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Lecture 02. Chemical Equilibrium Pt. 2.

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OK and let's going to stop them as anybody having questions before I begin to remember at the end of last last time I ask you to finish a back problem that we were in class arrived and how many have you had a chance to do that so I put up the answers are quickly go to the solution right and I wanted to to make sure that you have the same answer to those remember last time we said that whenever it's possible there are situations where you will encounter problems where the algebraic equations is very difficult to solve and so you want to keep it simple you can make appropriate approximations that it makes the solution much easier in the last time you look at the example where if we were just following general format in which resolves problems would end up with an algebraic expression that is very difficult to solve and so what we do is we come up with a very clever strategy and that it was the will make the reactions proceed
100 per cent in the reverse direction so we medical 100 per cent in that direction and we do that that's just a regular aluminum regional ,comma waving even have won 3 1 reactant that's our limiting and 1 reactant that's accepts and so you just treat it like any other limiting reagent problems and you can see that C O 2 is limiting NO is in excess of you look at the radiation which they reacted to 1 to 2 so that everyone will love this that's consumed you only need to at least are right but we in reality we have to read so go only 2 of these are used up and see that 1 is left were ended by everyone of C O 2 that reacts with every 2 walls of N O 2 you end up at 2 moles of an so what we do is made we made eagle 100 % towards-the laughed and now we have the reaction got completion that way and I would like to go to equilibrium and so we say now proceeding in the fall direction the amount that would be consumed being negative to X plus 2 X and X the for case and sulfur and and and we said now when we we make the reaction going the forward direction we know that this reaction is going to going to react to a very small extended and remember we looked at this picture last time and we said that if we start with only products and we let it go at equilibrium the amount that is used up of the products that used up as a ghost reacted to be the large as you can make me approximations maybe make it go 100 per cent this way and then making going the forward direction now the amount of reactants that consumed is going be really small because this is where the equilibrium constant this this is where we he claims established we know it's going to have a lot of it's it only reacts to a small extent it's can have lots of reactants and very little product being form of cake and that's why we have we can make these approximations we consider 1 of Stewart's is 1 2 minds to X is approximately equal 2 2 you can solve that and now we figured out that Texas 6 . 4 times 10 to the negative 5 days now is said once you do that you you always have to go back and check the assumption is that approximation indeed valid occasion away rejected this saying that approximation is where to access is small compared to 1 and we said to excess small compared to 2 obviously we just need to do it once because of 2 as compared to 1 is small we know that 2 X is going be small compared to so you can do a quick chat about vacation to X over 1 times 100 that gives you . 0 1 2 8 cent so you know that this is well below the five-percent threshold rise in there we know that this approximation is valid and so now we can say it no CEOs to minus to X and you can see this number is still small compared to the rest that its concentration heightened changes you can neglect small amount you the concentration of NO into 1 plus to execute take 1 and add this really small number 2 that hardly makes a difference with significant figures and then C O 2 would be 6 . 4 times 10 to the negative fight for right now is 1 of the things that you may have to do sometimes is you'll be asked to calculate Percent decomposition so you've seen problems where you asked a calculator per cent decomposition 4 per cent of the reactants consumer all right so very often harassed calculate Percent decomposition and this is from the point of view of the reactor because the reactant that's consumed or I always use that decompose Jr so whenever you cannot send the composition and it's the amount that the composers or the amount that is consuming so in his reaction what is the amount so let's go back and look at this when you look at this reaction when you look at this reaction what is the amount of react that's consumed tell me what is the amount of the reactor that's consumed we're going to and I said to act the amount of reactive consumed so unaccounted what is what percentage of that bad Of the reacted is consumes a Harlingen calculated to it to the mound that's consumed an amount that we started with was to Moeller so if we say the amount of reactor that was consumed per cent consumer work 2 x divided by 2 thousand 100 together all right so in this case is you you wanted to know if this is not a major problem to apply it because you're actually starting with that's alright so let's presume that this problem that you actually started with this are this when you started with represent composition of each with divided by 2 times 100 ballot this is going to become important later on because when we start looking at the next topic would have to count decomposition often and I'll come back to that end he vowed once again and again so today women want to the next topic look at passes and these equilibria looks set to this topic will be looking at acid-base equilibria we want Chapter 11 of the textbook McCain so it is not looking at acids and bases and in our popular culture we use the word acids and bases quite often as all of you know we said the this acidic we say that lemon juice is a city and certain drain cleaners are said to be Kostic basic excel
