Logo TIB AV-Portal Logo TIB AV-Portal

Lecture 15. Aqueous Equilibria Pt. 4.

Video in TIB AV-Portal: Lecture 15. Aqueous Equilibria Pt. 4.

Formal Metadata

Lecture 15. Aqueous Equilibria Pt. 4.
Title of Series
Part Number
Number of Parts
CC Attribution - ShareAlike 3.0 USA:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor and the work or content is shared also in adapted form only under the conditions of this license.
Release Date

Content Metadata

Subject Area
UCI Chem 1C General Chemistry (Spring 2013) Lec 14. General Chemistry -- Aqueous Equilibria -- Part 4 Instructor: Ramesh D. Arasasingham, Ph.D. Description: UCI Chem 1C is the third and final quarter of General Chemistry series and covers the following topics: equilibria, aqueous acid-base equilibria, solubility equilibria, oxidation reduction reactions, electrochemistry; kinetics; special topics. Index of Topics: 0:00:00 Common Ion Effect Review 0:01:45 Finding Solubility of Compound Given Ksp 0:09:05 Effect of pH on Solubility 0:16:52 Solubility of Metal Salts of the Conjugate Bases of Weak Acids 0:20:05 Solubility of Metal Salts of the Conjugate Bases of Strong Acids 0:23:32 Finding Solubility of Compound in Buffered Solution 0:38:15 Electrochemistry 0:42:52 Oxidation Reduction Reactions
systems Meeting/Interview factors concentration Common Topic basic solutions Löslichkeit OH- end chemical
sense NaCl Bohr Aspartate transaminase chloride case chemical man Zeitverschiebung cake Magnetometer overexpression molar Common Methylmalonyl-CoA-Mutase Löslichkeit sore Einschlüssen Soluble Salts Laxative silver Kir concentration association Grus Topic Ethylen-Vinylacetat-Copolymere Katalase solutions chemische Reaktion systems Silver chloride Natrium Computer animation initial orders of magnitude Gamma Dielectric spectroscopy calculations Converter
transition metal Bohr meat media chloride Memorial Thrombospondin cake Altbier Zinc hydroxide Methylmalonyl-CoA-Mutase Löslichkeit Medroxyprogesterone Soluble Salts Calcium concentration Gases Florence Topic Katalase solutions chemische Reaktion OH- firm van Säuren Zink Gamma Kunststoffe compounds Hab pH 7 informatics sodium hydride Graukäse Polyurethane Weak Oxidationsstufen HCl Calcium fluoride hydroxyl groups case titration man fluoride originators islands age Magnetometer temperatures overexpression Redoxreaktion soil tool level conjugate Oceanic basin metals burning balance buffer charge water Computer animation initial function Iron salts Zigarre basic den ammonia
power Polyurethane Arginine concentration solutions Californium OH- man water van flow Computer animation Peroxyacetylnitrat overexpression Iron standards Can (band) scale Löslichkeit calculations
antigenic precipitation factors Bohr electron donor Primärer Sektor hydroxyl groups Thrombospondin case beam chemical man VSEPR islands electron Magnetometer Common Redoxreaktion Magma tool electron transfer Inneren Löslichkeit period Perm (hairstyle) reactor type Kir power concentration rates Maische Soma Topic proton chemische Reaktion solutions end water van Säuren Gamma Iron basic mixing History stuff
left Oxidationsstufen electron donor media Memorial set proton chemische Reaktion case chemical end man systems Säuren Computer animation electron Peroxyacetylnitrat stone Redoxreaktion electron transfer basic oxygen processes
OK I'm let's go and start does anybody have any questions before I began on the game plan today is to complete this topic and the want to next topic which is electric chemistry and paid to guys remember the last time at the end of class we looked at the common I'm effect and simply was ,comma knighted factor is the application of the Japanese principle and we said when take an equilibrium and had a common environment that is common to that equilibrium the way the system response is called ,comma 9 effect what we dealt with the African bases the common that affected the pH so you could see how change the during my concentration for the hydroxide and concentration and how that affected but um repeated that solutions when we deal with solubility products are concerned now is looking at solubility and so we look at how the common I'm effect affects solemn ability so at the end
class last time I ask you to take a look at this problem and I ask you to try this out as a whole and so let's very quickly go to the solution of this problem solved if you you acid-base chemistry In this problem should be pretty straightforward because what we have is that we have still look and when adding sodium chloride in addition to that so we know that we are adding sodium chloride therefore it is a common the fact a case so if we take sodium chloride sodium chloride is a soluble salt and we know instantly to dissolve said that is going to give me an a plus plus C AA-minus and because of the
