as far as I know actually into these machines is generated there's like 1 disk sitting there of which would be relevant later and it's how much that as you get and huge cost they circular and and Amazon charges on by the hour so from the moment you turn on a virtual machine and it starts running to moment you turn off that such a bill will be but in doing it right so just to
remind everyone of this that you're sharing this with the customers it is nearly impossible with unless you pay extra for it to get a machine is dedicated just to you you will be sharing with you they will give you what you they they don't lie if they say you get this much CPU genesis storage and as you'll get it but the ion channel to the instable local disk and network of shared with everybody else on that machine and the only guarantee it'll give is if you pay more money but kind of put your traffic a little bit ahead of everybody else's that's the only guarantee on those on those particular resources this is very important when running a database there is an
exception to this which are dedicated instances you can buy dedicated instance and that will dedicated to clicker customer if you if you want to provision 1 of your virtual machine promises on this vision physical box nobody else the will accept as in the has different Amazon account can go on that machine it still virtual lots it's exactly like every other instances is you're not sharing on 70 300 dollars per month per region of for the first one of the good news is that a one-time fee if you get more of these things you and you can amortize so if you're quite or a thousand years 7 bucks a month per server on any of this is possible toxic or kind of a lot more of this also this thing
called a reserved instance in people get these and then wonder why they're being beaten up by all the other customers because it can actually read but what reserved to means is a pricing program it's a volume-purchase program is the frequent flyer program it's not a technical program it reduces the cost and guarantees you that if you commit to a particular usage patterns your cost a lot it doesn't change the tendency of service at all 0 so don't don't go by 1 of those thinking that you're getting it dedicated yourself is reduction
the weight of again instances are just computers you pick your own or last from enormous variety of different installations like a it's like there's no probably between Amazon's and community there's like 50 different but 1 2 images you can also be also given your uncle lots of and provided a very machine they don't want to hear about the year bond kernel books on the set on infrastructure Amazon has lost cool tools to help you do this but it's up to you decide the species of the the server the switchers server there are these machines server this is by you that services by database server I want everything wired together this way and on provides the tools that they don't do this for you which appeared in the course you installed operator unusual software like say was raised and invented slides
so 1 of them so that's that's all about computing outside storage where you put your stuff
so every machine every instance comes with a host of instance storage it varies from very few new little all the way up to you I think because have 3 . 4 terabytes by compute instances the in the used call this ephemeral storage which is probably a better name for hour and so when Amazon is called a phenyl storage believe that it is ephemeral it's right reviews on the same and set so if you take as relevant that you don't really know it when it comes back at you should have exactly the same region of instance and you usually get most of by the huge number circumstances work in just vanish if you ever shut down the instance it's got actually decommissioning instance stops if it's if Amazon is only except when the inside and you want to migrate you from 1 machine to another which they do time sometimes use 1st comes with you sometimes that's all i so you really need to treat this like it's hard drive that can die at at any 1 moment and the absolute most you can get out of them and this is worth the expense of instances 3 . 4 terabytes which admittedly is comes storage but you know for most applications by itself is not infinite this is
what Amazon once to put your database on is EDS Elastic Block Storage it's a San over Ethernet again they don't call you know they they make of their own terms it's essay over Ethernet it's not I'm told by the people were better enzyme criminologists and I and it's not on my scarcity of but its basic but there's nothing this is looking super fancy about you the individual volumes from the right with her right arm you move them from 1 instance to another so you can detach it from 1 instance and plug onto another instance fiscal as and you can snapshot from 2
of you can snapshot
them to S 3 which is the bolt storage service on 3 is by the way this project 1 of few times or mentioned it's a service for the whole honking blocks of data that's not block storage device itself it uses more Web API for uploading downloading stuff so it's not really suitable for anything like a database that needs walkable access little
morbidly of EDS Server provides resilience is hard drive failures unlike the instance of hard drive shouldn't take down yes falling on you can come out in number of ideas volume machine isomers of kernel of it but you know 64 is not too many of them in the 3 rates using an and the to create rates of of of multiple EBS volumes which may or may not want to talk about that in a little more
runs over the network every instance has a single 1 gigabit Ethernet port in the back everything network-related goes through that 1 gigabit Ethernet port when traffic database traffic in the center of everything so the most you could possibly get on PBS is 125 megabytes sec that's the theoretical maximum sustained transfer you will never get any faster than that number no matter how many volumes you attach no matter how many how what a complicated rates structures and that's it that's the speed of light and it that really does have probably going to be pretty pretty approach that's outside sometimes a percept 130 but there's a lot of catching going out to and for so that probably explains that
