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Lecture 02. Acids and Covalent Nomenclature
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Title  Lecture 02. Acids and Covalent Nomenclature 
Subtitle  Mole Masses and Energy 
Alternative Title  General Chemistry 1A. Lecture 02. Acids & Covalent Nomenclature/ Mole Masses & Energy 
Title of Series  Chem 1A: General Chemistry 
Part Number  2 
Number of Parts  23 
Author 
Brindley, Amanda

License 
CC Attribution  ShareAlike 3.0 Unported: You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal and noncommercial purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor and the work or content is shared also in adapted form only under the conditions of this license. 
DOI  10.5446/18989 
Publisher  University of California Irvine (UCI) 
Release Date  2013 
Language  English 
Content Metadata
Subject Area  Chemistry 
Abstract  Chem 1A is the first quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: atomic structure; general properties of the elements; covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding; intermolecular forces; mass relationships. Index of Topics: 0:01:04 Acids 0:05:40 Ionic Naming Practices 0:19:53 Covalent Bonding 0:21:14 Naming Molecular Compounds 0:27:07 Moles, Masses, and Chemical Reactions 0:55:32 Energy 
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00:07
so last time we talked about a lot of the introductory material on how to start doing this is a problem that we're going to have to do with flask along with the ending with meaning and the Interior Ministry nomenclature of where need to combine the different ones to form a mutual compound and you need only to have had a combined those once you know what you're trying to the islands mn remember we fear charges the identities of the periodic table 10 knowing the Polly Atomic Energy title ways
00:42
to help you out memorizing those because there are a lot of the Orlen pattern so picked up the back pick up and back today with African Americans take a lot rules that you ought to know what I mean and fly to the acids to and then we will actually to do some examples with the ironic and asked later some when we get to the effort you know what that didn't based on that I asked whether it be just something this that the money was coming and the fluorine chlorine and bromine things of that sort all then Italian Thomas once so nitrates and phosphates all those it's not making use of the helpless remember heartening that still remember we talked about naming your palate atomic ions surely by using memories among Group of the right memorizing although there have been 8 and so the nitrate phosphate ore and the knowing that those if they had 4 if you change that tonight endings you changed your phosphate from AGE ending where ahead for oxygen Stewart priority ending where 3 accidents that you just you can really all of us together and you don't have to memories it now this is going to be asked to so when you look at here you can see that if you have a nitrate ions that becomes major trust assets and you have a total U.S. here if you have a nitrate ions that hasn't made changes in tonight effect after his policy ending so the 1 that has more oxygen gets the eyes ending for the African it and free so that carries through for all of the Africa so let's continue looking at the Paley atomic efforts so if we have for instance phosphates In we change phosphate into an accident in becomes fast for a asks if we change fast fights into an absolutely become fast for and so on if you have all your holiday time Ireland's memorized you don't really have to remember arising for the all do is you have to think about the fact that well if you have a hydrogen that you add to the problems of crime and now you just have to switch the ending of the immediate ending and lesson and that that these releases so this is just memorizing 2 sets of rules which is much better than remember the entire table and don't want to do that so those front the atomic now look at these real quickly we had just Florian those the the club that had your house assets of Hydro with the hydrogen and inhouse House items which are the 7th group in the periodic table so all of those have a negative 1 charge which means that in order to balance the hydrogen would have a positive 1 charge Justice Anthony each and then with the help of his age at each CIA HBO and the way that we need those is justified a Hydro and front in the bright halogen so hydropower after is just kind of hydro here and on the basis of the talking about on and then in Iceland IC and so hydrofluoric hydrochloric hydrobromic acid none of us under each underneath each 1 of you also have this hydrogen fluoride hydrogen chloride named for the way that the actual compound looks as if I see that it's the Minnesota little ECU that means dissolved in water I want you the astronomic acid nomenclature for me I want you to say that it's hydrofluoric acid hydrochloric acid and so so that can get you started memorizing that you really just have to remember the rules right so we had to different types we have Hydra Hallock assets and we have got to accidents ones with just a halogen and the ones with your holiday and the the Hydra palette you're going to go ahead and you're just going to take it combine a hydrogen with the flooring ahead the chlorine in name according to this Hi grows with the base of the word it those are the major Hallock acids you're obsolescence the things that have these polymetallic and and then you're going to you're going to put the base work you're going to take it all U.S. and foreign policy housecleaning based on whether it is what the ending as as ending light and and then you're going to go ahead In added the word accidently so those injured 2 roles for naming after this this is definitely something that has belong to this class and you want going now but we have made it through certainly the all the different types of waste pneumatic ,comma we want to go through practice so far from the spot where an employer working together foreign work through them on the worksheet so I have kids in the 2 different ways that you could end up needing to do this on own where is starting