acids and bases of a common not everyday life that he was really understand how acids and bases behavior we have to start with and how you define an acid or base and so wouldn't go back in history and sort the earliest definitions for acid or base comes from Armenia's and so we call this the Armenia's definitions and what artists said was an acid there is any substance that produces hydrogen ions are right and hydrogen ions as all of you know I H plus fines or we also call them protons are so and asks is any substance that produces hydrogen ions and base of Osaka hydrogen ions when this all in water that has to be dissolved in water so when dissolved in water and the baby is any substance that produces all-which miners of hydroxide science and this would be for which scientists when dissolved in water all right so the Ireneusz definition is that an acid any substances that produces each signs 109 dissolved in water and a base is any substance that produces or minus signs when dissolved in water so example would be for an asset when meet things like Seattle arrived when this is dissolved in water so it's a ACL dissolved in water leak worse things like nitrate acid dissolved in water this is acidic gasses when it's dissolved in water all right and the biggest would be anything that reduces which minus science something like annual wage requests are calcium hydroxide equals cesium hydroxide because these are all examples of various acids and arenas basis because no let's go back and look at the definitions are used official tells us that an acid is any substance that produces a for signs of you and 8 was signed we also called it a proton because let's go back to the 1st quarter when we looked at the atomic structure and if you take the hydrogen added the description of a had a hydrogen atom is that it has an atomic number 1 rates it has an atomic number 1 what does that mean for this atomic number give the number of protons to Scott wanted it has amassed number 1 what is massively protons quest new trust sold the end result is when you take the place of the hydrogen atom what is left there just 1 proton because the atomic numbers 1 and the massive Rizwan so would look at the nuclear tests the nucleus has 1 protons all right and we know that you know what that the Adams electrically neutral sit behind the net and 1 protester where we know about the number of electrons 1 electron so the plus we take away this selection the rights of you take that the hydrogen atoms it's got a proton and electron never age plus a take that looked on the way we live approach so that's why sometimes ageless signed also called protons just because of that right and so from now onwards to describe hydrogen ions will use the wood Proton quite often and user with Proton loosely guarded Proton the tempo time describes the subatomic particle protons it also describes the hydrogen and so when we talk about acid-base chemistry user with Proton we using it and in this context all right so we say that acid reducers protons and take ACL and when dissolved its healing waters which you end up with his age plus science and CEO minus irons and therefore the tenacity so contrary to this definition dissolve its fuel and water users of water it produces 8 for science and therefore it's an asset if you did something so this is an asset if you take something like an annual wage now can oversee that ACL is a core will encompass all right it's a polar covalent company because there is a call women bond between hydrogen and chlorine if you take sodium hydroxide what kind of confidence that it's got a medal I can't find any plus it's the Polly atomic energy which is hydroxide so when you have cats and analyze what kind of complimented uniform find Congress sodium hydroxide is an ionic competitor giant lattice structure it's line solid but the moment you put it in wanted this whole giant extended three-dimensional structure just disintegrate completely and it forms in the fossil finds in the online site so the lattice structure completely breaks apart and it is also completely and water and it produces so when you dissolve sodium hydroxide and water which you end up with is indeed lost a close plus which minus Equus and because the moment this whole I need compound dissolves in water now you have hydroxide and being produced now that the lattice structure it's no longer held together by by letter said attractions this giant structure falls apart and it dissolves in water rights and
so here the producing hydroxide irons and therefore this will be a all right but unfortunately the obvious the is very limited because that's all you can see where users are really is definition was limited by the fact that a solid has to be water solvent is dissolving medium all right and so on you always have to dissolve something in water freight to act as acid or base and what we need is we need a broader definition of leading companies substances that those always include water right and so a much broader definition but acids and bases on the Bronstad Lowry definition so we got to the front steps Lowry's definition and from now on were always going to refer to this definition because they encompasses a broader class of compounds are includes substances that don't necessarily have to dissolve in water again so we start the Bronstad Lowry definitions and according to the Bronstad Lowry definition and acid if there is any substance that can donate a right of hydrogen iron more protons and have dates is ending substance that can accept a hydrogen iron protest was correct so now we look at the Bronx allowed definition course runs