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Lecture 22. Effusion Continued and Real Gasses

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Lecture 22. Effusion Continued and Real Gasses
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UCI Chem 1A is the first quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: Atomic structure; general properties of the elements; covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding; intermolecular forces; mass relationships. Index of Topics: 0:00:50 Examples of Effusion 0:02:02 Ratio of Rate of Effusion 0:09:16 Rank in Order of Increasing Speed of Effusion 0:14:16 Comparing Effusion 0:19:26 Average Speed of Gases 0:25:00 Real Gases 0:30:56 Volume 0:33:46 Compression Factor 0:38:32 Van der Waals Equation 0:41:55 Methane Gas Sample 0:43:00 Pressure of He
duration Blood vessel factors electron donor container case man model conversions stone rate mixture areas nitrogen Arginine rates Gases asset Uranium end gap Wasserstoff Computer animation model periodic table compounds molar History form calculations
Digital elevation model Graukäse Fusion Bohr Aspartate transaminase burning abundant Behinderung case Calcium hydroxide man molecule Klinisches Experiment Magnetometer temperatures rate Insulin period River mouth solid-phase extraction nitrogen Arginine rates Sauerstoffgehalts Gases Carbon Monoxide Ethylen-Vinylacetat-Copolymere Glycosaminoglycans Wasserstoff van conditions Computer animation oxygen History AdoMet den stuff
sense cancer solid-phase extraction rates Bohr Stickstofffixierung man end man Trihalomethane Wasserstoff Lava Computer animation Tau protein cell temperatures shot Insulin Beta Inneren Monoaminoxidase den FAS
homo Gases fine chlorine man molecule analogue flow electron stress polarity temperatures low temperatures Ideal Helium level Carcinoma in situ period areas rates Gases Chemical oscillation Reale Gase man slides Wasserstoff conditions Computer animation periodic table Mast cell Gamma oxygen Ideal calculations
Digital elevation model transition states left set Calcium hydroxide blocks molecule Muraminsäure electron Library Methylmalonyl-CoA-Mutase weather CH4 Holes rates Gases steps slides end van packing samples spirit Optische Untersuchungen coupling form Ideal calculations sodium hydride Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol Nutrition striking man Trihalomethane samples analogue temperatures cell Accurate Ideal areas Arginine hydrogen bonding man pressure flow Wasserstoff conditions Computer animation Deception Krummdarm den
areas steps pressure man molecule samples Computer animation Meeting/Interview temperatures Insulin CH4 Ideal History Helium
at a news of new material and monuments finished up a usually sell example problems of overlap and I'm really after is and will spend a few months time and that there is a lot of material to cover when we start getting into real deficit things get really complicated really use will show you what model of how we decide the how we act and deal with the masses and will also go ahead and then surely you should be able to use the ideal gas and when you should be able to use the ideal gas so we'll do that as well so 1st things to go over that span the Internet up some work on it so we're not we're talking about an area talking about its use in some way have a gap moving into an empty containers and we want to see what the rates of those are both in terms of the amenable to calculate them and and also in terms of being able to go through and figure out how more holiday 1 instance X amount after the other and need not telling anyone who wants separate gas is major news interviews to suffer a a mixture of gasses which is handy essentially you 1 example where that would be useful in taking uranium and obligating 1 agent about it and we can do that because different masses different had different rates and so we don't want them and we calculated the differences in rates so now it's gotten into another 1 in this case I actually kind giving you the faction had said well we have reiterated the military's gasses anytime contrary told you that actually told you that it was the 1 . 5 5 2 1 2 1 . 5 5 times faster than the other 1 it's not under this 1 where we're going to Kennedy the apples now where we have made today and hydrogen and I wanted militant gasses and I want the difference in the rate but so we have not had probably should write this equation to unsafe side now it's end Tuesday H 2 so we'll go and Israel into engaged to him so that we can keep track of everything since we have real numbers In but those have to be proportional to the square root of the mall assets now the end similar mass on the top of the other part a it's always it's always opposite the inversely proportional so Oregon and take vessel over the massive nitrogen down here and look at the massive hydrogen up here affects only go through newsstand do I have to convert this anything special as far as units got can adjust organized for animal announcers like I'm doing right now show because of conversion factors there no line the duration of the Council of so we'll have to play in American history show in the Council of other times we have to worry about it mostly in this chapter when we have to worry about it when you see yet amazingly in any form you see are in the form that has more than it would only your amounts have been converted to each kilograms but so at this point it's calculator pushing and you get 0 . 2 6 9 so sorry infusion of major donors . 