06:20
name worries that formula and you have to give the other 1 so when the 1st line of aluminum oxide so we just have to different elements from the periodic table and we need to go through and decide what we're going Howard so the 1st sector this is decided in the company that the charges of each species that are in so if we have aluminum we must be aware table which enhancing friendly wired with sensors watches and you see that in the 3rd quarter and so that means that the easiest way to get stable architecture is with real now we look at and the oxygen has 6 surveillance law firms so that you take away that there isn't any easier to add to what's so that means that oxygen has a 2 minus and now we have to figure out how to balance those so we can balance then a couple of different ways we can think about it and we can say Well I need to have a number of these can both go into Saturday's deck which means I have to multiply this by 3 or I have to moderates explained to or have to multiply this by 3 or we can do this sort of little check that we have a we crisscrossed if we do that we have failed to L 3 and we need to make sure that these actually balance out properly and so we can see that we have 3 plus times to is 6 In 2 minus times 3 is 6 minutes for all of our charges add were set so that's aluminum now I have silver sulfate so still is 1 of a little bit more tricky ones to remember at this point this is what I said You're right now are you just going to have to memorize the charge for so you got period will end in you can't remember the back whole column on the periodic table is a plus for the 1 plus 1 compounds reports 1 and so right until the end of the line no sulfates wanted your Polly atomic once so you have to remember that it's an old Ford and answered to my now the sulfates and sulfite will the kind of nice to remember too because you'll notice was in charge of just a sulfide and it's all without you the miners to the sulfates and sulfites follow backtoback so a key that'll help you memorize those a little bit too that's true for most sulfur iron phosphate that sulfur and the phosphate the group's accident versions of those those follow that a negative trend is that the charge so suffers a minus 2 so that will help you remember that sulfate is also so now combines together I can't interfere with thinking about it you can say well I have a plusone charging the need to balance with the reminders to charge somebody multiply this by 2 or you can sort of course paths either way you end up putting a twounder silver In leaving from the home so that's over for soft not enough magnesium cyanide With regard to write these out magnesium we know is a plus 2 because good people we see that in the 2nd group which means that it has to be a electron we take those 2 electrons away taking away electrons we use it as a positive charge those of us too cyanide is a poly atomic bomb you have to memorize her will buy the exam have memorized and that's the now we ran into a little bit of complications we need these charges to balance so we need to find a way to have 2 cyanide along the so do we decided to here and leave it at that well what that tells me looking at it was interviewed 1 carbon into nitrogen which isn't at all we want to sign cyanide and so we write that by using you don't want to distribute that too if you don't mind me again NGC to and 2 that you wanted it because as it is the 1 will look at it and know right away all of this is magnesium side of these 2 I have combined together this you can't see that you can see that this is might be some other Colby would compound going so an area commander at downtown's you want to make sure that you keep that I'm in parentheses like that Over the next 1 the zinc oxide so far we look at this and is therefore that was going to be a plus 2 we look at side and we said that of the finest and so you can even think about crisscrossing them which case you have losing 2 0 2 and then you have produced or you can think about well these are the same charge so I just need 1 of each In another In each case all charges balance and so if I give you the name after during formula which comes up a lot and his general problems to whenever I wanted to do something with a particular company I don't have to say you know how many moles of zinc oxide a 5 grams of it excuse me how many malls of the and all Is there all 5 grams that I could seizing outside and if few hundred gold back in work into this formula you won't be able to do it so because of reasons other than just question that I specifically asked about meaning I is not going to brightening for each of the following so there is no way can work back so I say by the time the seal to in Athens will so we can talk to different types of type of ethylene combined with chloride because we can have 2 different so far this year halfremembered both of the charges now if you don't remember that I introduced but we have this formula we can work backwards we can say Well if chlorine it is in the and role appear at the summit group of the periodic table any neither has 7 valence selection it