allowed deflation at an after any substance that can donate hydrogen ions of protons and basis any substance that can accept hydrogen ions of protons so he would remember this is In an acid we :colon acid of proton donors and abated it is a fraternity except for some around the criteria used to decide whether a substance is an acid or base is movements acid is a proton donors the substance donate a proton it's an acid substance accepts a proton when according based solely in easily remembered as proton donors and acid Proton accepted abates a soliciting example of a Bronstad Lowry and abused 10 so let's take the example I think easier so let's say we have in 1 survived loose structure of water this is what it looks like in water and if I had 8 CIA bold that these are committed compounds and if I draw the Lewis structure for both this is what it would look like cake so now wanted what happens is that the ACL arms will give up and age was fine ceramic this is a covalent bonds in the covalent bond is made up by sharing a pair of electrons the hydrogen atom donate electrons chlorine has 7 valence electrons so this 1 electronic chlorine that's given to the pot and that the pair of electrons mutually shared between the 2 but when former Age was what happens is cold electrons that belong to this fall good appalling and so it happened this hydrogen these with military and all that .period plus right and so that it was time and combined with the To give you recall this high junior my and plus c minors because now story Mclaurin starts off with 7 minutes electrons and sharing a pair of electrons its shares that electron with hydrogen now when chlorine means it takes its 7 electrons and also takes the hydrogen electrons now has 8 electrons and we see on miners and were left with Petunia I'm think now it's important to remember that following is a definition we said it produces each plus fines are right in reality if you want to it's important to remember that in wanted signs do not exist on their own OK strictly speaking if you're the water you can't have it signs on the because it was signed actually sticks to a molecule of water and it gives you a hard during my sense that this is a better description rather the areas where we just say produces H signs 8 was science and water in reality circus speaking ageless was signs do not exist along as discrete entities in what the combined with lot water to give you a high during but in fact this is not the best description either because all of you know if you're in water and you have a hydrogen mind you can figure out what the shape looks like if you look at this it's got long hair and 3 bond bears the state numbers for our rights if you look at the shape of these molecules this is what it looks like it has attempted he'd electron John so you have oxygen with a hydrogen like that and like that is a long period I right so it's electron geometries stratechery lead role but its shape has actually Trigano frantic so the shape of these molecules it is true that now throughout if and if you look at the as wanted as all of you now waterfalls hydrogen bonds so even tho we described by joining a mind like this in reality this is not the best description of the high during a mind because this hard to undermine is going to hydrogen bond with other water molecules like theirs but number so each of these hydrogen can act as a hydrogen atoms donor to form a hydrogen bond with another water molecules the oxygen has 1 long hair and can act as a hydrogen bomb hydrogen atom accepted and
say form this hydrogen-bonding interactions and even this is not a good description because now look at all the water molecules surrounding that they conform demand as well so actually the structure it is enormous structure but the hydrangea mind and wanted to water molecules and those who are not responding hadn't bonded to other water molecules and so if you want to have really short description of a during my clusters of all of these entities together the summit but for convenience with religious right down as hydrogen line and so we call this the high during my right so essentially what's happening here is that you can see that this covalent bond is broken and this ACL donates a hydrogen atom to water right and it forms a seal minors so that right in there in terms of the formula I can say 8 when we dissolve in water when liquid water and that gives me I join in mines and when I'm putting with parentheses inquest when and this is a structure that
talking about again CEO minus inquest so now use so what we've written down is the interaction of HCl with water to give you had undermined and chloride ions are right now applies the principles that we learn the definition that we learn from Bronston allowing definitions so if I tend to think it's the ultimate received that this interaction and ACL is the proton donors so this is the protons don't know and we know it's a proton donors would be an ass and never returned to Walter can ever see that in this interaction course accepting that the protons in the protons given off who's making up that water so that 2 protons here this is the proton accepted and therefore this will be the base right now didn't remember these are examples of equilibrium so we see a reversible error there and said example of an equilibrium and there's a reversible error what does that tell you that you have told the full reacted taking place and you have words reacted taking place as well so the forward reaction you can see that ACL was the acid because at the proton donors water is the proton accepted therefore is the bass filets tend to the reverse reactions to look at the adverse reaction news saying that these 2 with the reactor and now this would be the proton donors and this would be the protons accepted and therefore for the reverse reaction this would be the assets and