little more it's not cheap there's reason Amazon wants you use it you pay you pay for itself and for every I O operation a team leader was that the click every time you write that will walk yeah I can add up like 1 of our clients Spain 22 thousand dollars a month 1 instance of 1 instance all plot by so yeah the the problem is your sharing this with lots other people nutrients so that customers trade network fabric between you and whatever else you're talking to a lot of customers and indices media servers are really pounded off so you know the result of all this is kind of
slow performance and I love this quote performance characteristics of like the box many technically opaque and find the right confounding anatomical from group and they should not because they build the whole business on top of that it's easiest has good days that
it has a really good days you get you you're like cruise along 130 megabytes a 2nd on 21 millisecond latency putting all of the sudden latency not super but not at really low variability like to stick along what clock and
then it has that is it's interesting that we are dealing with a with a technology that has good days and bad days you know it's like remember the days it she had like use the Freon because the component was overheating I like to 2 megabytes per 2nd throughput to set and latency and this is like this is not for the spikes is like the whole afternoon it's like this and it depends on things you cannot control there is no button go faster press and there is even no known from wanting more money into go faster those slot so having just
describe all the wonderful this is ETS 1st starters all languages uses the storage and in various it's not protected against any hard drive failure they call ephemeral they mean it it begins to shut down until champions and that it goes away guaranteed in and it's not really any faster than EDS enzyme actually specifically says slower and generally are tested versus we are accommodation is just use of the point as tempting as it is just sitting there that's is really not a suitable underlying structure of data so
that when we care about any of this well databases are all about I especially once the databases has a certain size there largely I constraint this limited badly how fast you can write it for very large databases how fast you rate
so the unpleasant facts of life to summarize it there there's certain other things about ideas about Amazon generally instances can distributed time without the haircuts now cost every computer can fail you know we all know this but this happens a lot further number compared to how often she just just fries if the hard drive fails during is source is is gone and caution she I EDS findings will talk about ideas 1 felt that it was like so just be prepared for this nothing you can do about it plan for you know designed resiliency and you're infrastructure OK enough will so
that of of the actual but but the thing you can do to make posters go on Amazon so talk about inferior
instance configuring EDS differing post and about replication because if you're running on amazon you're doing replication everybody does not disagree with me will be much easier so the variance
that's the most important thing is how much memory that because really that's the big control that could be controlled to think that the whole GB memory just get big enough since on 63 68 maybe of gigabytes is the biggest and since you can get out of Amazon right now on instant because this is for quite some time so they are more easy to doesn't change that much actually interestingly enough of them and the president's going down but that the maxima are still kind of always been the same 4 years of Soviet fit memory just get enough memory you use it if you can't just max of memory based on your budget of the mode of the biggest heist in every instance that you get out of Amazon cost you about 1200 bucks a month so that's the upper left the maxima which will pay off for just the instance that the I and
of which distributions use of usable into 11 low-level a few tons of time every other Linux distro has said that we have written problems to or more of 12 kernel freezes frequently enough to be a problem and this was confirmed by a on Instagram 1 requires and they run a lot of servers so they say use a lot weight for don't even think about 12 at this point so in so CPU but
in reality you almost never run out of CPU on post server on Amazon I was almost always limiting factor but there are specialized cases for that where you will receive you but generally did the point to the point is you crank the the very high enough you give yourself enough CPU as well on any number of people can come with any number of pathological cases this is not true or you know that evolves like guess another word for pathological but they're not but generally this is true what they you're to budget decision always go for more memory and CPU the which just to get the extra CPU speed and save money from memory cost members I don't have a lot of choices so they come together and are generally experiences we use also see here because of other stuff is running on the box besides phosphorus so don't do that don't when your J. Boserup on your own server all of the aim is to do their own instance that's the nice things about enzyme in it at like quarter Supermicro box so if figure
resisted temptations and flexible floppy but and I'm really there's only 1 this is the good thing about it is really easy to configure the reader noted that it has the only decision you have to make all this of wisdom out there it's like the prominence on is very very about the technical data details so this whole like holding up the things sprung up around Amazon quite well you know I smeared it with disappointment it worked better you know like I like the zeroing it doesn't work in government if you measure it enough times it averages that really have this is not is not and does not help if you don't need to the rate 1 because it's already read 1 at all or probably I think it through throughout the rumors rate 5 all the way over the Berryessa rate 6 so good so here's the pro argument