volume does not change the total volume does not change we know that the concentration of sodium minds would be . 1 more lap and the concentration of the sodium chloride ions would be . 1 molar because it associates completely if his salary point 1 will ACL Wade Associates we know that this is going to be the concentration of the Cat Island Indiana now this is a common I'm chloride is the common I'm cauldron that we're interested in looking at of course is a G C L and this establishes this equilibrium and we know that has equals 1 . 6 times 10 to the negative to an answer to begin with we have sodium chloride contributing chloride ions and so now we need to look at the initial concentrations and senses a Pacific-10 we don't need to concern ourselves with the concentration of AG CEO we have 0 to begin with but over here because we started with sodium chloride as well as we know the concentration of the chloride .period 1 never looking at the change we know that the reaction has to take place in the forward direction there for this would be plus that this would be plus that were not really concerned about the reactant because it doesn't appear in expression and solid equilibrium we know this would be an ax and this would be 1 loss excess OK so now we need to solve acts so we know that the SPD is 1 . 6 times 10 to the negative 10 and we know that equals the silver ion concentration times the chloride and concentration is x times . 1 0 0 plus yet now at this point we ask itself can make an approximation remittances tend to the negative 10 so that's a really small numbers so we know that access to be with small compared to this number and therefore we can make an approximation an approximation is going to be that X is going be so small compared to point 1 that we can actually neglected a case so it in the back and we can say now that 1 . 6 times and the negative 10 equals X times .period 1 of the 4 x equals 1 . 6 times 10 to the negative 9 malls for the leaders OK and memo were asked calculators were asked to calculate the solubility of pain and so once calculated acts I will quickly checked validity and you can see that the validity comes out to be a really small number it comes out to something like 10 to the negative 6 per cent so you know the approximation is pretty good and cake and now we can say their solubility equals X which is 1 . 6 times tend the negative 9 more alert this is they haven't asked us to calculate GM solubility OK so don't ask you you don't need to calculated that if you did calculate grand solubility he will take the all solubility which is 1 . 6 times since the negative 9 moles per liter Eleanor convertibles to GM that means I need to multiply by the mall which is 143 . 3 grams of silver chloride 3 mold and so the cat GM solubility that comes out to be 2 . 3 times tend to the negative 7 grams per liter silver chloride right so it's smaller solid wood that its GM soluble grouping that no 1 of the things that we predicted whereas effect of adding a common line is that the solubility decreases because we know we had a common like all right now we know the system is gonna respond by moving which the reverse direction of shifting to the left and so it happened this solubility decreases knowing that she checked out because members we 1st started looking at solubility if you remember we calculated the solubility facility chloride so if I didn't have a common I'm in this to be X X and therefore the EC squared and you can solve their and therefore you Morla solubility comes out to be 1 . 3 times tend to make fight so in the absence of adding the common out solubility is 1 . 3 times tend to make the fight if you add sodium chloride now it becomes 1 . 6 times 10 to the negative 9 we see that 2 numbers are right so you would have put their side by side you can see that molars the solubility you can compare these 2 numbers if you want a complex grant soluble you can compare these 2 numbers not all of you look at the differences is approximately 10 thousand to see the difference between the 2 numbers is approximately 10 thousand or 4 orders of magnitude to see that so the addition of sodium chloride actually decreases the soluble you can see that approximately it decreases solubility from this number to this number and about a 10 that thousand fold decrease in solubility you see that and that is the effect of adding the common I'm thinking clearly see that he had a common not a solid with his goddamn are right and that is an illustration of becoming an infected effective adding a common 9 to that system look at the last minute did you have a question the last topic that when looking here is we're going to look at the effects of pH on solubility in the case of the last topic I wouldn't look at it is the effects of pH on solubility itself In fact of th on solubility so pH can the fact that the solubility of assault so it