this would be the biggest no sense for the forward reaction the term acid is already taken and what we say is we call them the conjugate assets and we call them the conjugate base the rights of the reverse reaction we call the acid the conjugate asset and the seal minus for the roots reaction is called the conjugate base right now we use this term conjugated accidents would you look at that as we call them you look at these 2 this is a pair this is the basis and we call this if H 2 0 picks up a hydrogen it becomes its dual-class and recalled that its conjugate acid and we take this asset and carried out with Cl and you can see that ACL has a prototype seal minuses Williams is product of right and so we call these conjugated Aceves appears to conjugate acid fears and so we call these conjugal acid base pairs and defined as a pair so the continent acid-base appears consist of true substances related to each other then the donation and acceptance however the proton all right so far who looking at conjugate acid-base affairs in a country acid there is to substances that are related to each other the only difference is 1 of those will have approach on the other we have lost the separate so examples would be so we look at ABC are so like taking sea of this the acid form it has a hydrogen it loses that hydrogen it becomes the online so what we do we use a diagonal line and put these pairs together and you can see the only difference between the 2 is 1 has the on the other has lost the protests as the difference between donating or accepting approach us and we call this a conjugate passes so if you look at what the acid the water in that equation is aged 3 0 plus some face to your plus an H 2 0 0 what kind of acid base pairs as well right so I remind you that if if this is what we're looking at it what looking at we call this the acid and seal miners would be the biggest forms it's called its conjugate base now and I want to focus on steel minus and sealed minus is the base then what you see is a Ignacio is its conjugate acid so that when Contador these hairs and I would like them to a married couples all right so they always come as there has been wide are right now when they were talking about the husband what we call the wife the spouse so we're considering the husband and the wife would be spouse it when understand a husband while we're talking about the wider than the husband is the spouse of that white fuel so the words spouse is used to describe the other half of the couple is the same thing here so we call them a conjugate acid base pair we talked about the acid the base would be conjugate bids you were talking about today the the acid would be its conjugate assets and we said that contradict 1 another because the legal as heroes and musical conjugal acid-base spirit so what other take-home messages when studying tonight is that whenever look at examples you should be able to identify with the conjugate acid base pairs up all right so violated the general reaction so for for a general reaction for any accidents of foreign aid general reaction we can say the acid is a change so the acid has to have a proton all right and sewing longer you dissolve the acid in water and this is a liquid water and then you would establish the equilibrium where you have Hi junior minds plus or a minus all right so this is the general form of any reaction when acid is a chair not even lying dead in a compound that has a hydrogen will not act as massive are right it has to be a class of compounds called assets to the point where you remember that not every substance that has hydrogen atoms will act as an NRC right there is a class of compounds that are good proton donors that donate protons in big donations from protons then called assets all right so in this case was going to take a general class college age gained so this would be the asset that this would be the fade this would be the conjugate acid for the reverse reactions and this would be the conjugate base so if you want to look at the conjugate acid base pairs In this you have to conduct acid base pairs the acid form is a change in its conjugate base would be in miners and then for the 2nd 1 the acid form would be a plus and its conjugate base would be extremely she wrote now this is an equilibrium so that is an equilibrium then we can write an equilibrium expression of a lot of mass action and so on this equilibrium we can't say occasionally call them equilibrium constant K a and carrying it's called the acid dissociation constant of this equipment constant is called the acid dissociation constant and to distinguish it from Casey or keep we give it a subscript 88 because this describes a class of reactions are right and Katie walls the concentrations of the products right divided by the concentrations of the reactants but now look at this water is pure
water fueled liquidity as a reactant are right and it's also the solid so we know that when you have reactions Wadia purely questions of pure solids or the solvent we know that their concentration does not change and therefore the concentration of pure water is a constant and remove all the constant on the 1 side so the concentration of water is already incorporated into this equilibrium constant and so this would describe the lot mass action or their expression for the chemical equilibrium that we're looking at is an accessory now what it is it's such a large amount to mimic solvent the waters in such large amounts that its concentration does not change now I'm going to give you an exercise if I asked you to calculate the concentration of water can do that right now what is a concentration of water c pure water in what is a concentration of pure water too bad through a question like that how do you start solving it initially you look at it in your eyes go wide power company capping the conservation what I