13:04
means that wants 1 more thing to fly this is the minus 1 if chlorine here a minus 1 what is Florida at the what is at the heart of the well and has to be a plus 2 interior if chlorine is a minus 1 while this has to be a plus 3 so we can learn and work backwards to figure out what those forgot the median remember off the top of her head what that was allowed to be now there's a lot of different races said name he's so our listening weakening the saddening that we know it has been inserted general usage which is iron or we can do it based on the original group which is thereafter fare so far let's start by by going through meaning it with the IRA nomenclature so if we just right iron we have totally and Collins are we have to be able to say what this is this 1 and this is just 1 sign of that well we got an interim innumerable said so for this 1 I don't has a charge of 2 and so we put in a Roman numeral 2 but this 1 iron has a charge of 3 so general numeral 3 so that's 1 way of thinking you need to be alone noble me and if I were to ask you something like this I don't care which will give me but I could always ask you in this world and if you don't know how to do this next partly when Leopoldo both ways so the other way meaningless as use the original which is fair as he other now to go and differentiate between the plus 2 and the Plus Three we change the end so if we have it all U.S. ending that means that that belongs to the 1 with the lower church if we have an icy ending that belongs to 1 with a higher and we recall chloride just as before so the American differently meaning that so that we can know the difference regardless of which way we do it in Krakow to state Ferris to climb down on the ferric replied it's not OK to forget this and Roman numerals and happened now in this case is a little easier to remember that we had to do the normal Roman numerals because I told you that I wanted union bosses but that I'm not always going do that and to examine these leaders say bayern cloth so you would need to know that there are 2 versions of the test and you would have to put the Roman numerals you would know that the Roman numeral into something like magnesium sign freezing because there is only 1 for those and you put a Roman numeral and that so make sure you know which ones have multiple charges so you know whether or not need to include the Romans now for the next 1 we have so you can go the periodic table despondency that that this is the Polytron fire that you would need to know no a servant things you know now and in the future in chemistry is that when you see an ass a lot of times sulfur is going to have a higher limit if you see them in groups like this so that may help you remember other things but this 1 is BioScience I have signed it so that's how you go about meeting the notices in their own property the only form 1 of the the number of passengers to so this 1 goes to some has multiple ways meaning it again if you look at what is that the other words for that TI and so on we could write 10 fluoride or using the US and part of that stands as the base but not only will the decision against this is 1 where you would have now that can conform to different types of ionizing you would have to remember to go ahead and fill in the Roman numerals you also have to remember that that that road that into class is the lower of the charges to work for and so I would have to be Over last names this should be to end so it was sort of where I told you and warned me that you needed to know although although versions and wondering just ask you this he had to know OK that somehow or other world that 1 has to offer on but I wouldn't ever include a Roman numeral here because rubidium Kelly from 1 and the Net on any period peeled off so this 1 is on ends just sodium and you have to know at this moment so fast now because of the way that we're doing this lecture me knew that all of these normally when I give you a particular a sort of a name the 1st step is actually the need to figure out what you want to know whether laugh not because the the way that you name it I compound is very different in how you name it kabila Lieberman something like that the election is broken up into sort of ironic EngelWilliam management fleeing which will see a 1st step is is idiotic or is it called so what so let's talk about
19:54