turns out it depends are sometimes it does sometimes it doesn't and will examples where the pH effects solubility the 1st class of compounds will look at is solubility of metal hydroxide but all right now it turns out the solubility of metal hydroxide are affected by pH all right so the solubility of metal hydroxide so are affected by pH soliciting example a metal hydroxide is 1 that has a metal cat irons and hydroxide Allianz as the Anaheim interview takes something like zinc hydroxide this it is an insoluble salt in memory said you look at the quite sure can look at solubility rules and you know that the only way hydroxide that Dole that do dissolve a group 1 that lines in ammonia minds are right most of the hydroxide I insoluble so if you take zinc hydroxide and you establishes equilibrium where you have zinc to plus plastic was forced to call which minus request and if this has accused me of 1 . 2 times 10 to the negative 17 you take another hydroxide like iron hydroxide now this will establish an equilibrium said that 3 hydroxide attached to the science Award is the oxidation state or what is the charge and that I three-plus alright so this would be mine 3 plus and we have to be hydroxide to Member equations have to be balanced so the 3 hydroxide so bouncer charged in the Three Lions and kissed the 4 there's there's 4 . 1 times 10 to the negative 38 so you can see both of these cases the values are really really small and that means these are insoluble salts are right that take both of these you can see that 1 of the islands that performance hydroxide alright so let's look at it the fact what happens if you change the future of the solution obtained so let's say P H is greater than 7 in other words we have basic solution now the basic solution remember what is it when our solution is basically that means hydroxide I'm alright a pH is greater than 7 means the hot oxidized City Museum origin hydroxide and valuable ,comma 9 affect what happens the solubility Sunderland decreases by so there is there are 4 which minus science solubility of the salt decreases are right now while the pH is less than 7 Nigerian acidic solutions so I went into this says you keep it in a buffet so let's say you changed appeared to that solutions so that it's not that basic and what happens is replacing a buffer that basic soluble it's going to go down OK compared to neutral solutions during the year pure water and compare that with the basic solutions you know the Solomons and as you keep increasing the pH of the soil that will increase even more take note you put it in the Senate solutions now it happens it that In acidic solution but we would have this that succinct hydroxide sit have zinc hydroxide given in equilibrium with zinc to plus request was to go which minus but acidic solutions of this hydroxide will react with the had drawn mind to give you what actions the react sustaining give you 2 H 2 0 so what happens is this hydroxide is now essentially being removed from the solution sickened you see that In the hydroxide reacted had to remind us the net result is that the hydroxide is being removed from that solution so how was this equipment response is going to move in that direction so can you see that in acidic solutions solubility increases so I wanted a hydroxide to dissolve it I make a solution is sending my my metal hydroxide will dissolve see that if I don't want my metal hydroxide to dissolve but make the solution bases it makes it more insoluble to see that so in the laboratory we can actually use pH to control whether we want a metal hydroxide to dissolve aware that we don't want to dissolve and wanted to precipitate a case of this is a tool that we take advantage in the laboratory and by adjusting the pH you can control the solubility that member we need some experiments in the laboratory sometimes your substance does not dissolve our right and titration for example it means that you have to make a substance dissolved 1 way to make it is ordered to raise the temperature rise and so by raising and heating up and stirring it up you can you can make this all another way to make a substance that's very difficult dissolve it's a chance conjecture Our I didn't make that solution acidic of basic he doesn't work for every example where you can see it works very well 4 metal hydroxide gave notice that it will removed and so that's how metal hydroxide affected by pH the 2nd class would look at it as solubility all of um metal salts solubility of metal salt of the conjugate the cities of weak acids riots in Alabama look at Richard hydroxide as 1 example now relative examples of 100 pieces of meat gasses so an example of this would be be something like C E F 2 rights if you take calcium fluoride this is an insoluble substances and equilibrium that you would establish be calcium giving you 2 F minus energy take the kids fear that its 3 . 9 cent KSB equals 3 . 9 times 10 to the next level so we know this is insoluble salts but if you take the analyze it the United F minus and if you take it the and I this is the conjugate base of the week after the checked so that we gas it's a country is weak acid before this would be a weak base to see that that would take this substance and places the water is you in pH is greater than 7 in other words at the solution is basic solubility is not affected are to be put this basic solution with the others hydroxide and so would you end up with visitors hydroxide and fluoride ions are either not competing with each other and so on it doesn't affect the people that much of it the solubility of calcium fluoride is in effect the side with accounts of Florence but make a solution is set in the pH is less than 17 now it's acidic what happens