2 6 9 times the rate of the fighters now Wilkinson calculations with them let's call and see if we can just use conceptually too because it's nice to have numbers will sometimes it's just going to be a long look at a bunch of compounds and which one's is faster which one's going to switch from the higher speed and stamina range sorted that out if for you L appropriate out of our country could affect already something so this is this is read so those units as long as the same units will always counseled this is going to be a whatever you happen usually Moellemann straight so we'll have grams from all immigrants from off the periodic table now when we use an equation that we derive this from which was the square root of the lyrics you and that's how we got this equation from right well we had to worry about 180 kilogrammes in that case because far ahead jewels and in Jules has kilograms and in this case if this is a variance from all this is grams per what happened to these units you can and so this becomes a unit was quiet and so is insincere unless just Horatio and so we don't have to worry about what it is whether we have to convert its destiny the same if for some reason you have 1 small amount Kg you with it up off internet something random you have to make sure you put in France but as long as you the same it doesn't matter Alan Wilson which was going to be faster maintenance pages
and change hydrogen so because this is about more you would say that the speed of nitrogen is . 2 6 9 times that the speed of light and so on it's like a sister or a number of the hydrogen 10 whatever you would multiply 10 by .period to the 6 nights at the speed of light because you want me to be slower than the men part of that is what happens if you forget that wallets and tell you the speed of the it's a good question so that's if I told you the story of hydrogen as some temperature so if I said that each equals but to make the numbers seasons and doing this kind of you without those qualities make it can what I said given temperature it's 10 units perspective and I wanted to know all the speed of nitrogen How would we do that the well we would take this . 2 6 9 and multiplied by the Times you can think of the ratios being helicopters sent to that helps you can think of it as saying well nature and has 26 . 9 per cent the speed of hydrogen and so on that would mean that nitrogen and whatever those units were would the 2 points so that's how you go about determining the speed I happened to be 1 of the city's Delaware something odd and even just fell into that the aid if this would be if I gave you the reaching out if I gave you this final answer and I ask you to solve but in this case we have all sorts of information you can just fill in the rate of the state of interconnection filet into oxygen hydrogen and disability in years which if we did that we would multiply the there would be the same thing the new the act so if you win when we started this ratio and we had to multiply that by the time and then it was because I just had started the Frazier show you how to do it on the other ways to fill in the probable exactly as we did appear in fill the . 2 6 9 here in your mouth here and do it the exact same way we did hear the same ratios is citizen many ways to do it is the people itself again now it just depends on how you write it I could have said right hydrogen to nitrogen if you agree in the hydrogen to nitrogen ratio instead of being . 2 6 9 it would have been won over that so we could have gone through we could have written that the rate of hydrogen Over the rate of nitrogen now where would the hydrogen mask of and filled in the same numbers just now would have an officer In that members of over 1 so we could have done it the reverse is just in this case I had asked for Nigeria
Nigeria the Securities and the parents so next 1 now when the regular were increasing speed of confusion and increasing time of that talks about time fusion we can figure that out and think about it so let's start with speed just because we kind already discussed so I say increasing so what makes something the scope what something go very quickly when it refuses a small Macera large month so so when we go through and do this which 1 is going to be our smallest so how do you figure it out the idea that they have united in Newark that you look at where all of these are in which 1 would be a sponsor yet so your speed of Italian after a trial lasting classical art self-sustaining fusion so we need to do increasing speed so we need small speed here and so we need a larger molecules so which on the largest market 2005 OK so we have a increasing speed we want to go all the way out too fast so we ghosts slow fast so increasing speed so that means we need to go large now small and without on so we know then that our sovereignty is someone is going to be our slowest so that 1 goes 1st and then which on said and then which and then which good so that was it now I will go and we haven't talked about time of the season so that's saying is how long does it take to infuse how long does it take to to get all completely you the barrier so if something is very fast in England to if it is going to have a slow time large I think very fast history small-time right it's going to be zipping around all over the place is getting it to the other side very quickly and so it's going to be it's going to have be a very small time of fast molecule has a very small time so what the fastest molecule in this bunch and you saw what have the smallest time and then what but since this is the exact opposite a that OK so that's where we really have to calculate anything we just kind of look at associated countries similar matches that but tonight the the next 1 L going on consider it a little louder and handwritten hearing at OK yeah I guess I guess I should say something like that you know till reaching equilibrium Murcia total effusion of yet could .period so .period gasses is they are all going to start using instantly right so the question is a little bit ambiguous because they are all going to instantly start if you think the question is when Hadley completely used or a on if we're just going into 1 container but and so it takes 12 . 