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# Lecture 04. Acids and Bases. Pt. 1.

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#### Automatisierte Medienanalyse

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OK ,comma let's go in and start does anybody have any questions before it begins so I want to remind everybody that members last class I talked about the 5 minutes of a variety that is already in you probably got an e-mail yesterday and so you have a time window to complete and so please make sure that you take the time to complete the survey right OK so you don't have any questions that we can we talk about last time the guys remember the last time
we looked at the fact that pH the also of minus slots at the height during your mind concentration so we said because the concentrations of hydrogen minds can extend a World Wide range is convenient for us to compress that range to wear to a scale that is more comprehensible to art and the way we do that is by taking the log are right to be converted to a large-scale now in this equation and this will his Pete the minus long out of some quantity and so just as we can write candidates we can say he always which equals the
miners log of the hydroxide and concentration and we can say save PKW is minus log at TWA said he would take a miner's lot quantity there was quite a little history in front of our eyes and ears last time we looked at the fact that kW this is the iron product constant of water and we kW is defined as
the High junior my concentration times the hydroxide and concentration so I take this equation abiding each 1 of those quantities and take a negative log of abiding kW that would be negative log kW and as all of you know invite an operation on the left-hand side I need to do the same operation on the right-hand side Sunderland taken during a mine and that would be the negative log of joining in mind and now multiplying this but we got the logarithmic scale you know that becomes a positive in take apply the same operation to the hydroxide I'm going to be negative log Our hydroxide and concentration and we know that negative lot TW would give me PKW to locates the equals this would be pH plus peel wage all right and that we know that she had W is a constant and 25 results is what is the value of kW it 1 time Cincinnati 14 so I conveyed that PKW it'll be the negative log of 1 times 10 to the negative 14 which gives me In this case is going to 362 number delving 14 are going 3 dB so picky about the 40 so the bottom line is that if he didn't lose 14 we know that th 1st hero wage should equal 14 all right so it appeared to the solution is 1 where that tell me about your weight extracted the 13 to the Cabinet PHS a solution to the to the new the purity test the 12 think so that's easily figures like his remembering that no at the end of last last time we started looking at asset in greater detail you guys remember we said we were going to start looking at acids and bases in greater detail and so we said wouldn't look at passes and we said what defines an acid is that but we can consider it and it was solution is acidic if it contains any High junior mines Over hydroxide In other words a solution acts as an asset is so in other words we can say hi to undermine concentration is greater In the hydroxide and concentration because we know the solution is neutral in the concentration of St. members to take your water pure water is neutral because the during my concentration equals the hydroxide concentration interval the concentration is equal to each other it would be neutral a solution is essential if it contains greater amount 100 new mines will were hydroxide cares about what an acid and we said he'd take acid passengers can be strong for we all right and we look at strong acids last time so they can be the strong acids all week acids and so we take a strong acid and we strong acids we said last time 1 of the things that characterize the strong acid is that in strong acids key is greater In 1 so you you again that acid dissociation constant aid and the case is greater than 1 then we now that is a strong acid to we that strong acids dissociate right for these 2 words are interchangeable so I want to get used to the other terms or finance so associate or ionizing the same things are selling strong acids dissociated or find that is completely now the words of looking at Senate they completely it's almost 100 per cent that would characterize as strong as right it's a strong acid because associates completely and produces an enormous amount of hydrogen lines and that's because it produces an enormous amount of money mine we consider that to be a strong acid so an example of a strong acid we said last time was hydrochloric acid rain in Seattle is hydrochloric acid and if you want show that is a strong asset then we need to write remember we're looking at acid-base equilibrium so we need to look at equilibrium that established when an ACL is placed in water so if you take hydrochloric acid and place it in water equilibrium that will be established were being which are 2nd you tell me what we put on the product sites and you have to be able to write these equilibrium expressions and so what would put on the front side hidden assets so what is an acid produced it's due plus plus mind Coliseum so I call until the acid soil with a policy on mine this babies but because they're contradict 1 another collectivity conjugate base all right so that means that the CIA in water will give me High junior miner plus CEO minus which is the conjugal this an over here I would write down the equilibrium constant which is the acid dissociation constant and that roughly 10 to the power itself to its enormous number and is called life it's called that acid dissociation constant and sometimes you will see some people use the term acid ionization constant the book mean the same thing alright in some textbooks in your text