there's that the F minus is a we base and an acidic solution is going to combine member this is an acid in large amounts cannot coexist and so this will give you HF plus H 2 0 right so you can see that in this case because you have this reaction taking place yeah center removing the fluoride ions from the solution therefore solubility increases right so you take the ,comma assaults that have conjugate Jesus of media acid right we know that in basic solution soluble is unaffected solutions solubility increases are right because the F minus is the conjugate base of a lead-acid with victory in my career I see that the between these 2 you have enough minus an an agent a weak acid prefers to be a chair rather than F minus from almost 99 . 9 per cent 1 of the age of on small amount would be minor so what happens actor with 192 again now that 3rd scenario it isn't solubility of metal salts of the conjugate bases have strong acids right and so here you would have something like so an example would be a AGC chloride iron is the conjugate base of a strong acids right said I chloride ions the equilibrium and re-establish would be theirs and kissed his 1 . 6 times 10 tonight at 10 all right again if pH is greater than 7 solution is basic solubility it not affected cake if you take pH less than 7 in other words the solution is the same as in this case solubility it is not affected said you take the view takes also where the Anaheim is the conjugate base of a strong acid it's not affected by pH you the acidic solution or basic solution and the reason is that in the case of this yeah hydroxide you know that the presence of hydroxide is not in effect but if it's acidic you know that you have high joining mine plus minors now because there is a strong acids and because the online as is an extremely weak based solely remember it can act as a base in water to mediate minus it's not acting as a basin water waters astronomy dismember the country the conjugate the base of a strong acid is so weak that it can act as a basin water so what happens is that you won't have this reaction taking place so you won't have this reacting with best to give you HCl plus each 2 that will not take place all right because this is a strong acid and you can think of it as a strong acid prefers to be dissociated rather associated with all of you can say that in Llodra sealed minus can act as a beach water because water is a stronger base right so you can have this acid-base reaction taking place right and therefore you take the the conjugate base of a strong acid it's not be affected by acidic solutions to desert them so now at stake is applied in a problem cases usually able to predict the solubility facts depending on whether it's a metal hydroxide with assault is the conjugate base of a weak acid or with the solved is the conjugate base of a strong acid look at so now this work that last problem in that were achieved before we move onto the next topic came and I want to come point out some things because now I'm just thinking should be much more sophisticated so I want to do a lot for small details as well because now we need to look at this topic for over a month right and you know every aspect of equal with that takes place in what the kids let's take a look at this 1 will be an iron hydroxide said compute solubility of iron hydroxide and pure water and compare it with the solution buffet at pH level attained so when it 1st started out writing the column expression so let's start with the party pure water and Jake said you take iron hydroxide equilibrium that you will establish that this is the solid is giving you and 3 plus the quarters plus 3 voyage minus 8 players and we know TSP equals 4 times 10 to the negative 38 is there a important that you were able to the balanced equation for these cases you don't get any brownie points on exam if you right the wrong balanced equation you don't get any points that clear and so you when you write this balance equations you have to make sure they have charged balance you know with the charge of the cat is very often remember a transition metal returned the counter and to figure it out it it's Group 1 of you to you can look at the group number infidelity opposition status the 1 of the 1 if it's in group to it's a B-plus 2 and then we will want to transition metals and you move along and then you go on to heavier medals on the other side not all of those have variable charges are right and so it's something of a variable charge then you have to turn to the counter and to figure out what that charges going to be so you declined over here I'm the transition metal so I can have a plus-one oxidation number oxidation state we can have plus 2 you can have a plus 3 beginner class for Internet plus 5 meeting with 6 all right so the land don't want the charge on at all what the oxidation state is then what you need to do is turn counteract the camera this hydroxide victory hydroxide to negative charges to all the charges now I want to pay attention to the case the it's tend to the negative 38 that's who really really small numbers are right so now because we're dealing with the wet kiss his there will be small RI right you you'll get W. all your devices kW tend to make the 14 so this number is much much smaller