these covalently bonded things a little bit but before we get into meaning that so another active last watches we talked about how they look being sharing lecture something like chlorine which needed electron can bonds to another flooring which needs an electric and rather than trade into shares is the 1 that they have so if you want a draw this out you would have exploring here mining to exploring heretofore 2 now we call these Lewis structures will get into much more complicated Lewis structures later on in Chapter but for right now I just know that this is called Lewis structure in early starstruck things and that we can form a bond with just outlined in that we have a lone pairs around now you can also do this with share more than 1 alive so before each Florida sharing 1 of its electrons and that's what we call a single something like accident oxygen needs to set the and so it can share to its elections with each other and when does and not know you have what we call a double bottom forms to bomb no these evangelical lot more remaining Indiana so all you have to know from them this these prefect now 1st of all holding or whether you're going to use this kind of meaning or the kind meaning that we did over the past can well you have to decide whether slamming the ball or covalently aimed to do that and decide what sort of come from wasn't out of the meeting you were I had a couple million talk this directly but if you look back now you will see that each time we didn't they came to the tune resided here until there is always a metal and nonmetal bonded together now In your career idiom molecular confronted prevailed about compounds the isn't going to your nonmetallic of everything from that operate hand corner of the period Table and that's what you're going to use for your ability so stacked 1 when you're designing her name is designed with an to complement its is that I'm not alone and not all of it will use the ionic compounds nomenclature that media earlier is that all the medals of use this way so the again composer nonmetallic bowl no firm in a sort of a combined the 2 it means together I the 1st word so the 1st element listed it is just 1 so something like TCL 3 you of phosphorus 1st you don't have to put a prefix it's assumed that the first one if it doesn't have any prefix on at all it's just 1 so something like sea 3 would just be phosphorus of the 1st now and the 2nd 3rd regardless of what the 3 ERA coming you have within 1 to however many you have to put everything so again looking at steals 3 example the first one phosphorus you don't need a minor the 2nd 1 would be chlorine so you have to put tried L know you have to add I tide the suffixes to so what do a bunch of examples of these in both directions so great the formula for the following problem enough so we have harbored 1st there's no nobody at all so you assume that it was so that would just be seed and Emanuel Ax cider monoxide newest asserted take away the extra old it's not monolog oxide it's monoxide so that means we just have 1 half so 1 current in 1 oxygen give us the prior the next 1 Major Gen try hide it so again 1st word didn't have a prefect so it's just and then we have to try hard drive so the trial means the read the hydride means hydrogen and so at it's author out you may also want out this 1 that we call it a millennial so you probably will actually see that written inflated try hybrid that sources meaning no sulfur dioxide we have sulfur again no prefixes just 1 so and then dioxide so it's too so and so 2 sulfur hexafluoride so again offered just 1 and then have meeting said so sulfur hexafluoride now it's amusing reversed just like we did with the ionic nomenclature so if we had this to add so now we the effects on the 1st morning because no longer was so there's a prefix on the 1st word and lessons once now as this is different from the other than that we don't have to worry about numbers because we knew the charges in the charges told the Senate is when the covalently bonded analyst tell someone tells to have the right so it's too so that died so sulfur and then I had pulled Sadako To sulfur dental floss now this 1 which is seen as 1 actually with a different name with the name that people sort of colored but we can also mean according to the proper covalently the rules so we had died I 2 and the nitrogen Boris catcher and then hydrogen searching directed I'd ending so dire MajorGeneral petrified the dived 2 Major information catcher for the 4 hydride for the hydrogen Kate hearing so that's faster no mind because it's all about the 1st don't had to put a man on the 2nd word we do try hydride 3 for the hydrogen bombs and then hydride to actually now PCL 5 so we have serious again once again no prefect and then we have to know what the prefix for 5 days pentup 4 OK so as it finishes offered meaning now I have to move into the more mathematical Zamora certainly conversion things so now we're
27:08
really going to something called more natural and chemical reactions so there's lots of different sort of origins of this picture and they all have to get this thing think the only thing the allotment thing like a school textbooks as the havoc at castle and you're taking bridges in different cities I like this 1 better because I lost I figured he had learned from the point that you cannot get the masses to number particles masses volume without going through malls sure ways mathematically to get around that you're effectively always going moles you can each had a goal from masses to volume you're probably going to Sociedad period that when were transferred back and forth in some sort of chemical reactions you are always going to transfer transferred via mobile in 1 way or another so we're going to do some sort of problems now that combine the thing we talked about the very beginning of the 1st luxury interest along with actual chemical reactions and how to about dealing with those if we play in some 1 compound mix it with another compound unless Italy and things of that sort and this is very important and will be tested on freezing on any issue of learning it's going to come back and have full and you're immediately lost because chapter 4 assumes that you know this whole section of the fundamentals so make sure you you really know this you really know how to do these conversions you really know how to tell them ingredients you know how to say this chemical reactions and combustion problems of both for the sake of most of general Chemistry and it's especially in this past so now
