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Lecture 18. Electrochemistry Pt. 3.

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OK so were there any questions about the material from last week yes go ahead OK but it should be up so let me check and let you guys know so the lecture from Friday I think is up on the Web site is in charge of the leaders of injector Menino 789 afforded to him OK and the answer yes if you're acid yesteryear balancing redox reactions and acidic solution it's a lot easier to put age plus whether it's your lost right but technically speaking it's more accurate to relate to your plus cable it's a lot easier to balancing the futures have interests got but it said today I wouldn't want to have the actual topic which deals with electric chemistry and we said led to chemistry deals with redox reactions and so let's take an example of a redox reaction the 1 written here where you have zinc metal reacted with copper sulfate To give using sulfate and copper now there it a spontaneous reaction remember last quarter we look at the region and that's when reaction spontaneous it means that it has a natural tendency to occur on its own without any external influence and the Democratic quantity that we use to describe a spontaneous reaction is free energy and we said if the change in free energy for that reaction is negative we know that it's spontaneous so we're looking at a
spontaneous reaction and this is written in the form of the general reaction the overall reaction by many textbooks they use that term molecular equation but as all of you can see we don't have molecules involved here we have ionic compounds are right and therefore I'm just calling the general form the real reaction again you have to wonder about the complete minded equation then we would ride out all the associated species of the start with zinc that's metallic zinc so that is is not associated water but we know copper sulfate is a soluble salts How do you know solubility rules that decided to have you back copper sulfate is soluble and it is a soluble salt we know that and associates completely to give me copper 2 plus equals plus so for 2 minus In reality this is where the reactants like and solution now on the product side now we have zinc sulfate which it is a soluble salts so the into class and if sofa 2 miners would be dissociated and then you end up with copper metal so that would be the complete line equation entity with a complete added equation you can see this offered at the beginning the suffered at the end Sundance reaction the sulfate and alliance are the spectator violence and cancel out the spectator on side and then we end up with the next ironing equation and that would be zinc solid 1st comfort to plus quest giving me a zinc plus request was copper solid so that I can see that this I did actually describes the next event that takes place so that tells you exactly what's going on so the non-binding equation ,comma summarizes exactly what's going on and if you look at as 1 way to figure that out gays to sign oxidation numbers so this is a medal it's mental state that is 0 this is a plus to oxidation state this has a plus to oxidation state and this is complemented the conceded by taking zinc the oxidation number goes from 0 2 plus 2 and we know that when oxidation number goes up what is that process called oxidation and noted the relative change it changes might too oxidation represents a loss of electrons we know that 2 electrons are lost because the oxidation number changes by 2 all right now let's look at comparable the copper egos from last year 2 0 so copper and oxygen number decreases and the decrease as we know it's a reduction of any changes by a 2 and therefore we note to electrons again 7 2 electrons are lost and 2 electrons indeed and therefore you know the 2 electrons have been transferred his reaction and if you want to write this half reactions we said at half reactors don't really take place just a convenient way for us to keep track of what's going on and a have reaction is purely a mental process for us to kind of figure out what's going on in the city where I have reactions than the oxidation have reaction would be whizzing solid goes to zinc to plus 8 plus 2 electrons and this is the oxidation have reaction Our it's oxidation because the electrons on the product side less chance of being lost only tons of being produced here said that will be the oxidation and then on the other side we have competent plus Equus picking up the 2 electrons that I lost continue copper solid and this would be the reduction half reaction and in this case electrons on the reactants side that means they're being picked up in the reaction so electrons of engaged in the process and therefore that is the reduction a case now just like In Assamese reaction of acid-base reactions more proton transfer redox reactions involve electron transfer just like a proton is lost in a Proton has gained an estimated its reaction in redox reaction electrons or lost and the from the game so just like acid-base reactors will be locked about talked about conjugated acid-base pairs and we always right confident acid-base peers likewise region right redox