almost all the measurements showed I'm sure a 0 4 4 of reads 0 across multiple EDS tribes a single point almost all some customers routinely get terrible performance off of this this is a great technology and you know think it's it's like a form of program for consultants of the so it's less than the variability is less on series but it's still there it's so that the the closer together right theory but it's still that which makes sense given that order right has push out almost right generally each straight rate 0 seems to be a place that the on the place of the cursor flattening so it is not much point going beyond our means right was you need more than 8 terabytes of memory of of this of media space which point or more strikes on the integrate argument
of woman nice things about it is you can snapshot obvious point test 3 which a button makes is that they say atomic copying doesn't handle post side it but the underlying files files because the over all but if you try you that 1 at a time you just lost the consistency to actually have acquiesced the volume which we usually the people's respect class can knowing only if you have 64 instances renouncing them all on a new sources previous lines remarkable rebuilding the rate on humans this kind of in the neck you definitely want script that because you going around of the problem you just added all of these variables together and it only performs as well so slowest number so you have even more variability in the EVS racetrack in the revious Eurebiur volume which is a kind of what anyone wants and since you know have more volumes but but only 1 failure could but will but 1 failure takes on the whole set because it's rate 0 you just increase your chance of losing your data to the BS failure it is that we wait
flight EBS volumes can fail we have 1 particular what inclined 7 2 3 times this year yeah it does it happens on gender this that generally we find out of this is the the young reboots it tries not tedious volume and the and amazon says what EBS volumes always stop doing it for that find that doesn't exist so I will give you a refund and they'll be you all 4 dollars of i and once fails whole useless what's exciting so you have to plan this it's just like a failure on a read zeros on a local rate 0 cluster you just have to plan for
so tips and tricks of disease XFS there's really no reason not to so I although really as is the the 3 here OK immediately to is better on the 3 reader had this to a 64 K such chunk size on the rate to 20 256 K and use stage or worse if your crops now both the difference is actually pretty small that light that 1 would think that a tiny bit again lots of noise in this data on but that's kind of a literal numbers you need to know OK
well we have our instances with the size of the database and we have already as volumes of role mountain humming along and you're watching the cost to come so you better a database of quickly on again instances are just virtual computers nothing special anything you do too much research going just do it here too there's nothing super magic about 1 of these on the full of this is obviously can't full posters tuning talk of check out of purposes by that suppose this will form a stock is he's a co-worker of mine so force in the plus is popular but there's lots of it was with the resources on so do all that stuff definition of what the basics
specifically EDS or here and only 1 on the instances of difficulty data into a single it on the on on the on the affine structure not on which a decision is America at its find the operational Ontotext logs paralogs those and efficiently and really on the on the instance storage
vats pDx law put on the media following arrest the databases are recommendations which is exactly contrary to normal to get if you're running under your machine 1 the 1st thing that any of them so will tell you to do is move the access logs to their own set of because the characteristics of the the mediator-based volume and the and the actual volume are completely different ones going writing data the ones we around indexes also decreases stuff the problem is you're sharing this server with half the country you cannot optimize the seeks is like your you have that kind all slot that's left over when reading is running on the entire rest of the machine somehow you're not you're not amenable to predict that you can get a good sequential-read that EVS volume so don't even try I and anyway if if you lose the media so databases have so there's really no extra redundancy that you're getting by with the exports someplace else don't put it
on instance store heads that that's very tempting bad idea is you just read it is recoverable the instance that give the instance has not dealt with the instance fails Betrieb of the the attached to new value regular posters will dutifully would do in recovery and Anobium so now sigh for the hardcore what problem become what parameters to set your post-critical called there are 2 different cases 1 . 1 by 1 . 1 beats me it seems to work out there actually some is a little bit more work the analytical biology divided the problem is that you can once again you can't control beta RDS random reads and sequential region EDS are lost in the noise system which is faster or slower so element given that was sequential can be a little bit faster if the EBS server is otherwise occupied for just the reason that anyone is so 1 . 1 since you know the 1 . 0 but this is you know that I will admit there's a certain amount of food baked and the number
of affected by a concurrency if you can strike for a certain number strikes if not leave a lot of great interest in posters for friends I recall of
now assigned set of replication if you're running was rests on AWS you need to be doing streaming replication for traditional Walsh effect just do it the problem is as I have described tedious detail before lots of things bring all the time on Amazon they call them the this is the view the using terms like ephemeral and things like that the message you're trying to use these things are not the super expensive the computers that are hardened and with an end and move with redundant everything things just go away all the time so you treat
generally which 1 history replication 1 instance to another on the sentences doesn't have to be as capable as the 1st instance generally doesn't use much CPU because mainly was is keeping up with the primary i in which are actually is if you use it for queries of course as easy for read-only queries then you want size appropriately facilities such that