28:49
we're going to move to the slides flashed worksheet and worked through all these different examples because the best way to learn how to do duties is just waiting times in Parliament have examples so easily history that kind of stuff was up and in difficulty level and then there's tons the book and total practice but so this is the
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first one I ask you to calculate the number of times and Indiana in 8 . 3 grams of sodium oxide so this is 1 of the things that we talked about how I so let's figure out what that means for ceramic tile and the positively charged on and and the negatively charged ions so I want to know the amount of each type of business so must do oxygen 1st must think of that a little bit easier so we want to do that and I am 1st so we'll start with oxygen now we can't just say there's a . 3 grams of sodium outside India media thinking well there's 3 of these Saunders 3 you can't do that because GM and oxygen sodium always this in so you have to go through and you have to see what how many of these to form a vibrant up if I take the sodium oxide I break it up into 2 sodium In 1 how's that didn't break so we have to convert malls 1st so we will start 28 . 3 8 grams of sodium oxide and we're going to convert to mold hydrogen from GM to malls while we are always going to do that through the molecular map which we find in the periodic table so but the dreaded table we look massive multiplied by 2 we added to the massive oxygen which gives a 61 . 9 8 GM over 1 more now I want to know how many problems Silver In that case this is moles of sodium oxide we don't want Moses sodium oxide we want a number of Adams of oxygen so 1st we need to convertibles Adams absolutely not we need to have this is almost a region that is you need to have memorized so how do we know honey Adams the animal all its other governors numbers so it's 6 . 0 2 times 10 to the 20 3rd I now as it was in this case Adams isn't quite the right word to put your reaction to was symbolic because we're talking about so now we think wall is this is this area good I have molecules in my right now oxygen you would but only because for everyone sodium oxide you you get 1 oxide so just drive home that point I wanted 1 more conversion factor and I wanna say that for every 1 molecule you're going to have 1 out or whatever because when you break up any to all alter you get 1 oxygen so mathematically that conversions offer is needed but I think it's a good idea right out of beginning to say here but I know that I have 1 oxygen 1 of the and so he figured this out you get this number now if if you left it like that examined galleries no because we didn't check significant figures so we had to scurry had 3 significant figures here we put forth here in Medan on purpose so that we had extra us and then we had 3 here so we need to do 8 . 1 4 times 10 to the 20th century and that sense Nova and reiterated the exact same thing and we're going to say where to start with the 8 . 3 8 grams now some of you may be saying but wait can I just you know start from here and in make will the easier yes he can undergo 3 workers beginning an awfully St so I will say 1 mold sodium to oxide because we need to get to moles of sodium oxide and so once again we're going to do that through the Mola Ram keep in mind that this is small amounts of DNA to all not long after sodium or the other of sodium and then this conversion factor is the same team because we're still going 2 molecules the number of molecules now that we need to pay a little bit more because we have not any to all in we want how many number of any last and that's not a onetoone ratio anymore if we let down molecules here and we put down on the couch and Sierra we can look at this week can say Well if I break up 1 of these How many of these immigrants and being too here I only got 1 the hearing at 2 so we need to do to over 1 and then figure that number and rental property restrictions again so this is how we go about doing this we convertibles we converts a number of molecules and then we can say Well if 1 of these breaks up honeybees in these 2 week s so that only serve for up to that were always converting the moles and then converted to something else OK continuing our best seems now organize you know sort of jump from all sides ,comma unreadable carbon hydrogen and chlorine atoms in a tell that is 55 per cent carbon ersatz Alberta and I tell you that there is no grams of the compound containing 4 . 1 9 times tended 20 the hatred that's what seemed pure performance so in order to to find an empirical formula we have to know what a number of problems we have as related to what number of hydrogen had advocated a 100 oxygen that we so we can go through the starting from what we know we know that in a 9 gram sample we had this many hydrogen so we also know that if we had a 9 gram sample that 85 per cent of it by now so let's start there let's say that we have a 9 gram sample of chlorine then we wanna go ahead and convert that so we need to know that well exceeds 8 and 9 gram sample the compound we don't know what it is we know that 55 per cent of it is chlorine so we can multiply that by . 5 5 and we can get the kinds of stories now only in order to find an empirical formula were going to have to combine these in terms of roles were enough to know them all ratio the amount of moles each company and so I left