couples said just like 100 acid here they used to describe acid-base reactions here we use the term leadoff couple and in the redox couple in you always write the oxidised form for errors then a diagonal line and the reduced form so always you right in that order so in this reaction and you can see there to redox couples right 1 is zinc and yet is copper we always right the oxidised form 1st so that using to plus switches off this number 2 and then zinc solid and the physical state will be quest and on the other side we have copper two-plus plus Equus and comfort solid sound In this instance you would always like the redox couple and you can see here an oxidation reduction reaction you always have to peers of the redox couples are right and the other couples here are always in the form of the oxidised form a diagonal line in the region's Zaklady Savannah may actually should be able to identify the redox couples just like we did before I can't get past the Spears now in the case of continent acidly there's it's easy because the acid form has the extra Proton the basic form has lost Proton so you can just look at that and see the Proton lost and you can identify which is the acid and which is the conjugate base here it's not directly apparently you have to that oxidation numbers to figure out which is the oxidised form images of reduced forms are right and right in that form not the reasons looking at all of this is ultimately electric chemistry always interested in looking at Hall electrochemical cell excellent start looking at electrochemical cells and that's the point where they are so ultimately would look at what we call galvanic cells for sometimes the temple takes cells I used and will be the 1st to gather it sells all the will takes our is called electrochemical cell actually define where electrochemical cell an electrochemical cell it is a device in which an electric current and all electric current is west of the of the electrons the rest of the period unless there is a need to buy the a spontaneous the facts or is used to be if you will I was going on the the that will be in the yard and
a halt to all related to the sale of a family of your hand the that's what I think is constantly you go are all unity and experimental fighting in the eye and say was I in met right and on the left side of the building in the universe I you know at the end of this year and 1 of the things factors that you to all the police all this In a letter to the the teen years chemical reaction it is used to generate an electric current all right so what we're going to do it as well as start by looking at spontaneous reactions and said you take a galvanic cell honorable takes out this is electrochemical devices to devise the new construction and it takes advantage of a spontaneous chemical reaction to generate electric current so the bottom line is 1 of the other examples for or both takes so he said that it's a case of electric chemistry we call them galvanic cells of all take cells and the simple idea behind this said was constructed batteries and you know that there are a whole host of batteries out there looking batteries there are different kinds of batteries that are used for different purposes now all of these the government itself the underlying principle is the same and they take advantage of a spontaneous reaction obtain solicit exam so we just look at the fact that if you take this reaction where you have zinc solid and copper to plus a quest we know like those choosing to plus worst plus compass solid and this year's spontaneous right and that means Delta G is negative so we know that if I take a chunk of zinc metal ah I entered solution of copper sulfate copper sulfate is a soluble salt so you take a spoonful of copper sulfate putting water and stirred up and put chance of zinc metal inside what's going to happen and this is spontaneous reaction is a natural tendency for this we actually take place even have zinc metal dissolving of the as it reacts in the modern music copper metal deposits in the modern art as his reactive progresses and at the end it's when establishing global are right and we actually member ultimately goes to equipment comes a point where it the reaction will start slowing down not really slowing down the amounts of the reactants and products start decreasing there comes a point where they that the the reactants that decreasing the products going up there comes a point when the amounts of gold stock changing and at that point we know the requirements established the case now only analyzes reaction we to electrons are being transferred all right so that means if I have a new Adel Zain and 1 copper iron we know to electrons will be transferred the rights and you just have 1 adult and 1 I have each given to electrons stands for now if I have billions upon billions upon billions of zinc Adams and billions upon billions upon billions of copper now ,comma electrons will be transferred twice as much billions to twice as much billions upon billions of electrons transfer never taken 1 of them and I have 1 more copper we know 2 walls of electrons we transfer pursuant to the enlargement of both it and have a tremendous amount of electrons