than kW and the reason taking this example is that now because this case is so small that means the amount of iron and hydroxide is going to be with you will be small all right for a value this small you cannot call you cannot ignore the hydroxyl lines that come from pure water what is a concentration of hydroxide and pure water tend to the negative 7 so now we're looking at example now when walking in most other examples when we looked at K is remember the K values the smallest value of in in water has to be tend to make the 14 which is what you understand so it is so weak we always deal with it it's going act acid in water that substance will always have a k a value greater than kW to see that and therefore we always ignored in all those examples because the concentrations that we started with high concentrations we always ignores the contribution that comes from water in the background water is always there all right in this case because the SPD is enormously small detonated 38 all right with a small and kw you can see that we can no longer ignore the contribution that comes from water so here when I look at my initial concentrations Mehmet is a solid does not
appear in Iqlim expression before anything happens we know that the background Walter has a concentration of 1 times 1587 hydroxide so the reason I'm taking this example is and now pointing an example where you cannot ignore background water in the contribution to the background water-makes because now that the scale at which we're looking at is even less than 10 tonight except at the because his the his tend to make the so now I can say the change would be we're not interested in that is a B plus X what would that turned out to be plus 6 plus 3 it's OK great and then at equilibrium I know this would be that this would be 1 times 10 to the negative 7 plus
reacts right now in reality all the examples that we took we should write it like that because this tendinitis 7 is so small we don't even consider it because that number is so small it doesn't make any difference to the overall calculation but none KSB calls for times tend to native 38 which equals the concentration of mine 3 plus concentration of hydroxide taking the power 3 which is X times 1 times 7 plus 3 acts this whole thing taken to the power of 3 arrive soon and say that I need to make an approximation but now this is where you you should be considered X to be small right now here is an example where access is not small some observers this act is going to be really small compared to the number see there are usually but we always took the approximations of so let's take a look at it so what we're saying is the window this number is really really small we're going to say that this number is really really big compared to 3 acts and therefore we're going to say that 1 time stint the negative 7 plus 3 acts will approximate to 1 times 10 to native sat right now undergo back received 4 times tend to native 38 equals X times 1 times 10 to negative 7 taking the power 3 so X turns out to be a this is 21 so you're to just do the math and so that will come out to be tend to the negative 7 moles per liter all right they wanted Catholic solubility sell solubility would be 4 times 10 to the negative 7 moles per liter all right so in this instance very pure water that soluble and would be 9 the 2nd part we're going to make the solution based us and I wouldn't change the picture that solutions are right and what they tell us is that the pH now lover so remember the physical it's the hydroxide that we're interested in all right because we want to know now it's iron hydroxide and soluble the line had offices in the affected by the hydroxide concentration soaking everything that you must create only really want is feel wage and out the 3 and appeal wages 3 what is the hydroxide and concentration Florida so this goes to 2 decimal standards you my number 2 2 significant figures so I quickly calculated the hydroxide and concentration knowing returned to my equilibrium which is iron hydroxide and this is my equilibrium expression and I know kissing his 4 times 10 to the negative 38 all right so my initial concentrations would be so do understand now the only difference here is we were previously we were until water where the controversial hydroxide stint 97 now we would just the pH of the the pH is not one-time stand on the pitcher's love and evacuate the hydroxide and concentration we 1 times 10 to make it 3 so now when I look at my initial concentrations once again I'm not interested in the concentration of the solid this'll be 0 before anything happens the concentration of hydroxide be that therefore might change would be X plus X plus 3 x therefore at equilibrium I know that this would be axed this would be 1 times sending 3 plus 3 x all right now once again we go to the same routine OK