6 seconds for that much carbon monoxide to his panel under the same conditions how long would it take for Stewart's utilities so same sort of idea same sort of thing just doing a radio with the disparate so we go through and we write it down look In now we have to figure out which 1 is which now noticed 1 quick something here when I asked for how long will it take for the same amount to refuse so that it can refuse completely territory here I'm doing in the unit ambiguities so did I ask for the the rates necessarily no I ask him the time of the future now than when we just decided here how annihilated is something so fast is going to take a long time a little bit of time a little at a time so they're going to be proportional Anderson inversely proportional so we can discern add another ratio wanted here IndyMac so let me be real clear about where all the tunes the ones are so we haven't won over to here we had to over 1 hearing so that their inversely but now are timing their rates are inversely proportional which 1 of the new about times Onassis proportion which makes
sense right now Susan words so that its let's go over them or something which this lowered fuses Baird excuse me the slower moves and so the longer time it takes to refuse so once again that it we had higher and if we say this the higher math and just kind of whatever that means that it's going take it along it's going to have a much slower rate going take a much longer time to refuse so are 80 and masses are
inversely proportional because of something is banking it takes it it's moving slowly it's something is staying it takes a long time to get completely refused pay because it's moving slowly they want time so it's something enlargement something we've a lot it's going to be moving slower and so it's going to take a longer time to refuse so that's what this is saying in in terms of the issue I met so now I can pick and choose what we need so we need the time was right we need to relate the masses which we know because we know we can add up and C O 2 and we can related to the so so we go ahead and write down each 1 so we're related their C O 2 To the time that were trying to figure out we related our CEO to the time that we know so that we can figure out the new no this man that 127 3 malls into Tibetan recalculation somewhere now it's in the so how long will it take for the same amount so that's what you call a red herring it's it's not investigating more information than you need because in real life you have a lot of information a lot of don't really have to pick in June's going so you may have noticed that happens on them but it sounds suffered Lawrence Ellison here as isn't that man that just so you have to know where I got the time from needy algebra but I'll trusted you India 15 . 8 sec now and ratios is really easy of flip-flop things so you always wanna look and see well does make sense ensure the larger things this carbon-dioxide that's what we solve 8 which nettlesome scripture for helps it's bigger associated taking longer shortage longer doesn't that so it's nice that if you have in general feel for how these work you can double check yourself to make sure that you got things that the ratio correctly Newton accidently fell on the wrong number 2 the next double check up on exams at the end we have 1 more but I see that this 1 shot down 3 formerly cell on human error gave you a minute to get started on residents the favorites we have temperature and we have not spread security is increasingly abandoned using now quite privileges years we need to work on a start going back to this equation right that's a 1st yeah what are these stand for him and they just that hearing had signed yesterday the next and cancer will everything stays the same Red Square Root the the 3 in it's not a bad building and we know all the surviving the except 1 now in my filling in 37 of know what my filling 10 the investment suffered too for large number so we have to get uranium hexafluoride up until that temperature in order it's easy said to have the same that's how we would get the same speech would have to move during the Florida that company 1 so that's all I have to prove I think that the elections Oh yeah because it
119 being out on its own incident as a gas formed yet actually really good .period expressly for the exam I'm pretty sure having written exam it'll come out somewhere well if I just say hydrogen gas What is that it's to advise the oxygen after that after the thorny chlorine gas units like that at this point you're expected to know so I fluorine gas I'm not going to say asked to the safe chlorine gas idea someone just said oxygen foreign without actually necessarily even saying gas if that implied that the you should be assuming it it's diatonic at this point of it it really more or any of the diatonic it's assumed diatonic unless stated otherwise on losses in some weird situation works fine a number of oxygen on Adams the a molecule or something like that if you're ever just told you know find molecular mass of oxygen you shouldn't write down nearly 16 of the periodic table you should know it's diatonic and you should play in the 32 so that's a sort of a good all-around .period I met someone in a road accident stole a quick reminder before I can talk about real gas and we have to talk about 1 sold .period reminder of what there are real and what is the excuse me that things are ideal in other words the thing