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this year because I know that we're going to need that kind of to but let's go ahead and also convert this into malls so now we have Havel's supply now know how the hydrogen atoms we have so we can convert that proposals so if we want a convert from Adams malls we use of Atlanta's number now allergies also seeing number and like that it seems room is saves time and you'll have propaganda is number memorized by the time you get out with of this chapter you know chemistry in general so it's useful to be able to just write it like that and then we have to calculate would make it so that other about numbers and if you do that you get . 6 moles of hydrogen so that this is the chlorine and hydrogen now what about the club now this think you have to think a little bit more time because we don't have any aerial information about but what we do know is that we started with a 9 gram sample and we know that this much quarrying and we know that this much as hydrogen which means that all the rest of it needs to be curbed so if we take our 9 gram sample and we subtract erm older grams of chlorine and then we subtract the amount of hydrogen that we have to know we don't actually have a massive hadn't figured out here so we're going to need to do that but since hydrogen with 1 gram all that also means that is just 0 . 6 9 6 grams of and so we end up with 5 but he did not find we have dealt with 3 . 3 5 4 GM of course needed 1 Grand we want malls and so we need to survive and Mass give us a friend's apartment the animals L now from the little village because we have our relations we have relations between all these malls but we can't exactly right of empirical formula that says will see down . 2 792 . 6 9 6 in cl . 1 3 and say states we need a whole operation so how your home region with all of them well OK we can guess and check but that take awhile so there's a little Maastricht this Maastricht this is to take all numbers and divide by the smallest ones so if we look at this what the smallest number between these 3 well as the . 1 3 9 6 so let's divide all of these by . 1 3 9 6 and see what we got if we do that we end up with 1 here kill here and the and that gives us our lowest liberation now we can go ahead and write that we can rates became this should be 5 this year as we can go ahead and write this out and making a C 2 H 5 the take hour just because in general that's how we write these words compounds the race the 1st and 100 and the other animals but if you do it the other way would really and we can say OK but that's that's our empirical now that the 1st part of the question of the next part of the question says if the molecular masses 193 . 5 What is the molecular formula To do this we need to think about what is it that relates empirical formula intermolecular on June manager will formalize the lowest form of biracial election formulas after the compound actually looks like so if we know that all you have to do to get a molecular formula is to multiply the incurable form of and so maybe it's too maybe for each 10 Cl to remain the 3 C 6 H 15 Cl 3 in any way you going to have to multiply by some numbers no this is not a place for I theoretically get intact you can say well the molecular massive virtually the massive that's the empirical mounts is 64 . 5 some multiplied by 2 and see if I get 1 and 3 well I don't think it would formula multiplied by 3 in C 193 well that would work that actually gives you lot and some minimal . 3 there's a mathematical we'd do that too no and that's to take the molecular mass well over top of the empirical and see what you got and then taking this number you multiply your empirical formula by that and this is your molecular formula so usually looking at that you take this had guess interfere with by multiplying is multiplied by 2 knows the multiplied by 3 young or doing it mathematically by taking the molecular over half of her last what that will number is and then multiplying community in other ways we can do that the implant forms to different from that of the course 1 contains 26 . 7 . 9 on the other 42 . 1 per cent party and I want to know the empirical formula of each so this is the same sort of idea where we know how much chlorine we have which means we also in this case no plan ahead because there's only 2 different species here and we can go through and see what the empirical formula would be so let's take the first one we know that is 26 . 7 per cent chlorine which means have to be 73 . 3 per cent but not only fair that we use a lot when doing incurable form calculations when I did this 1 I told you but we have a 9 gram sample here I didn't tell you that so it doesn't really matter what I sampled have but we do need to have stock from 2 years before around because we need to get from GM malls or from something tumbles and the only way to really do that is stock grants since this is the percentage so the easiest thing to do is to say Well I had 100 gram sample and the reason for 100 gram sample while