I and some has this thing called availability zones which are kind of sort of like data centers on it's unclear exactly what they or their parts of centers again they can't give anything is properly it but the reason is a important is you have to put the replicator different availability so you have to you have to don't argue just do it the reason there's Enron appears to have customer affinity for of machines in the same availability itself to create 2 instances on same available in the field available at his own easy for you to say it will generally provision in that instance on the same physical machine and the problem should be immediately obvious support putting the replica of there is the putting in different available the sum is the only way of guaranteeing that will be on different physical shape by the way there is a trick which is another trick which is if you're getting pounded out in Europe instances performing really terribly try creating a new instance in different capabilities because you may just be a bad neighborhood you know again you may be like overlooking the slot available available on Reddit server you know so
so maybe a snapshot of 1 of the coolest things about Amazon on because you know of dealing with stands in San snapshotting is kind of a pain in the neck joint down in the manual trying to figure out if it's all this program something and this if I put a run the command line the snapshot of being the grade of it specifically great for doing point in time that that's clear that because 1 of the extremely cool things about clothes precise more time explaining to people over and over again that for playing back up the underlying file system in which does not have to be perfectly consistent you don't have we we expose 1st you have couple stresses stop writing to the data they just don't believe it so cool of so doing it doing this and South-South snapshot for doing the beast backup of point and that is perfectly reasonable on to the true state wall segments also the good reason harmonizing point and is actually heroic who has this guy Wally that's a set of Python scripts that do this for you on Amazon it's supercooled rifles civil stuff you have 3 during the 1 that just push a button development time that up with 2 different machine mounted the provision makes it really easy create string records slide so disaster recovery
so yes if the and the giant time it's for people still buy tickets I put on standby in different regions and so you know for sure it will be a different data center with loss different connectivity recurrence because ultimately influencing in public Internet we all or at certain levels of periphery is that public internet search having indigestion or a meteorite distress Virginia or something you know you're in good shape when the nice part about this is so warm standby rather registering replica ulaval . time recovery by keeping the wall segments in multiple base back ups which is very handy because of some kind of hot standby it's great for a large class of failures oops I drop that table is not 1 class the class of failure the good for because it'll push that drop right across the stream connection just like anything else of it before you a controls the so I didn't feel like you can keep format of snapshots and you should database gigantic you know you're going start having speed of these things the debate of it you to fall back actually in the in using the centroid actually equal of so
if you do replication Monitor Monitor Monitor Monitor everything that's going on all right because it's really easy to fall disks with replication of something goes for because wall segments are piling up somewhere here is a very common scenario that is that the secondary goes down the wall shipping keeps going but it's not cleaning up wall segments on the secondary more so eventually that this fills out the young men so and then the master goes cause I'm unable to successfully Thaksin also has a cost of doing doing more shipping anymore so I better keep on to the MacUser secondary gets out and comes up then it's the because of this kind of that's kind of a not a part of the little bit of a tedious from recover from so monitor disk usage at the middle and if you are already familiar with that ship was 1st up the aisle . org so not just have a plugin for doing all this stuff is among the things that you never million years want to monitor better model what useful samples of
OK so quick briefer than the quick reference questions at this point the mother completely missing the boat or when you think about OK and then I will be in the session but again all fall out of the scaling make feature
so you know what you done all this stuff and you utility included in there and you behind every Quadruple Extra of assorted this this is a real instance thing by the way over there a straight radius R and you've run out of memory and you run out of course OK now what so 1st most scaling issues are really application issue 1st you really haven't driven PostgreSQL all of the things you can do in your
application like if the things and it is no need to be there please take them out like web sessions and moving much redrafted you can onto replicas that's what they're there for they do reach all that stuff on memories cheap so just keep from more memory and box if you have an accident of you can
infer shared-nothing application where I will because can provision and terminate on ABC instances as you need to without a whole lot of all the wrong 1 of the nice things about Amazon the best things about it is it is it makes it really easy to spin up and spin down these instances you create your own media minds machine image of Satan she image and use all you have to bring about that you companies like grayscale heroic this is basically the business broker does a lot more this but it is this is this is 1 of the cool things about Amazon is used to bring up and tear down these instances were also use their own do as much as you can digest and cash stuff page fragments result sets from common queries all this kind of stuff use register for web sessions and all this kind of stuff but it's in in-memory database will handle this kind of stuff is what is therefore of great and you