that a gas deal the things that we had was assumed to be able to use the ideal gas and that there's no attraction between molecules right so when molecule the bouncing around doing whatever it is that they're doing they're not when they come here each other they're not going to attack each other and they're not very palatable they're just going to kind of be we also had to assume that they had no volume right that the electrons were really various assistance that they were taking up any volume recalling a point they have amassed but no value now we've been doing a lot of calculation the lesson we can assume that we can use the sometimes very otherwise it would really be a useful thing to teach will offer a lot of conditions that works quite well but not for others so we need to think about when that's going to be true and when it is so when molecule they're moving really quickly attractions that negligible so what that means so this this kind of back to something that hinted at earlier in chapter was just because of almost news talk what at times this you things everything by each other they're not going to have as much time to attract of From the border into astronomy and things of that sort that kind of you can't use their delicate the planet Erickson signing comets and things like that the comments be by a long ways away pacifiers moving really really fast will be able to escape the gravity of the sun and it will become part of our solar system if it doesn't it's going to grab onto and has to do with the speed that it's going and how well how that's being done so if molecules are moving really fast they're not going have very much attraction gonna whereby by each other and not not really attracted other knows they're moving very slowly then they have some time on their hands and they can actually pass some of those intermolecular interactions that we talked about and is so they have some time to attract college so we have to think about when this isn't isn't that wind up court because OK with great because they appeal will not decide that I can assume something is ideal something is moving quickly but I always going to be giving you the rates of the molecules now but what will likely be most that's what what is it that we can measure that tells us about the rate molecules well what decides that this is the speed of molecules Temple of the Masks that what else low-heeled simple 1 given molecule right it's not only depend on the mattress Savannah something else too temperatures that citing I heated up right so does that mean that that gasses are going to be a ideal at high temperatures but things are moving really fast and low temperatures were things of U.S. law yet again the ideal when the temperature is high a moving very fast because they don't have time to attract each other when you call gasses down and now they have time to attract each other than they lose the idea that idea now next thing however mass related disputed testimony there is some one-dimensional analogy right to massive related this so how old a allegedly say about so I had the gas as opposed to a light which was the more ideal man like you leave or something like that which is more helium right because it's small so something that small is going to be moving very quickly at the same temperature and so those are more likely to and the ideal ideals to fit into the idea that from them as something else to do at this moment moderate true but really large molecules however Hunter the interactions compared to something was really small molecules it's it's bigger attraction in Whitewood what is Islam around 1 in this version forces and what and Maryland in this version 1st a more electrons in What's the buzz word that goes along with that more polarized so that's a good thing celery many recess section now so something that bigger is going to be less ideal both because of its speed which we just talked about right we know that something that has a large masses of various has a much smaller speed and so has more time to be attracted we also know that something that's very large has more in London dispersion forces any which of course means more electrons is London dispersion forces and asks is that is that is that Cooperation Bank now it's it's a it's all about the molecules in the shape of the molecular clock so the more area is electron Council more electrons you have the more polarizing or something else and so was the largest millions more like from the house and the more traction something of a lot of attraction it's not ideal everything on the slide relating 2 on how ideal something it's had so low temperatures suddenly Marion deal Hi intermolecular forces it's not going to be very ideal of Hi mast snapped the very idea and there's 1 other that will talk about it but this is all that this is the reasons relating to just the attraction park his ideal gasses are allowed to be attracted to each other
actually history of other so that's the 1st part of being an idea that they can be attracted to each other so if they are in the odds would be high level they're not going to be ideas are not new blue treat them as ideal here and still be a little bit more the other part then was what most of the major advances have haven't ruled after the Boston no traction and no volume right of so now we can talk about