so now we're going to save KSB equals concentration of the island's three-plus times which minus taken to the power 3 witches X times 1 times 10 tonight at 3 plus 3 acts the whole thing taken too far out to lead and that we know that since KSB such a tiny number we know 3 axes that we really small so we know that this tendinitis 3 has to be much much bigger than 3 acts and therefore we can say that 1 time Stenson 83 plus 3 acts should approximate to 1 times 10 to negate therefore KSB equals 4 times Stanton added 38 equals a X times 1 times 10 to make it 3 2 to solve for acts that comes out to be 4 times this is 9 so it this will come out to be tend to the negative 29 most privileges so solubility now becomes 4 times 10 to the 20th 9 miles per liter itself this is an example of the common items that we've changed the pH of the solution we made solution basic so will increase the hydroxyl concentrations and therefore we would expect the solubility decrease our right and let's see where that wouldn't happen so once again if you compare that to solubility and you can see until water it's time to the negative 17 now we change the pH to 211 so you make that solution substantially bases all right then you can see the solubility goes down to tend to the negative 29 iron and therefore you can see that by making the solution based now the solubility has decreased is that clear now there are 2 new textbook they talk about how In a laboratory this is a very important tool because you can play around the pH and you make you can make something all or you can make something become insoluble so you can make a precipitate out and you can filter out and try and sell you can play around with the solubility and and pH to adjust for solubility and yes this the it OK so that's a good question because of worries that cut off .period because you know when you need to consider background water and when you don't you are right on that's a tough call usually you don't tend to negative 14 a factor of about 100 on the side you can make that approximations are right so if you give your are on TSP is of the order of 10 to the negative 14 to tend to then you can assume that you cannot ignore water contribution of water is not very great so tender native 14 loss mine as a factor of 100 or so tender native 14 to 16 on 1 side and on the other side you understand that OK Beyond that you actually have to do it make approximation check the validity humility doesn't work out you know that you made the wrong approximation face yes there was also yes that's a mix of Atlanta stopped today you know I was pushed us back page just try to get the solubility homework done so what are the any other questions before and won the next topic which actually is is a topic that he wears a pair greater itself so in in the home and that's due tomorrow there are lots of examples of solid products and common idea attack that I would like to work out now are actually ready to move on to the next topic which is this looking at lecturer chemistry so look at Chapter 13 and look bad lecturer chemistry are right now chemistry deals with oxidation reduction reactions are either so what we would start work at electric chemistry in detail we need to understand the full always sad-looking electrical history need to understand what it means when we say it can oxidation reduction reactions many of you may have seen this in high school already but it turns out you you take all the reactions better known virtually all of the reaction is that we know to date it turns out these reactions can be placed in 3 categories are right so all chemical reactions can be categorized into 3 classes of reactions the 1st class of reactions are called acid base reactions and as all of you know acid-base reactions involved proton transfer of so
you know that we need the lead-acid based reactions you have an acid which is the proton donor Yemen-based which is a proton accepted and when acid reacts the basis center what happens is a proton is transferred from 1 to the other and we call proton transfer reactions so what you have to be able to do is look at the 2 reactants and you know it is look at the reactants and look at the product and you see that as a proton beam transfer you know it has to be an these reactions are 1 reactant a proton is mistranslation of 1 reacted to another you know they tenacity this reaction the 2nd half of reactions are the ones that we we've looked at also in these are called precipitation reactions right these involve the formation of precipitates and so we said take to substance that are completely soluble and combine them and you end up with something that's insoluble we call that a precipitation reactions so the Southern classic reactions of where you start with reactors that are completely soluble and you combine them and you end up with something that's insoluble OK and how do you know whether something is soluble insoluble you have to keep the solubility rules can be with you as you look at it to figure it out again but don't class of reactions are the oxidation reduction reactions and that a woman look at today so the 3rd class of reactions are called oxidation reduction reactions and these involved electron transfer right so when you deal with that oxidation reduction reactions it was what you are looking at is electrons being transferred from 1 substance to another so 1 substance gives off electrons and recall that electron donors and the other substances picks up electrons and that's