do all this stuff and then you still smash into wall so generally we're it happens is you run out of right capacity underrated it's it's just can't keep up anymore because it's the main database you really don't have no place to go the root of the the words the secondary them here I generally will happen is depending on your workload at the moment suddenly all the needles going the red and it's taking longer than it can then you out so unfortunately this point interesting on Amazon well if you doing anything you need to make some tough decisions so what everyone
wants to do shot everyone 1 shot shot 1 of which is a new provision in this Kruskal's databases you isolate the stuff that you can in so that each database has a portion of the total data and then duplicate for work and use for consistency purposes the rest of the slaughter of across it's great for a particular class of workload which I would say is that where the workloads proportional to a small animal diseases like in a user or you are more alike or something like that those tend to be more short of all kinds of application of
shortened has lots of and challenges but but keeping ITT visually the paper from Instagram about their method for palette of ideas you can assured architecture rate worked rather work regulates this now here you have 64 these databases and you need to figure out which 1 you need queries to do something when you have a share data you want push it like say you're a state and on say your group on this is speculative I know inside and group architecture whatsoever you we can imagine the deals are kind all spread out across all databases and the user's assured and but it's the to distributed deals across all the databases scene architecture to do that and I wonder what these fails what you and also for reporting you almost always have been consulting query across all these databases and how do do that without some question yourself just like you try to avoid by 1st book on self talk a little
more about that but some of the solutions you can use well it's exported into a central data warehouse because presumably this data warehouse can take a little longer to run 1 of these giant dynamics queries than the things they're actually can boyfriend and request of you you can just go ahead and distributed or even when industry the queries on descended individual query Paul everything back up your proxy is really cool for this if you're not familiar with the epoxy inspect tools it's a bit of a me embedded line of PostgreSQL for doing this kind of distributed querying the build your own aggregation covered during the
of shoddy is not for anyone of for every 1 of them and there this these 2 categories in my mind that really are not great for your traditional data warehouse Hadashot because it is because the sharding pattern is completely non-obvious you come with this great charting pattern and then the next query needs a different 1 and it's really not there's it's really hard come with a totally consistent earnings pattern that will help some cases you can but not all of its applications into an extremely high rate volumes I like sensor data things like that with this this huge inbound traffic in the database of a real time application within these has to keep up sometimes you can make sure it works if again there's kind of the right right distribution pattern but these run out of steam on Amazon very very fast because latency and throughput problems and again shortages recall right now is a really need architecture and if you build can build replication this from 0 will be very happy you did but if it's not natural application architecture don't to form it's just a shot because because families are so if you're building from
0 if you really want to you think well I might ask for a switch and million people show up that we call what what should I do not designed for just assuming that that you're going to have multiple databases and figure all these problems right from 0 every instance is disposable you don't remember the good old days we will like it we would buy servers that all come up to the stack of 17 in the bathroom planets or something like that and we say you know this Saharans by friend and that the kleenex you know throw them away use that get rid of them you give them numbers you don't call the trachea entree you know just don't do that don't become don't think of them the way we did before you be much happier on amazon if you can think of them as we more Computer go term computer dialog your click something units of an instance and the thing called about Amazon and where they are still to this day I think ahead of everyone else in this arena is there really call art of everything has a collegiate Mechanical Turk has a very cool API so you you your computer tell people to do the of those little test API using Mechanical Turk kind anything to build it up just set up this mechanical turk has everybody got down on my website ways of but expensive and need lot but provisioning a new server amounting media and relatives of it all has the API is effect do more the PIC do with the Council so use that and automate everything we want create new app server that should be 1 but I need a new app server place so at this
point the edges OK this is the a kind of information but what do I do this and how do I make this decision as only trying to solve that this is the reaction generally going to go through this is a but should I run on Amazon or not OK here's the
sub yes or no generally you're a small database your application opportunity right critical it's not about being swamped by right so there's a lot of locality of reference in the database even if it's a huge 1 so you're not doing queries across everything you can partition the tables something so that the so generally will have a consists of small working set in memory and Europe or your application shareable that tends indicator yes friends on the Hill large database and by large i mean over terabyte in this case it's right critical so you have to keep up with with a large real-time volume you generally don't have locality of reference when you when you do data analysis is across the whole darn thing of this 1 terabyte database of wrong I was going to be extremely important in your application is really not that easily charitable that has the indicator parameters you know traditionally like you're you're basically whether altered the application has to be not bad friends on these reasons for Amazon Web Services on the warehouse tends not be as good a fit but again this is like 2 axes across the 25 access to mention of possible database applications so you need to judge for yourself mn or