what changes the volume aspect is something that has a high volume and it's very apparent that I have a high volume then it's not going to have much of an idea that so there's 1 that kind works quickly there right what 1 is that volume is equal to size so the more the bigger the molecule is a little bit less and that comes in a final volume as well then there's another 1 this 1 relates suppression so ideal gasses we don't have any value said is the space between the molecules is very large so this kind words will the thing about people so let's say and the others room and I could find people in this room and blindfold them at home and walk around it is what percentage of volume of this room today make up 3 small far-right 5 people that's not very much volume the room is huge and inject using so they're are not making a very large percentage of the value most of the Volumes 1 and 2 space on it now I get all of new jet packs and for you all in this room how much is binding the room a lot more knowledge savoring over the lecture hall next door and the modem accidents and you all flying 1st of all in library announced the setting that aside it's going to announce now and the you're making them more than they agree in another class now nearly 90 per cent of volume you can barely move at the size of 1 now your volume the volume of people make up a lot more of the world rice so suddenly the volume of people really makes a difference it's not mostly in the states to be an ideal gas you have to assume that most of the volume doesn't matter so what is that related to it becomes suppression Jackson higher so in having like find different lecture halls and with the people all in moving around that's a high-pressure right having 5 people in here will be reject tax at a location so when the gas more ideals low-pressure hype approach but what has happened 1 side when this become high-pressure as a at high pressure there is not a negligible volume at high pressures that we start packing molecules in their suddenly almost all the space is made up of the volume of the molecules if there only 5 molecules hole and space another really matter I don't know that their value is very small in comparison to what's around most of the room is empty space but now let's put this in a little bit of graft form in this next step comes near book and it's why I is 1 of the main reason that won't talk about it a little
bit because it can be a little bit misleading if you are careful about what they're looking at is I want to spend some time talking about it so that you know not kind misled so keeping in mind what I just said that when there's a measure for this and that measures ,comma compression factor so let's talk about what that means something and you find a compression factor is how close something is to ideal if something is an ideal gas if we have if we had everything so perfectly so something is an ideal gas that is going to be 1 so that's what we Cheshire for all conditions is just 1 now in this kind of reiterates what we just talked about molecules are going to attract when there near each other they're going to Republicans close enough that the interim better that the electron cards and so everything to do with this graph decides well are they do attract Oregon repay if it deviates from 1 so Upward Bound doesn't matter if is away from 1 that it's not very similar to an idea that no where it gets a little bit misleading and what I want you to be careful on this this little section right here when you notice straight here this is like almost ideal that millions of 400 at the 400 atmosphere that's just a fluke of those the transition a the part of this staff that we spend most of our time in his way it's a little insect they were if we will write to hear more 200 atmosphere that already had a really high pressure so we feel we have high pressure for a long time ago by a timely at this point the ground talking in the previous 2 slide about real high pressures and things like that that's really just talking about this inside this little section were told to this little piece of the grass and blew it up because Rangers 10 atmospheres which is already pretty high so far I just wanted to talk about the grapple little bit so that you are misled into thinking a lot brighter and 400 all these become ideal well that's just a fluke of it transitions from being attracted to but this paragraph is where we spend most of their time in life at rate from 0 to 10 and that's you know about this area are atmospheric pressure is what was about about 1 hour and never take a little bit depending on the weather so most longtime here so now let's spend some more to look I'm looking right affection as you increase pressure what happens to all of these actual gasses do they stay ideology they get more away from Idaho the morally from idea which is what you would expect that's what we talked about the increasing pressure makes it become less idea In 1 that what let us there was a man because the volume is negligible because suddenly the volume matters you packing willing to push closer to each other and now the volume matters more and the attraction and repulsion matter more to I now a little bit of thinking about why these are different but the different from hydrogen and then all of the rest of them smaller so it has left intermolecular forces and certain forces work to and NYU's entry so strange shearwaters nature Air everyone is among us but at the molecular forces hydrogen-bonding so what happens is you put it under pressure like this rating what is the line just stop turns liquid and so another molecular forces that it's just going to turn into a liquid at pressure good so that's hopefully clears paragraph a little bit and remember this is this little insight is kind of where we're talking about his previous flights to some extent I I mean further out goes to it's just there's this year's flipped here were for this little while it's not true and that's just the difference between these attraction and repulsion which ones winning only 2 it's hard I kind of interior and we note that outlook temperatures ideals