don't have any information that I account with a concentration of water watching your 1st question me what is the definition of concentration what is the definition of concentration moles divided by the volume of the unit of volume has to be what leaders are right so that I can be the conservation of water I need to pick a volume of water Picabo in water 1 leader right so I want no 1 leader can figure out how many malls at any 1 leader yes enough hardware that what is it in regional malls always go back and ask yourself so we started the definition concentration malls divided by volume with pick 1 leader now I need to figure out the malls 1 leader so what the definition of bowls idiots madam Of the one-liter water divided by 1 small amassed so what is a massive one-liter water and what we know about what its densities what 1 so it's 1 gram per milliliter 1 leader has how many ml at the heart city of thousand ml What is the massive thousand ml that thousand grams calculate the malls and thousand GM and cabinet so sorry what is the more a massive water this is this is something that we should do back what is the more massive water approximately 16 was 218 so give me who's got a calculator tell me what is the number of malls in thousand milliliters of water 1 liter water 55 . 6 right 655 . 6 divided by 1 1 so what is the concentration of water 55 . 6 2 get so you should be able to do calculations like that all the time all right and if you're not sure this strategy is always go back to the definition you know they say concentration is there what is concentration malls divided by the body OK let's pick of All You can I forgot animals so how they forgot the malls in thousands of water and stepwise the UK said now from now on as you need to know that number what is the concentration of pure water 55 . 6 smaller right so getting back to the US so this describes the process and I want to show you a picture 1 that looks like so what we want to look at it as women a look at the dissociation of hydrochloric acid so what we have is 55 . 6 small concentration of water so we have lots of water water is solid all right into the guys were going to just 1 molecule of CIA right and wanted to see it is that they see how is going to give up its Proton To the water to 1 molecule of water so on all play this year twice a year idea what's going on so this is liquid water and down homes 1 molecule of 8 the principles chlorine and the widest hydrogen and you see that so it is in order that were not confused by by the millions and millions of water molecules initially we so we shall all the water molecules and then we're going to just kind of stayed the other water molecules and look at just that 1 event where you see the proton transfer taking place Friday so here it is and and I want to show you that amount of water isn't far acceptance of the molecules of AC to the agency that ACL loses his Proton to a water molecule and you see the formation of a hike to human rights and then it fades away because the number of the number of its steel molecules is so small compared to the greater amount of water molecules that are there because the solvent in such large abundance it's in such great amount so it's like you have water concentration is 55 . 6 the ACL is like Tintin 83 suggested concentration difference is 2nd in the negative to read worsens or . 0 0 1 was 55 . 6 2 there's a 100 fold excess of water molecules you look at the relative riches of the 2 all right and so to get and keep this picture in mind because this is where occurs at a molecular level so you can see that still molecules here there's a hydrogen atom on the CL and now you can see that it's being transferred the watermark from high during and then what happens if this man I told you the reason that it's very difficult to pin down the High junior miners because the hydrogen bonding no 1 actually mind to transfer the to another 1 molecule and former had in mind and that was transferred to another insult on it's not only hard to describe a hydro mind because the protons being transferred all the time from 1 quarter to another but also because of big cluster of because he decided he wanted to another and so on it's hard to describe the because it's actually had only a minor I didn't want to water molecules had invited where Michael is heightened by the government Michael becomes a huge clusters are right that's what actually describes hydrogen OK so we looked at acid not in the same way you can have bases as well so let's take an example of these so we looked at dissociation constant and we said equilibrium expression can be described like that but we get of this so we
said that we were looking at acid dissociation constants that I would like to know what you want and looking at bases so just like acid now returned to looking at basis and let's look at an an example of bases and undertake an example like this is in addition to minus the right so managed to -minus
and in water you have water and set up an equilibrium now what happens is that this will pull off a hydrogen from water so that you end up with the last like that all right so if you want to write this in the form of an equation which you have is you have staged 2 plus 2 equals this is water all right and now In this process the wanted is actually a hydrogen atom donors so that you form in each to read Deutsche minors where the charges on the oxygen right so let's look at this number here this is the protons accepted and therefore it will be the biggest what it is the proton donor so what Is the assets a writer looking at our example of a base which is managed to minors and replacing it to minus water but you see is that the water donates pretend to know what exactly as an asset the case now this is for the forward reaction that I look at the 1st reaction and you can see that for the 1st reaction and