being transferred OK now the idea behind batteries is quite clever the idea is that you take just the 2 of them in intimate contact with each other lecturers and the transfer the system of awarding equilibrium now what we could separate the systems so that now political mentor the spontaneous reaction by Regan physical separated men from their all right and then every commitments worldwide can we force these billions upon billions of electrons can be forced it to the wire and in that way you can never generated current rights to the idea that instead of having the 2 reactants intimate contact with each other with electrons will be transferred from 1 to the other rather we wanted to be constructed device and willing to take advantage of the fact that there is a spontaneous reaction at that lectures available from 1 to the other but now enforced these electrons to wire all right physically separated them and force it to a wider so that now you have electron flow To the wife got and remember electron flow as well if you get a call so that means we have constructed by wearing you have all the elements for this process to take place so we have to separate the zinc from the copper in order to celebrate that we deal with is where we had the zinc metal and with call the zinc metal wouldn't call this electrode and this incremental is gonna be dipped a solution of zinc sulfate can usually this is about 1 molar concentration in south since this is soluble which you end up with zinc plus the quest and sulfate to minus requests each of which will be 1 more some 1 side you have the reactor using and himself that's 1 have about redox reactions on the other side you have Copper so this will be copper metal and he will be here and have zinc metal this drawing is really bad that Australian nicer picture later today and this is dipped in copper sulfate so this is the copper electrodes and we have copper sulfate Equus thank you and this will be 1 more alert typically and this associates to give you copper requests and sulfate because it's a soluble salt OK no underlying the Sutro wire and if you wanted to to just to make sure that there's a current flowing through we can link it through Of all the leaders of the series of old media and so on now I physically separated the oxidation half reaction from the reduction have reaction so that we have the 2 reactants separated and would forced electrons to that while many members forced electrons to flow to that why all of you recognize that I have to complete the and include circuits completed in order to complete the circle what we have is what we call salt bridge severity is a salt bridge and a solid essentially is gel that's in that you U-shape glass cube and over here and put a cotton plugged to prevent their jails from seeping out all right and in here this gel has a Casey Equus in other words it has potassium ions equals plus minus the quest for right and I'm not switch show you create pictures says that if the same thing that I do I write sell haven't switched to a picture that kind of
shows you so let's start with this picture legitimate so we have the 2 electrodes so we have a zinc electrode and zinc metal dipped in using software and that associates using kinds and Salvadorans on the other side we have separated the other reactor which is copper and that is copper metal detecting copper sulfate and that has copper iron and soften and the 2 connected to a wide and 1 of attempted to hold meters so that we can measure to see where there's a flow of current enough now in order to complete the circuit what we have is salt bridge so here is the sort of grants and it's already is essentially gel that's placed in there that has financing it dissociated irons and sodium potassium mines and chloride ions dissociated in that and then at the bottom of the year glasses into that's that has the gel you have cup of public funds and decide to so that your Joel doesn't come flooding out no when we complete this area that when you have a flow of electrons you have a current flowing another a different way in which you can have a current flowing is also to have motion appliance already of movement alliance to you can have a flowchart right and so what's happening here is is that you have a flow of electrons that go from this to this but now you complete the circuit because now you can have irons flowing from this to this all right and so all were all we've done is we've completed this so there's a complete circle so that now you can have electrons flowing from 1 side to the other .period so this is a simple but a very rudimentary battery This is the idea behind barriers are right now if you look at the at the left hand side is where the oxidation takes place so letters on the left-hand side of this is where this we call this the analyst and they are notice where the oxidation occurrence OK and assigned for the annual the area has a negative signs are right and what happens at the end of the year is electrons are pushed into the wife all right so you look at the left hand side user is convenient to draw all these out so that you put it in alphabetical order 1 side is an ode to the other sides ,comma capital and therefore it