you know no reason previously an enzyme you can develop on AWS deploy traditional are as long as is deployment and to the environment from reasonably close Amazon's great for this can think is you you instance when you go home at nite you not paying for for it I mean you can put the entire web faces services on the other hand the data warehouse is back in data warehouse on on traditional hardware on however by this I don't mean to run run the database these web services are talking to to do it because that the network traffic you have to have as the hop across the public Internet to the database and that that would probably kill you will get a specialized applications may be but for example with the futurist collect all the same pump it up to the data warehouse right away from right there is another
option people like this option I don't maybe I'm just like 2 old and in the way and I'll get to love it eventually went along the bottom here but I you travel safety features a single that implies synchronous commit off just you don't care you like just string replication reserve your data so will the master and slave of sink off if you figure how bad could it be really of the trees Everything is disposable if 1 goes down it's like the out of you know it's like the gallup things happen you know and just hope this numbers work out new freighter of and we do not recommend and
above all avoid Amazon start from 0 and this is where going to clients where it's like but I will give this whole thing this like like you're spending 22 thousand dollars all month you could buy a gigantic server on your credit card and hire someone to run it and see if 10 thousand dollars a month and they say well yes but how do we fix this problem on Amazon bookie has been a paid by their own no 1 cares no 1 has a you know I'm going by my I'm going to buy this laser pointer from you because you run on Amazon's Web services no 1 cares if if you're not getting much money from the move it's just the resource that that it's this is and because remember it is just
about the cost the
traditional possible that we all grew up with was this is really high by and you know right this giant checking is giant server evolves disks arrives and you have to figure out ways to put it the cost is in Boston dumps there's this big up-front project a hire someone in that burns a lot of money and all that kind of stuff but it's really hard to scale this kind of stuff on demand because you know all user I and but a lot of companies still this small because once you hire the 1st EVA polytope need a 2nd 1 for quite some time of the the new that
and with Amazon possible model basically starts at 0 you know what you sign up for EWS thought cost you anything yet this it pretty much more has to use the more you you take the it's very easy provision of and that you know everyone goes home you know your your winter your your business at all you're you're selling tickets to ski lift tickets during the summer you from number that varies the promises no economies of scale the a on web services has huge economies of scale those all the Amazon not use of the fact that you get this Council them that's not economies of scale that just this guy so here is here's
my graph explains it all most oversimplify graph the history of computer i have so we have capacity and cost basically the traditional model can goes up and then suddenly ocean is sort of what you do you should serve longer you there's a little bit arise because bandwidth Amazon just view but eventually they will cross so you may have to do it maybe like right here in your application may be like you know we were there back but they will cross essentially as classical up is eventually the still work to your favorite themselves so remember when you're crossing this bandwidth is extraordinarily such as it is everywhere and and I O operations are extra this is what can really give you on Amazon because the other ones you bought your server each he does not come in right you bits into a bill for every time to use the race card right the disks you bought Amazon does it easily easily swapping cost you use a calculator and you come with the sale well for instance is about 300 but some of that other great and then you start writing it in your 1st will come in and then you get like 2 days later you get these e-mails we noticed your usage is slightly higher on hold the ED 300 dollar bill you're about to get is OK we should and so just include here a note about
staffing because this is 1 of the places that the universal thing is but we don't want to hire devastated upstep cloud hosting doesn't mean no operation staff remember the selling new computer it's not the this young so I mean you can defer cloud hosting farther out but eventually you will need people eventually your system will reach a level complexity you need someone to help managers for you and that we might be the phone call broker and say you know old is this is 1 of the things they do they push that that point we farther out on the curve for you but eventually will just as in the theater takers for which you will but everyone of larger dubious slices at some point had higher access then we just 1 but they had a higher because they just couldn't do it anymore and they were getting tired of writing checks so he can here we are
but if it uses a great solution and I I really like Amazon for the things as good as it is good for a very large class of application is good fair use the after use the API is use it to build the spin-up and spin-down instances you talking like right scale and scalar and could really based on it is a lot of the stuff associated with it but don't form your whole technical architecture just because you think Amazon the only way to go and clustered out very carefully you lost it will not always be cheaper and so and then we have the