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this becomes 26 . 7 grams this becomes 73 . 3 grams show you could save 50 gram sample the nineandahalf have multiplied 50 by the 20 . 7 so mathematically it's just easier to go ahead and it so at this point now we need to convert to malls and so that we can compare all normal values and so will do that we look up the amount of chlorine on the periodic table massive we'll look up the massive platinum Miss Universe we had and those who have now the Islamic after in and how to tell what the loss of a ratio is so we divide by the smallest number and we end up with Pt the to here and we end up with 1 here which means that we have 1 platinum In 2 clients no for this part we do that the 42 % might find it's going to be the absence of only now Oregon have 42 . 1 here and we're going to have whatever 100 miners that is here and scifi sink back home into a for yourselves but I'm going to be the answer intact so this is our answer the only thing you can get that by doing this exact same protocol now ah last won the slide is we have a blast furnace where Iowa is converted to cash so a sort of iron purification skiing here the suppose that this much iron so pure iron is obtained From this much for so you put this much water into the blast furnace you get out that much higher assuming that the reaction goes to completion What is the person purity of iron In the original sample so I've written down the equation for managers rewrite it for the sake of writing something that many so we have to and we know that we had to . 6 2 times 10 to the 3rd grounds of iron oxide well know that will end up with 1 . 6 4 times 10 to the 3rd kilograms and this should say telegrams and missed the incident where so if we have this and this is going to be a lot lately you're forcing composition questions about exactly areas book problems on where person yield problems so in this case is for security but and it's going to be a lot the exact same way as per cent feel so 4 percent purity you're going to have the amount that you should the mother you who actually got out over half of the amount that you should have so it's actually Over the years of surrounded area and that is where we actually have how much are we actually going to get so we can do this to malls or perhaps quite honestly is just has to be identical so last List and figure out walls and each 1 will figure out the malls of iron that we have in the malls of iron that week so let's see theoretical 1st so what this means is that it was a 100 per cent I should say theoretical if 100 per cent pure that would mean that every bit of this was converted into ice we would have to . 6 2 times 10 to 30 kilograms and we want to convert that moles of iron to see how much we could actually get so let's 1st get rid of the kilograms and then we go so will take 1 more Over top GM and where do we get this from won't get back on the periodic table and what is that the master of remember that's the massive iron now 1 last conversion factor to go through what I no novels of area so we then need to convert that so How do we think while we look at the and said that if we break up 1 of the iron oxides that means that we need to iron week 3 accidents so hard that you care with county area so for everyone will iron oxide have morning to moles of life so that means that we were not 100 per cent pure sample you again 3 2 8 1 1 malls alliance now in in order to keep track of convenience figures I'm going to put a little under the and so that the theoretical knows you're actually I tell you that we get 1 6 4 times tendered their kilograms so we need to go through the same sort of conversion factor for it but now we have to think about what our mass is going to be In a mass here we're not talking about iron oxide anymore because gave you the man so it's just going to be the amounts of iron and so we know that we have this month that once attracted significant figures again because we're gonna have to Phyllis into another number so I'm really don't really want the rounding out every single calculations will just a little underlined now we can fill the so we can fill this into to here we can fill the center here and we can get our actual cured now because of the cent hearing we also need to multiply by 100 % and that leaves us with 89 . 5 per cent so that certain sums about salt holler some of the work that we're gonna do with conversion factors and using equation to convert between factories and things of that there's obviously a trading was engineered number of more problems that I can do and you'll
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have some of the minor works she you'll