always comes 1st arrived in at the end of you always have oxidation taking place and when oxidation occurs what happens you have electrons being produced it's that time lost so when the oxygen takes place you have lots of electrons being produced a lot of electrons being lost members those electrons and be channeled to the wire so at the old elections are being pushed into the wire so that you have a small electric appear that on the other side you have the capital so and this is where the reduction occurs and this has is symbolized by a positive sign and said electrons Our pool then France the wife right to the wire connected to the copper electrodes and so the capital where electrons have been pulled them so any electrochemical or galvanic cell has 2 components of you take a gallon itself it's got I and because separated the 2 reactions they were in contact with each other now electrons will be transferred 1 to the other day in contact with each other then that's not useful to us so we're taking advantage of a spontaneous reaction that we know has a natural tendency occur without any external influence would physically separated the oxidation have reaction from the reduction half reaction and when connected to 2 wide so that the spontaneous reaction still occurs now renowned for singles electrons those billions upon billions upon billions of electrons now I've been channeled through that wider from 1 to the other so where you have the oxidation recalled that the panel would be added always has a negative sign and then you know that at the end of electrons of being produced in those electrons are being forced to the wiring pushed to the wire and at the other end the flow of electrons comes into the capital to the capital is where the reduction takes place for electrons of engaged in to the wire electron to take enough and that the reduction takes place and so Europe pool of electrons to simple "quotation mark what you have here is a push and pull electric yet 1 terminal you have electrons being pushed to the wire and the other terminal you're having electrons being pulled in a play Nike like this picture because it summarizes everything that's going on so long you look at their desks and if you look at that the bottom where you can see that is where the oxidation takes place Wednesday is oxidized using to plots the net reactions in his limousine to was to electron set up at the oxidation .period 2 electrons being
produced said you had ability demanded by what's going on this the electorate which is a metallic solid right so this is a electoral will give off to and it becomes a into and becomes and it dissolves in solution he see that so what's happening at the and I would say is that the metal this action dissolving because the metal is giving up the metallic solid is put up to electrons and pushing above to the wire and dissolving as into bus so the on what can happen is you start with a solid metal strip of Zidane anyway and before you start you connect everything up and complete the circuit you wait fall anyway afterward what's going to happen the massive air strip metal strip it's going to go down you never see them because at the end of oxidation takes place and that means the metallic solid is not converting to zinc to last and two-plus dissolves and solutions are right now because the other side of the reduction takes place here the reduction have reactions of electrons that come into the cop electrodes are being pulled in and the 2 electrons reacted copper to blast the cover to this solution and a former cop a solid so what happens that the at the Capitol is you having more and more copper depositing on that electoral so you that electorate before Everything happens anyway afterward its nostrils are alright and so what's going to happen is that the and all your electrode will start dissolving getting smaller and smaller and smaller whereas here where you have the is copper Ryan's picking up the 2 elections so that they can pick up the 2 electrons to become solid and he will deposit on the lecturer and therefore the massive electorate increases all right and this will continue under the reaction beaches equipment and when their reaction reaches equilibrium now you don't have any net flow of electrons all right and that's what we need know only in real life we know that all batteries go dead after work and when a battery goes dead what does that mean that included has the established arrangements include was established now delta G equals 0 all right and therefore there is no flow of electrons and so the battery goes dead how do that is electron flow usable leader to measures that have been done a rudimentary electrochemical cell the loudly this was a good so now 1 things in the lab that you attach to set up the electrochemical cell you know what you can do is with oxidation as you set up your capital and you know you know where the reduction takes place and the hook it up to leader and you will see that reads a negative sign that means that you reverse the terminal because when you mention the voltage the wilted should always be positive all right and so when you will get up wall complete the circuit and if you see a negative sign on