few in the right so this website PDFs website the course website and slides will be if yeah that's that's I can be a little clearer let me explain what I mean suppose you are you know was for you you sell you sell these and you have the the water management software runs entirely on Amazon so you keep orders you keep everything there because there's on the shoddy model for that by region by product line you know by whatever you everyone by user in uses 1 3 million on the server if people isolated you may have to push a product catalog out all the servers but the product and what is really fast and use of you have but at some point you need to set you need your tax return for the year you know how to use all this data so my suggestion areas some all the data down but as an element as it is as present on the upper as that becomes fixed it to it at the warehouse in the in house that's a machine sitting under your desk you're probably not literally but that's more suited for doing this kind of big data I O bound operations that was whether that's what that's like he's freaking value that's right so but we can work well the only the let's say generally the virtual machines have were sigh of the non virtualized machines and the main reason for that is there are now 2 people have to write the driver the VM container writers and device writers and it's hard enough of this hot enough for the people who built the race car driver to higher worker working discovered it can be really hard for 2 people to write a driver of that's a problem not a tuning issue you know you just have to be aware of that the I was thinking about some of past the generally the if you're sharing the same and you probably ran the random page cost be lower it because basically what page cost is how much how on how willing postprocessor random I operations forces sequential operations like index which is a sequential scale but generally you wanna set it reasonably high on however if you're running a necessities for example if I was lowered because I random I was cheaper on the ground so there is the most of the again the best to leave you on a virtual on version machines is forceful generally 1 run introduce a hypervisor style thing rather than on the jails the in my experience the jails style virtualization is law performance of the don't that's that's a really brought to the statement that it has many that allows for many exceptions but there is also an always buy more memory but I that that because the you know what the memory of the the areas that share you know once once you've got the memory about the memory and and and give give yourself as much memory as you generally want if there's a lot of the stuff about running virtualized shapes you know you have in the images around you can do all this other 1 really good system management reasons to run virtualization even if you in the heart of but you do want be aware that are that it will hurt drive someone and how much depends on all the relative quality of drivers and staff that way again assert generally the the the main reason that XFS appears to perform well as it handles journaling more efficiently than any of the other than and then the 3 in particular me it again they're really it's really more of of the next generation of file system beyond you really you have you know there's basically 3 the CFS XFS and if the for or experiences you XFS is a little bit more developed than the others and a file system something you really don't wanna get along because that's so lower hyper conservative about that that is not there's no slander directed TEXT for particularly of people run with it seems around the you don't wanna run as you see 3 because certainly so all need a world war with only only bold only certainly you you only it's mostly from performance point of view but the less I you DVDs so I mean that's good advice on systems the matter of 85 system but is particularly applicable to the to the Amazon over the I O stories so you want so this is the right word is 1st of all I want you all have mean all of our so that was the last years of the use of it in light of of it is the correct yes you all of the all the all the so called all have the all the all of you know when when if 1 is a list of of a certain age 1 would say 0 great just that the entire making her reliable and worse than the rest of building is unreliable instances on top of this reliable all the Sava we spent over work but you know there and 1 could be forgiven for that of that point of view he again it really depends on you and induce from until 2 clients 1 of whom I can name 1 of American Instagram's I there being done a really good job of and you know it when I 1st walked in it was 1 of those skull-and-crossbones thing I said 0 my god it's another 1 of them is of and then it's like OK these guys actually have figured it out because they have various sensible partitioning model they are in the world as a start up they were not a position to say OK here's the 1 . 2 million dollar check for a data set of n now of course that's no longer an issue but you know but who knows what that path would have been you know I and the Bird during really good use out of that model because they could just push a button and say all look you have a great example is when they drop the and when they should be enjoyed suddenly easily people signed up that day on the either they would have to make a huge up-front capital investment and hope they got it right or they would just kept pushing the more stuff but and please of I for until they reach a vastly bigger great job so that the people were like yeah OK they thought it through a lot of like hitting the pliability give you the details there basically of a legal research company that think on people come to them a we have this really complicated we basically a really get sued for doing this and they have to dig through them and the and there is we will we get anywhere in the world for doing this it has this enormous database and they have analyst to sit there run ad-hoc queries on its own Amazon and these are the people looking 22 thousand dollars a month just prior because they have this feeling of legal analysis core running these were taking rise well into into PG 3 can president you know enter and getting results that and it makes no sense you know there you know we've made our recommendations and it's really were technical consultants of this is problem so it's up to them all as elected to opposite poles for this and other than that there will lot the made of money and how they can they can buy the server they wanted to maybe