this is the protons I don't know and therefore this would be the conjugate assets and this would be the proton accepted and therefore this would be the conjugal base so by 1 look at the acid pairs said by acid base pairs you would see that 1 acid usually you can write this in any order but I think there is it helps to have an order associated with it and so I think it's helpful for students to write the acid 1st and then the basic form so that it just he allows you to kind of keep track of everything and so if you take an to the acid form it has the protons and edged to minus is the basic form where it's lost so this would be the acid test of its conjugate base if this is the base then this would be it's kind of acid or similarly we have water and people which minus all right so the continent acid-base here would be H tool in which miners the only difference between them is that this has extra hydrogen this has 1 less hydrogen so it's the difference this says this is the donors this will be the accepted our right and so of these will be there to conjugate asset base pairs here right now I want to remind you that we knew why these equations it's very important to keep charge balanced member nature you can't create or destroy chart alright so that can with on the reactants side do you see that overall What is the charge and the reactants side -minus 1 because it's 2 miners has won strive water is mutual so that is when you write a balanced equation on the product side you have teamed up with one-liners and you can see that injuries neutral In order to minors has admitted charge to see that so that that was meeting charge balanced so what you want to write the general reaction for a basic reactions to the general form the reaction would be sometimes bases on negatively charged to this is negative judgment call the base of the UBS's negatively charged in water you end up with giving you the
age so this will accept a proton H. plus and a minus 1 will give something that's electrically neutral arrange the worst class for which minus sequence all right for you this happens to be neutral also let's say you you start with is that has no charge on alright so that this there have then therefore plus longer will give you the H now remember this is a proton donors so its giving this NH plus said you take something that's electrically neutral each plus 2 it overall with that because can see that alleviate plus a right so this is going to take up grenade blasts of protons and so this becomes B each class plumbers for which minus the Soviet inquest so did see the difference between them some places will be negatively charged and so you have to maintain charge balance on this site world everything has minus 1 charged on decide everything has to the minus-1 charged that listed them on this on the reactants side this is electrically neutral this is electrically neutral that means everything that adds up to get on this site has to be electrically neutral so you see that this is a plus 1 charge this other minus-1 charged so there is talk about what's on the product side is also book equations have charged balance and that that's a good way to keep track because bases can be negatively charged or it could be neutral and you need to pay attention to that there's no mistake the 2nd equation this is an equilibrium once again and since it's an equilibrium I can write column expression again but not because we're dealing with the basic in what would put a subscript the and we call the what we call this if a call the other 1 acid dissociation when we call this we call this the biggest association constant and the base association constant would be products so let's take the 2nd equation so that mediate lost concentration of each plus minus the concentration of hydroxide divided by the concentration of these right and we do not include the conservation of water because you're starting with pure water it is a solvent its concentration on the scale that we're looking at does not change to the concentration of what is a constant and we said that all the constant support and put together so that concentration of what is already included in the concentration of the king so
what not every today and on Friday they wouldn't start looking at Wanderers solvent in greater detail
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LSD
Base
Blätterteig
Genexpression
Polycyclische Aromaten
Krankheit
Protonierung
Base
CHARGE-Assoziation
Thermoformen
Verletzung
Chemischer Prozess
Hydroxybuttersäure <gamma->
Sauerstoffverbindungen
Lösungsmittel
Besprechung/Interview

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Lecture 02. Chemical Equilibrium Pt. 2.
Serientitel Chemistry 1C: General Chemistry
Teil 02
Anzahl der Teile 26
Autor Arasasingham, Ramesh D.
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 USA:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/18991
Herausgeber University of California Irvine (UCI)
Erscheinungsjahr 2013
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Chemie
Abstract UCI Chem 1C General Chemistry (Spring 2013) Lec 02. General Chemistry -- Chemical Equilibrium -- Part 2 Instructor: Ramesh D. Arasasingham, Ph.D. Description: UCI Chem 1C is the third and final quarter of General Chemistry series and covers the following topics: equilibria, aqueous acid-base equilibria, solubility equilibria, oxidation reduction reactions, electrochemistry; kinetics; special topics. Index of Topics: 0:01:58 Using Reverse Reactions and Limiting Reagents 0:05:17 Percent Decomposition 0:07:41 Acid Base Equilibria 0:10:14 Examples of Acids 0:16:58 Bronsted Lowry Definition 0:18:14 Example Using Water 0:26:33 Defining "Conjugate Acid" 0:30:26 Conjugate Acid Examples 0:32:59 Introducing Acid Dissociation 0:37:27 HCl and Water Example 0:41:24 NH2- in Water Example

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