the wall media that means you reverse the terminals that means you not remedy and the negative terminal the cannot hold of positive terminal and therefore you have to look it up property that Nova said last week that you have to complete the survey and what they were going to use the movement of cattle and Anaheim's to complete the circuit all right and if you look at what happened is that not only are you completing the circuit and his movement of cannons and Anaheim's helped the floors current through the system but also they also helped maintain challenged balance so that we look at this side remembers ink solid is going to sink 2 plus 2 years standards it's with something that's electrically neutral and that solution you have having more and more time we will make everything in nature has to be electrically balance so following World War can finance needed continents to counterbalance the charge and so what happens is in there gel to counterbalance the extras inclines that are coming in the Anaheim stopped flowing into that solutions to balance the chart Florida and moving in and migrating to the gel they'll migrate and balance the charges well it's not only the floor of the island generators of a current and you can complete the circuit but also to help maintain challenged down down the other side cheesy that you have copper ions deposit into your copper two-plus can I'm going to something that's electrically neutral so in this solution it all you have use become neutral because you have lots of in there that don't have a calendar charge to bounce charge so that balance because that's what you lots of it's awful to minus the softened and under there on the continent becomes electrically neutral and therefore you can counterbalance those softly diamonds and so the balance the charge you have migration of potassium mines that migrate to the gel into that garden and so that describes a galvanic cell yes ahead there's something suspected right a but you need sulfates because everything in nature has to be to neutral so you can find can always has to have an online that balances the charge to to see them so begin with before any reaction takes place you have to say a number of zinc mines and the same number of sulfate ions in here and you have the same number in the solution that the initial amount of copper mines will be able to
soften the study but once the reaction starts proceeding you know that you zinc Is using metal becomes into class this solution we would have more and more cabins building up so that balance the charge the increasing number can find CD and to migrate in there the bouncer charged so you have resulted in nature you can have Caroline's without and Suzanne to take for you can't have it takes only chloride which is ironic solved you cannot have sold in cans along did you understand so unique all rights to bounce that yes since then the story Salt River on without the solvent is that when you pursuers of it without salt bridge the circuit will be complete Duracell universe already because for electrical flow your electrical circuit has to be completed right and said you can have a solid already nothing would happen because you have to have the specific completed a sir is unheard of sulfate not rich OK so we wanted an example and this particular cells is called the galvanic cell of the government itself has a particular name and this is called the Daniels said so it so we call this the Daniel so let me just say so your reactants metal and you have using zinc sulfate and copper copper sulfate is a combination of a galvanic cell has a specific name and this is called the Danielson are right now you can have different types of electoral so let's take another example so if you want to describe another example of a cell let's take another electoral so we look at electrodes and we've looked dead zinc electrode we've looked at copper electrodes directly in the Denny also the zinc electrode forms that the analyst the couple forms the capital and you have a flow of electrons apparent value can also have another electoral called the hydrogen electrode so let's take a look at what it means when we say we have a hydrogen electrode and let's say a hydrogen electrode is the capital so your height and electrode is that half those remember at the cathode his oxygen take place or reduction takes place the reduction right so the reduction reaction that you see at the Capitol will be to age plus the quest quest to electrons giving you hydrogen gas arrive and so did you wanted to set this up your age plus comes in the solution in the form of let's say 8 inquests and usually the concentration is 1 molar so you can see in this it's a strong acid associates completely sold in that solution you have for science right now ,comma the project is hydrogen so we need something where we know why To bringing electrons into memory that where the reduction takes place electrons are being pulled them so you need a flow of electrons coming into that solution and so we know where we have and American medal like that in this whole the wire as well as theirs is platinum and this is and inert metal solve the reason generators it doesn't react at all it does is just so to deliberate electrons the into the solution and you have test that looks something like this so you have a test tube which is open at 1 end like that and you have a hydrogen gas as well as a sense of what happens in the hydrogen gas comes to here and bubble out on the site since he bubbles coming out and this would be the capital of the right so if you want to look at a set of where you can hold was now hydrogen electrode This is what it would look like so here on this side we have the