but the hydroxide and concentration is and I know he'll wait With miners log the hydroxide and concentration which is mine log of 1 times 10 to the negative effect and therefore you know that it's 1 times in a number of adjusting to be anywhere today so that cannot be the team right all you know you know it created you know that feeling is PKW minus create which is 14 minus 1 which gives me creativity work this out in many different ways so you can neither you know the 109 concentration camp about the the hydroxyl concentrations and they've taken lot of that together with your wages on this is that it's much faster you just take the pH and subtracted from 14 and that would give me the same numbers were art so another example of a strong acid would be recorded assets take for chlorine gas this is a formula colleague accent and so the equilibrium that would be established here would be 8 3 0 plus the quest for us C L 4 minus the all right and where we can tell that is a strong acid because it is roughly somewhat similar to 8 Seattle once again this is a strong accent and it is a strong acid then we know that if you start with To begin with if I have 1 chlorine gas and I know that in Calabria some naturalist doubt the change because I know he's a strong acids dissociate completely so this is going to go to 0 and all of this weekend where 2 1 molar and each your class and 1 molar a seal for minors all right so this is once again a strong acid we know strong acids have carried greater than 1 and associates completely right so we know how that the head during a mine concentration the also finish of concentration of chlorine gas said which is 1 more this is 1 molar we know that pH equals 0 are so I want to remind you that th 0 In the held have negative number right so what that means is that it is 0 it has a negative number means it's got to have a really high journeyman concentration by self-created is 0 and the pH is 0 interconnected Canadian model that to 0 what will PPO which amount to be foot I'm so this way you should be able to do these calculations very fast to figure out what appeared to be a strong acid is but a high journeyman concentration as strong as it is and what is the hydroxide iron concentration in all which mines are known it turns out that it's going to be hard for you given the formula to figure out whether strong acid or we gasses and and so what I have done as you have noticed on the class website plays a that have acid association constants are at the center where it is that when you look at this list at all I want to look at it the combination South here is the acid form let me everything into this as a conduit acid pair sold in HIV acid you can see that its conjugate base should be I'm online In all the years we must sit out the are right and it's enlisted out so that became values decrease as you go down to the values of the gets smaller and smaller and smaller and so will be here this is trying to undermine selenium continent acid here is junior mind and water became a valuable hydrogen mind is 1 so the ending of world outside highlighted that we all and everything about that will have actually a value greater than 1 all right and so they have a k a value greater than 1 then you know that all of those assets will behave as a strong acid water so what does it mean when say it's a strong acids an associate completely there were going to look at those that have values will relocate 1 cables 1 and those are the ones that are as weak as they don't associate completely and therefore they call we cast right now what color this it's hard for you to see the colors here but I would like you to print this out at home and keep this review because later will look at and then asking the ranging acids all right so you rank the strong acid you see that these are all strong these all colored in red but given the rank university that hydrochloric acid
is this they're both strong acids hydrochloric acid in Niger strong acids but hydrochloric acid a stronger acid the 900 guests you see them or it take high-priority all right and hydrochloric acid both of these are strong acids but between them and you can see that is a strong message than I conclude that the right to be after rank acids in order of the city then you would use the case values to rank them right and remember who can take the minute lot of if I take the negative log of the game went and that with is thinking and so the use of the rankings in terms of picking as well right so we looked at strong acid is going to look at weak acids are so she strong acids are characterized by 2 important features and 1 of the most important features strong acids have you identify strong acid because you know that there is really no different formulas and the only way that you we give current knowledge can identify strong acid is to look at what stage apparently came to be given to you in the and once you can identified as strong as it once you know the strong acid whilst you know it and Associates completely to remember those who think they should be attractive I understand the behavior of strong acid innocent thing would we get so you take a weak acid all right and In we gasses 2 is less than a right now gave less than 1 million people relies on the reactants sites in other words an equivalent established it less than 1 you know that you're going have lots of reactants and very little product right so now the racial products 2 reactants has changed you have more reactants less products and that's why it's in the gasses and to me gasses and Associates only partially so strong acid associated completely recast its associated partial right so we take an example of a lead acid acetic acid is a weak gas arrived how you know it's a weak acid you know you look at Decatur city Gas said it would be 1 . 