this decision and I think you know for I believe this is a case of enzymes are concentrate on where they just feel locked into it you know they like bounded with it for this and and the thing that the main take away want this presentation is it really is just a set of tools with very particular with you know this relatively warm color virtuousness role for 1 call of of of faults and you have this if you hit if you if you if you're particulars of applicant if you're pretty replication really plays the virtues and can kind cruise over the faults your enriching but then that's a wide class of problems but it's not every problem so it's all I'm sure I mean I know people who you know I I know people who put some there's at least 1 governing but 100 thousand dollars a month to Amazon on his mx is lots of lots of but because of airline tickets very often but not in again in that interval is again somebody can name and so I I apologize but it kind of makes sense for what they're doing on because they need this kind of you know the problem in the control room for we need a lot you they would probably be spending a lot more than that they had a dedicated wraps around but yeah I mean there's a the as as somebody in a sort of said to me Amazon is great for for getting money it's not great for making money but know they say it's if you're in is that you're going out if you haven't got your 1st PC round and Islamic sense and was somehow and but but because the data and the capital expenses that you know there's a sense there a 0 capital expense and however once it's time to start really making you know cranking it may not be a lot of it may not make so in that it sort of the line the will right you know its own Amazon is probably the most extreme example of taking of take it to its logical conclusion that where other cloud providers tend to posting providers is it tends to be a little bit more work who hard spin up an instance which you can get more out of the hands the instances it has many performance as much performance variability it has been at the Harvard has more dedicated to you or you can you can arrange that if you needed it to you can't have better guarantees about how much how overcommitted that about committed a overcommitted particular for hardware is of the building model tends to be a model and wants the members on it has thought to be our leaders the Montpellier some or something and so for quite got GPI situations as as nail down in my experiences amazon of course you know I think this could achieve all we were talking here this is a very fast with a big part of the world of so they don't always the wondering wants to be so you know so that's so I'm sure that you don't next week there will be some new interesting offering that that may address some of these points but people over here this is specifically about going to amazon because the you know the the the cast of the long shadow over the whole cloud hosting environment is not what will be the of the don't support it as they don't have a built-in technology that does that but they do offer a suite of technologies that taken together support very nicely but if you go there so that if you go to that wall and set of tools for example that's a very nice and tools for supporting from starting replication back Beckett think you can they do support backups of your individual machines to S 3 they're both storage but there's nothing specifically post-crisis about those you you have to be you you you're responsible for making network with respect to certain we were not found in well the problem is is a little hard to do them with in in is kind of the weak link there because of you you have your own in India's that wild about dropping out of dropping unit of strike like that you'll see probably have you puree and which is kind of expensive because of their people do this you know who who do exactly this there's a lot of discussion about like well like I I get 20 instances and I test them and use the best 5 is sort of like you like over clockers you know I I by 20 chips and run mall hot see which 1 burns out as well the problem is that's true at the moment you do that but again you know some hot start me just moved in that you don't have you you get there's no protective coat you know there's no protective covenants on your neighborhood people can move in and put up a lot of aluminum siding if they want so you move into the next hour Davison with 1st allowed part of this is that overstretched but of to you I want you to be able to warn you know there into the role engineers and what the solution of control it you have to let go of the heart that was not the ends of London figures the stuff that you don't get to you you you get effect but yeah I mean there but there are times we advise clients look this fire of a new instance of different availability zones you know people are not Windows out put the painting graffiti on yours so that they can react
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel PostgreSQL on Amazon
Alternativer Titel PostgreSQL on AWS
Serientitel PGCon 2012
Anzahl der Teile 21
Autor Pettus, Christophe
Mitwirkende Heroku (Provider)
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - keine kommerzielle Nutzung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Unported:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen und nicht-kommerziellen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben
DOI 10.5446/19032
Herausgeber PGCon - PostgreSQL Conference for Users and Developers, Andrea Ross
Erscheinungsjahr 2012
Sprache Englisch
Produzent FOSSLC

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract EC2 with somewhat reduced tears Amazon Web Services (AWS) has become a very popular platform for deploying PostgreSQL-backed applications. But it's not a standard hosting platform. We'll talk about how to get PostgreSQL to run efficiently and safely on AWS. Among the topics covered will be: -- Selecting an EC2 instance size, and configuring it for PostgreSQL. -- Dealing with ephemeral instance storage: What is it good for? How much do you need? -- Elastic Block Store: How much do you need? How do you configure it for best performance? -- AWS characteristics and quirks. -- Why replication is not optional on AWS. -- Backups and disaster recovery.

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