analyst Indiana is a zinc electrode the catalog is a hybrid-electric so the sense of what you do is you have heightened the gas at 1 atmosphere you have 1 wall in the CEO of your platinum the platinum metal it's just use because it's an inert metal you need something to deliver the flow of electrons into that solution so that this reduction occurs and so any new material like platinum is used by writing concede novels of hydrogen gas so if you wanted to describe what's going on in this cell then you would say that can so at the end of the road you would have oxidation taking place which is the zinc solid going to sink to plus inquest plus 2 electrons at the Capitol you would have the 2 H plus minus picking up 2 electrons to give you H 2 and so you know that I hadn't equation would be where you have zinc solid plus 2 gage plus quest giving using 2 plus the quest speech to 2 days later that so the on the Net and equation that takes place In this galvanic cell In shown here and you've identified what the attitude is you identify with the Cavaliers and an army electrons have been transferred the 2 electrons being transferred in that sense of noted also have it the other way around so now let's say let's take a different cell and in the other cell let's say the oxidation so what we have is pianos it was where you have the oxidation so now let's say we have the hydrogen electrode as the entrance of the 100 elected as the end of it and have hydrogen giving you 2 h plus the quest for us to let alone this would be the oxidation and they can't go at you would have copper 2 plus equals pick up the 2 electrons to give you a copper solid the reduction so now we've looked that an example where the hydrogen electrode is the analyst another copper electrodes is the capital so we took the dental selling we took 1 half of it and replace 1 half of the hydroelectric plant at the site and you can see that the net reaction would be so the net time it equation would be where you have hydrogen gas plus copper 2 plus 2 equals giving you 2 age plus the quest plus copper solid so the overall reaction that takes place in the 2nd example where now you hybrid-electric is the and with the alternation takes place and copper is the capital then the overall reaction look like that so that this picture shows you sell so the 2 examples that we looked at here it is member usually draw this out of custom-made always McDonald's 1st in the capital 2nd here that you have the zinc electrode here and over here you have the hybrid-electric case this is the capital of annual flow of electrons in the city's completed the salt bridge now over here this is the others now you have a couple electrode which is the capital electrode is not the end to know this is where the oxidation occurs this is where electrons are being pushed out and goes around it and electrons on this side of the pool then to see so these are all examples of galvanic cells are right in a galvanic cells is electrochemical devices that takes advantage of a spontaneous reaction has to be spontaneous reaction you can have a flow of electrons to the wide are right and so dominated itself is another name for batteries there's an underlying principle for all batteries OK so now we're going to look at the last few minutes will look at what we call also notation case of this this year chemists love shorthand notations all right and so we have developed this system of notations that we used to describe itself particularly galvanic cells right so we're looking to sell notations and let's start with the Daniel we know In the Daniels set all right the reaction that we're looking at the net reaction is
that you have zinc solid plus copper two-plus plus fines giving zeng 2 plus the was copper solid so that it isn't and so this reaction we looked at the fact that the redox couples are we have the oxidised form areas of using 2 plus the question a diagonal line in zinc solid and we have copper to plus the quest copper that's the
redox couples right now everyone is described the catalog for this reaction last again it is always in alphabetical order so let's start with and not the right thing and alone and this is called the notation for for the lecturer services were looking at electrode you always write the reactants 1st and then the product and if there is a vertical line like that now it's different from
a diagonal line it's very very important that the off vertical lines and diagonal lines in a mix of the 2 I write you draw a vertical line like that it means that they the reactants and products are in 2 different phases so you have something that's dissolved in April solutions solids or the date was an aghast when the gas and liquid alright he said to different phases and what we say that there is an interface between them are right to New Haven's vertical lines there different phases or use you always let the reacted 1st anybody ,comma and end products this means the same thing all right so if I wanted to write the dead will sell my