7 6 times 10 to the negative 5 malls pollutant all right so unlike having a huge number liked in the past 7 now we have a really small number that is tend to make the fight and you know while a small value for the Indians who know that McCain the equipment constant any :colon constant is only a small number it's much smaller than 1 was that tell you they can have lots of fun reacted reactants and very little products being formed so the mixture equilibrium will have lots of and reacted reactants and their products right now to take acidic gasses and look at its structure you can see that acidic gasses actually has 4 hydrogen are right and number last quarter we looked at what the law structure of acidic gasses and in fact the final exam last quarter and you to draw the Lewis structure and prevent some of its properties based on instruction all right and if you draw the Lewis structure for city gas and this is what it looks like right now if you look at the structure was gasoline see that actually has 4 hydrogen is in that Peru mightily last time that just because a molecule has a hydrogen doesn't mean it's going to be associated with you in class all right it turns out that in the city gas these 3 hydrogen is a very different from the hydrogen attached to that oxygen this hydrogen is the 1 that we're interested and we call them but sociable protesters in other words it's the sociable because the lottery and dissociate can associate come apart right and to recall that at social work time or we also College in the city Proton because that's the only 1 that can actually come off to give you junior mine are these 3 hydrogen as cannot dissociate alright so the properties of the other 3 harvests a very big difference and not every molecule that has a hydrogen atom will dissociate to give you inner-city parochial all right and so it turns out it is only this hydrogen that come off and once this kind comes so we call the acidic acid and he wanted to to use the generic
in other words what that means is that hydroxide Island is a greater amount than her junior minds and that's what that solution is basically a right just like acid bases can be strong bases for really the basis of gave same will and so on "quotation mark would have strong bases and fighting a strong once again and we can say then strong bases now only human assets the confidence that we deal with is acid dissociation constant came when we deal with bases what is a constant that deal with the association constant which is key so this inherent in strongly says KB is greater than 1 right 2 Strong Mason the associated or finalized completely an almost 100 per cent writer and so an example of a strong base and give you 2 examples of a strong base 1 strong base the image to
minus right and another strong base would be on India architects that says so the 2 examples of astronomy is and was stopped
after today the next time will take the same examples and figure out how to figure out the hydroxide and conservation of based on that the only each time that you might suppose that there
Chemische Forschung
Anomalie <Medizin>
Krankengeschichte
Mineralbildung
Dacron
Hydrierung
Eisenherstellung
Gletscherzunge
Hydroxide
Konzentrat
Wasser
Zunderbeständigkeit
Mineralbildung
Matrix <Biologie>
Saurer Boden
Malz
Wässrige Lösung
Verrottung
Kochsalz
Konzentrat
Hydroxide
Wasser
Uranhexafluorid
Elektrolytische Dissoziation
Lösung
Schwache Säure
Computeranimation
LSD
Neutrale Lösung
Wildbach
Sammler <Technik>
Elektronegativität
Molekül
Operon
Zunderbeständigkeit
Aktives Zentrum
Konjugate
Zelle
Aktivierung <Physiologie>
Hydrierung
Potenz <Homöopathie>
Chemischer Reaktor
Base
Genexpression
Azokupplung
Säure
Körpergewicht
Mischen
Kohlenwasserstoffe
Eisenchloride
Arzneimittel
Kettenlänge <Makromolekül>
Tau-Protein
Periodate
Mineralbildung
Wasser
Konzentrat
Hydroxide
Wasser
Elektrolytische Dissoziation
Konkrement <Innere Medizin>
Computeranimation
Gasphase
LSD
Tannine
Chemische Struktur
Chlor
Konjugation <Biologie>
Eisenherstellung
Selen
Molvolumen
Molekül
Lactitol
Gleichgewichtskonstante
Doxorubicin
Vollernter
Aktives Zentrum
Konjugate
Tiermodell
Aktivierung <Physiologie>
Hydrierung
Quellgebiet
LSD
Mähdrescher
Base
Essigsäure
Hydroxylierung
Base
Säure
Blei-208
Bleifreies Benzin
Chemische Eigenschaft
Oberflächenbehandlung
Mischen
Chemische Formel
Thermoformen
Farbenindustrie
Eisenchloride
Sauerstoffverbindungen
Matrix <Biologie>
Methyliodid
Verrottung
Konzentrat
Hydroxide
Wasser
Asthenia
Elektrolytische Dissoziation
Arzneimittel
Konkrement <Innere Medizin>
Lösung
Computeranimation
Gasphase
LSD
Chemische Struktur
Wasserfall
Eisenherstellung
Wildbach
Molekül
Acetate
Insel
Schmerzschwelle
Chemischer Reaktor
Galactose
LSD
Gangart <Erzlagerstätte>
Genexpression
Hydroxylierung
Faserplatte
Protonierung
Bukett <Wein>
Thermoformen
Chemische Formel
Mannose
Cupcake
Initiator <Chemie>
Überleben
Wasser
Serum
Memory-Effekt
Aldehyde
Montelukast
Hydroxide
Chemische Forschung
Wasser
Zusatzstoff
Asthenia
Elektrolytische Dissoziation
Lösung
Gasphase
LSD
Ammoniak
Neutrale Lösung
Konjugation <Biologie>
Eisenherstellung
Scherfestigkeit
Methionin
Gezeitenstrom
Zunderbeständigkeit
Sulfur
Konjugate
Fleischersatz
Hydrierung
Aktivierung <Physiologie>
Wasserstand
Potenz <Homöopathie>
Setzen <Verfahrenstechnik>
Zuckerrohrmelasse
Extraktion
Base
Genexpression
Medroxyprogesteron
Base
Säure
Blei-208
Bleifreies Benzin
Methanol
Harnstoff
Chemische Formel
Farbenindustrie
Sand
Aluminium
Bodenschutz
Besprechung/Interview
Hydroxide
Base
Computeranimation