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have the in your homework but those that sort of assessing the limits of what is now there are about 1 more thing must left cover the sort of fundamentals overview that I'm going to give you and this is energy now I don't want you to see this section of the fundamentals in place this is physics South Island to worry about it because the 1st thing we're going to go into Chapter 1 deals with this a lot so is your capacity to do work and there's a lot of different forms of energy Marina talk about what of happened but you need to keep all this in mind including things that actually seems really really physics oriented if you had physics classes like Connecticut equals what happened the square where many that in Chapter 1 of Morgan is again and have before it comes up a lot so we have the unit of energy is jewels so when I was working with any sort of equation you wanna units to be in jewels and what is jewels this is 1 of those units is made up of a bunch of other so made up of telegrams remembered of masses kilograms not GM which is a little weird everything else just goes with is the unit on its own the beef mass is the exception that we use kilograms kg near squared over 2nd square and the 2nd Austria him for her remember that you forget because this is definitely something that you need to know now kinetic energy is equal to onehalf and the squares that equation I see you need to know it but you know and they like lot of the equations so it cannot energy is the energy of motion and we're going to deal with this 1 lot so he needs a sort of recognize this equation when it comes up as kinetic energy now I also like this equation asserted that cheat sheet to remember what jewels equals you can if you know and you have the tools and you know this is an equation for kinetic energy will allow you to think about what this equals mass that kilograms velocities meters over seconds in a square to have massed tens velocity squares so it's a good way to remember what tools is equal to if you forget it is going to be able to go back and forth while likes to think necessary to be able to go back and forth between meaningless duels and meaningless kg meter square a 2nd to the number Connelly always checking enters right calculations we check unit and so if you're units are wrong you know they probably screwed something up some media struck unit that a good chance of something up so the writers as kg meter square or 2nd squared mean that in your equation durability of take a pencil and or just mentally checked off all year unit sales if you can do this really be in trouble so there's nothing different types of entities some of which will talk about some of this some of which you won't gravitational potential energy electromagnetic energy thermal energy all will go into a lot of conservative when it comes up and in do you keep this in mind that this is a sort of a general thing that does apply expecially chapter for total energy is equal to potential energy plus kinetic energy so if you have someone 100 potential energy around and you add that here tonight energy that's an equally a total and this is important because total energy is concerned right can't were not me from work creating energy so if you take potential energy away you're making kinetic energy take Nike energy late in making potential energy for sealedoff system so I have 1 quick example to do for this all the 1st stress section of the book so I see accident Mars orbit the sun at 25 kilometers per 2nd the spaceship attempting to land on Mars the new maybe spaceship is the best thing here maybe Mars rover be better must orbital speed if the mass of the space it is 3 . 6 times 10 to the 5th kilograms 1 of its kinetic energy if the speed much mass matched that of March so the idea here is that you have a use of the orbiting Mars anyone planning after landed seems to be that the planned is and at so if we know that kinetic energy is equal to onehalf of the square we can fill this so we know the man Of the spaceship and we can figure out the rest so With fill this all ends so we have 1 half now what is that while the aftermath of a spaceship so we can fill that and then what's the velocity while we want the velocity to be the same as March so we're about the loss in spaceship to be the same modest silicon fellow that and now there is 1 other thing we have to watch out for I think that in kilometers 4 so we don't want an economist perspective wanted years such from taking this a little place also show you something about inaccurate and the fact that if you have 1 a convert that you can actually read this 1 step by saying well kilometers cancer with km here leading leaders here but you can't just do kilometers the meters over kilometers on its own because you have squared here so if you want you can also convert the separately set off on its own and say you 25 times less than in the Latin or you could just do distillery here the very act in just say OK well and units to cancel 72 square that whole conversion and that the right answer to either way you do it this way you see km meters squared per 2nd squared and that's the same thing is Jules so we know their units cancel out and that gives us what we want and so at that point we say that the kinetic energy that the martyrs wrote spaceship must have ordered to so it takes us through all the fundamentals undercover in this class remembers receipt exams you are you testable and all that but this is kind of a lot of it and then will cover some of the sections that he can get to in discussions of but
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that's kind of this finishes up with worrying about the fundamentals
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so next possible through and will start in Chapter 1 and will start talking about some of the history of quantum mechanics and the basics of how it develops along with some of the basic implications In started on a few other calculations to weird how review electromagnetic frequency and energy and wavelength and how to relate them all and things of that sort so that we can move on to more of the index funds
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