and would be my reactants for that I never a vertical line because we're going from zinc to zinc to plus the cost alright so that describes the animals now if I wanted described the capital I would write to the reactant vertical line because again you're going from solution to a solid so there's a change in phase would be that right now I know we describe this cell so this cell so the cell notation is always an old 1st cathode last all right so this remember it as easy is always it's in alphabetical order just remember that and always comes 1st arrived and therefore I would start with the NRA members With the redox couple it's always the oxidised form diagnosis I'm reduced form we knew draw symbols of electrodes the notation it's always react 1st product and there's a phase change EPA would at the line between the affects only the by combining to this allocation which is due to start with an old and you know the handled is that of Whittaker line zinc 2 plus because now I put a double life In this double refers to the salt bridge which completes the circuit and on the other side we have the capital's reactants 1st vertical lines Friday so what the symbol conveying 2 cameos this symbol represents this picture so every time you see there that's what this picture represents sold the shorthand connotation is a very convenient way to convey everybody that symbol when I see those sets of symbol yet the men have a mental picture of undergarments looks like and so that translates to that so you know that there be a notice it has a zinc electrode dividends to last right and that it has a small bridge and on the other side you have a copper dividend cover to plus and it signifies the speeches and the
Manhattan next class I will take a few examples of writing the salutation show you how to write cell locations to describe what the gallant cell looks like something so as not to forget
Phenobarbital
Grenzfläche
Metallatom
Single electron transfer
Chemische Reaktion
Konzentrat
Hochwasser
Computeranimation
Schwerlöslicher Stoff
Hydrogensulfate
Redoxsystem
Sulfate
Kalium
Elektron <Legierung>
Symptomatologie
Oxidschicht
Zink
Gold
Elektronen-Lokalisierungs-Funktion
Kernreaktionsanalyse
Mähdrescher
Chloridion
Ionenbindung
Elektrochemisches Verfahren
Gekochter Schinken
Konservendose
Gibbs-Energie
Desublimation
Kupfersulfat <Kupfer(II)-sulfat>
Advanced glycosylation end products
Periodate
Mineralbildung
Kupfer
Chloride
Mischanlage
Disposition <Medizin>
Elektrolytische Dissoziation
Lösung
Strom
Reaktionsgleichung
Stockfisch
Wasserfall
Reduktionsmittel
Molvolumen
Elektronentransfer
Abführmittel
Weibliche Tote
Aktives Zentrum
Zinksulfat
Insel
Gen notch
Konjugate
Primärelement
Platinmetalle
Schönen
Setzen <Verfahrenstechnik>
Wirtsspezifität
Arachidonsäure
Brillenglas
CHARGE-Assoziation
Leukozytenultrafiltrat
Pharmazie
Selbstentzündung
Initiator <Chemie>
Leckage
Sauerstoffverbindungen
Mil
Phasengleichgewicht
Memory-Effekt
Kochsalz
Wasser
Aluminiumsalze
Galvanisches Element
Lot <Werkstoff>
Spezies <Chemie>
Sense
Wasserstoff
Säure
Altbier
RNS
Molekül
Einzelmolekülspektroskopie
Sonnenschutzmittel
Strippen
Reaktionsführung
Durchfluss
Topizität
Base
Kalisalze
Protonierung
Bewegung
Thermoformen
Verbrennung <Medizin>
Zellmigration
Chemische Forschung
Trennverfahren
Besprechung/Interview
Mindestzündenergie
Chemische Forschung
Oxidans
Chemische Verbindungen
Alaune
Altern
Lagergang
Injektionsapparat
Eisenherstellung
Abbruchreaktion
Linker
Phenylalanin-Ammoniumlyase
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Platin
Oxidationszahl
Tube
Hydrierung
Substrat <Boden>
Chemischer Reaktor
Querprofil
Natrium
Humifizierung
Azokupplung
Wasserstoff
Chemische Eigenschaft
Chemisches Element
Chemischer Prozess
Hydroxybuttersäure <gamma->

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Lecture 18. Electrochemistry Pt. 3.
Serientitel Chemistry 1C: General Chemistry
Teil 18
Anzahl der Teile 26
Autor Arasasingham, Ramesh D.
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 USA:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/19007
Herausgeber University of California Irvine (UCI)
Erscheinungsjahr 2013
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Chemie
Abstract UCI Chem 1C General Chemistry (Spring 2013) Lec 18. General Chemistry -- Electrochemistry -- Part 3 Instructor: Ramesh D. Arasasingham, Ph.D. Description: UCI Chem 1C is the third and final quarter of General Chemistry series and covers the following topics: equilibria, aqueous acid-base equilibria, solubility equilibria, oxidation reduction reactions, electrochemistry; kinetics; special topics. Index of Topics: 0:00:00 Review of Acidic/Basic Solutions 0:01:58 Spontaneous Electrochemistry Reactions 0:09:15 Galvanic (Voltaic) Cell 0:14:43 Example Using Batteries 0:21:53 Daniell Cell and Intro to Anode/Cathode 0:36:11 Electrodes 0:43:28 Shorthand notation for Cells

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