Mary nutrients are when something is moving fast is that more angular left more ideas and when you win something moving fast and a heightened after low-temperature high-temperature so a high temperatures a more ideal more that sold we talked about that and we've also talked about the fact that we're is a more ideal high-pressure low-pressure low-pressure recovery things all spread out my so my mildly lame analogy for the interaction made major Kaplan is much better women mildly Lane 1 for the interaction is if you're walking down the ring road and you come across a friend your balls running late to class and you're running past each other college interactions to I very much because you're moving too fast right now on the other hand you most kind of you know waiting in between classes and you're walking really slowly gathering road you come across to each other how much time you have an accent quite a bit so that that's kind of a good analogy I hope you remember the talent and spirit of her own according cell member was acquitted so this takes just learned and what we basically just learned that no gas is a really ideal right we can put them under conditions to make them more ideas Nunavut under conditions to make it so that we can probably use the ideal gas block but they're still going to be In this it's not going to be tough so we used to be able to make at least a little bit better if you're trying to do real consulations with these things you want you want at least deal to get closer and after the panel's equation comes what happens if you ignore this aid Indians and the ones that become people had serious idea about what so what this does is it just takes it puts a couple of different adjustment on and so this is 1 of the ways that you can adjust for deviations from being idea you can just for the fact that real gasses are quite idea they do have attractions they do have value there are other ways to of the equations some of them on a little bit more accurate some of them just different more accurate certain situations India experimentally determined so what that means is that in order to to get aid you have to have a table should you wanted back about memorize all the isn't easy no Newman going around Parsifal at the most he's just looking for a good occurred almost don't memorize the isn't those are just numbers they're just numbers you look up even people who work with these sorts of things all the time are not going back about an hour ride the ease the beast so I'll give you that they will either be in a table added front-page where all of constant and insofar where it will be put inside the question itself I'll just listing the value of you'll notice that this equation is on equation she rated by equations it's the beginning what equation is isn't on your own equation she barely knew he wanted notice people largely owing give the president that I can ask the American occasionally people at the alone that's when you know that will get us on the way to the end of any meeting under solar experimentally determined so when they do this they they take a real grass and imaginative and went to different circumstances make it to this equation linking Europe European devalued by getting into the equation I'll be just another for instance so we can take this and we can use this to actually do some calculations it's not really at its heart I'm tune anymore less difficult than on normal ideal gas flow just a little bit different people that were algebra correct enables 1st reduce some conceptual 1 animal Phil Anderson equations a sample methane gas 50 degrees C in 20 atmosphere would you expect it to be a more relaxed ideally it was reduced .period so were at 20 we would reduce it to 1 so the
pressure lessened or soothing anymore ideal unless but now that
now we reduce the temperature and we've made it negative it seriously so if we reduce the temperature what and the speed of the molecules floating down from more ideal of freedom must that so initial circumstances maybe about point of in the circumstances mediation is thinking about loneliness then equations said I don't have lot but if Sony example now using idle earned identified all the questions so we have 37 degrees 3 walls of helium it continued to . 0 leaders and you would have to be told something along the lines of this in very idea of I wouldn't I don't expect guess that I would tell you I think sapping just said something like the banner was a Christian to do so 1st Serie equation now is celebrating and so we're selling for pressure so we leave pressure as it is now under homework question where you go find a timetable internally and happily I think we usually have a link to it if you're doing it here but there's a there's a table in the back so if you do that you get and what is 3 square area and history in the square of nite In an already in so we put forth by the squared sweep 4 so this is 3 square assist to square we put in How do and history again because good table loaded up an exam will be given set time and an exam you will be given don't listen to him he didn't write this I am writing utterances that down that's equal to 3 . 0 times are tense Steve tree-filled everything and now we go through and calculating without I needed you 1 step of algebra between to show you I think probably the easiest way to do the algebra but I the solve this and then you this and distributed you should play around with the other runners so well that I'm not going to because it's you know blast that has classes they and we need to move on and all but you need to go home and play with the Eldora that and make sure that you can do it attracted over and AT 39 . 5 atmospheres so got only
convince yourself that you can do that