electronics sector In the end result is that electrons have been transferred it turns out virtually all the known chemical reactions can be placed in the middle all in 1 of these categories are right and the 1 that has the most abundant examples the majority of the reactions actually fall in the latter category the majority reactions actually oxidation reduction reactions so little about the 3rd class of reactions and will get some very fundamental background stuff that you need to know about oxidation reduction reactions before we actually start looking at like to chemistry itself so organized that looking at oxidation reduction reactions and and wouldn't you so little at oxidation reduction reactions and start looking at some basic definitions are right so the 1st thing is that these these reactions involved the transfer of electrons arrived and so because they involve transfer electrons will defined some terms meant start by saying oxidation This is the chemical a substance that moves electrons is called that same let me rephrase justices and some very good so that the chemical reaction in which a substance loses electrons is called oxidation rate so if you want to redefine lists let me write that clears the agency cases I wanna say oxidation oxidation the chemical reaction in which 8 substance loses electrons is called oxidation right and the 2nd part is reduction so a reduction would be the chemical reaction in which a substance gains electrons it is
called me the reduction of right no this is very similar to acid-base chemistry memories said after this chemistry most proton transfer so 1 substance use electrons and substances called the acid the other substance picks up the the protocols call that the bees and when the proton gets transferred from the acid to the base unit of the necessities reaction likewise when you deal with and oxidation reduction reactions 1 substance gives of 1 or more electrons are right and electrons and given off we call that nation's so so oxidation is Electron lost when the process involves the loss of electrons in oxidation stone just like memory we said in acid is a proton donors a basis a proton accepted there was a oxidation is electron lost reduction is worked on the case reduction is electron game right now the substance that loses electrons the substance that electrons are right in other words the 1 undergoing oxidation is called for these reducing agent and the substance that gains electrons In other words there 1 undergoing reduction is called the oxidizing agent so these actions that I want to be familiar with so oxygen reduction real reactions involved electron transfer so 1 reactant will devolve electrons if it loses electrons we recorded oxidation the other services will pick up electrons and it picks up electrons then we say it's undergoing a reduction in the substance that undergoes oxidation is called a reducing agent he undergoes oxidation but is in the Internet from responsible for producing the other jurors Senate so that 1 undergoing observation is that reducing agent and the 1 that's undergoing the reduction because this is the 1 that undergoing reduction but it is the 1 that's responsible but the other 1 undergoing oxidation you understand this is going undergoing reduction is the other 1 that's being oxidized Plowright and so this is the agent that optimizes the others so it's undergoing reduction it is the oxidizing agent OK know what you want to keep in mind is just like a proton transfer you have to have a substance giving up protons and have another substance picking it up that's how you can interpret on transfer likewise when you have oxidation reduction reactions you have to have both of them together you have to have 1 substance giving up electrons that stage oxidation but yet another substance there to pick up electrons to see that so often reduction go hand in hand can have a separate you have to have 1 substance giving of electrons in Europe have the other substances picking up lecture the problem it has with acid-base reactions it's easy to look at that formulas and say all this is missing 1 proton this has picked up a proton so you can look at it and say it all this is the acid this is the base unfortunate and oxidation reduction reactions we write balanced equations do have electrons they're not so when you when you see oxidation reduction reactions is not directly apparent when electrons are being transferred within 1 substance losing electrons and their mothers have since the beginning of electrons are right so in order to figure out with electrons are being lost or gained all who's losing electrons who was picking up like chance we have a set of rules that we use and this is called rules for assigning oxidation numbers so we have a system of rules but keeping track of electron someone to figure out how many electrons at its start when and how electrons does end up with is losing electrons or gaining electrons sold for the next class I have other past website I think the rules for assigning oxidation numbers and the
media has got some exercises to figuring out whether something is losing electrons from gaining 1 right to left office today