Lecture 14. Molecular Orbital Theory
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Title 
Lecture 14. Molecular Orbital Theory

Title of Series  
Part Number 
14

Number of Parts 
23

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License 
CC Attribution  ShareAlike 3.0 Unported:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal and noncommercial purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor and the work or content is shared also in adapted form only under the conditions of this license. 
DOI  
Publisher 
University of California Irvine (UCI)

Release Date 
2013

Language 
English

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Subject Area  
Abstract 
UCI Chem 1A is the first quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: Atomic structure; general properties of the elements; covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding; intermolecular forces; mass relationships. Index of Topics: 0:00:10 Molecular Orbital Theory 0:01:22 Bonding and AntiBonding Orbitals 0:02:42 Wave Interference 0:03:59 MO Theory: s Orbitals 0:06:04 MO Theory Energy Diagram 0:10:21 Bond Order Notes 0:16:32 MO Theory: p Orbitals 0:19:00 Steps to Make MO Diagram 0:36:11 Molecular Orbital Diagrams of Ions 0:44:22 Case of Molecular Oxygen 0:47:44 Practice

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public so since it's been a while I think it's probably worth going back to backtracking you light and starting over with theories out notice the Committee
00:11
on the slides completed up online I thermal bath last time and so they're out there the young soldier really this is what more treating this quantummechanical treatment of sort that this is taking all that stuff that we learn about wave functions in making and using that to figure out how bonding work it's only linear combination of atomic orbitals which we said means that there adding subtracting the wave function of that so we're taking away functions and then when you were adding subtracting them together and we're getting these new rolls out of soul this way that yields a little advantage free little bit better agreement meaning that if you try to compare hybridization theory to the actual experiments and general most theory does a slightly better job of predicting high radiation does a good job and theory does a little bit better but it's a lot more complicated and so we don't use it quite as much on when we have a real big long complicated molecules and if you do you are you are doing very complex matter with computers on so work in this I learned from then year also he has significantly from hybridization here before we just had his orbitals and if we had electrons and those orbitals were overlapping we had gone now and also there is a little bit different imponderables we intend on models so what happens is that all in the same thing that happens in hybridization where if you start to orbital family do you get to if you start with 6 little solid you get 6 that further the 2 big numbers were immediately insects this time so the same sort of rules apply now and when you do this once they were just combining orbitals together you're going to end up with a bonding moral and you're going to end up with an entire body model if you put a lot from the the bonding orbitals image demands stronger take a guess haven't even even gets weaker than so election bonding orbitals make it stronger electrons and Intel bonding orbitals make the weak or in a different way of saying that is the last to the bond water or and tracks the bond or Soloway 1 thing about 1 murders like we thought about double bonds and single before a single mom in this case will think of the bond was a double bond bonded to bowl season making advantages of a half in things and this is well L
02:43
so we have to backtrack a little bit refreshing memory about weight because this is all about dealing with right for dealing with these wave functions and you therefore weights soaring number Holly interfere with each other you can enter through different types of ownership if you have a concept of interference on the Adonis at the start of the track yet so just
03:06
quick your reminder on this if you have to weigh that look like this there and they're interfering constructively it's going to make bigger now if you haven't exactly opposite from each other then it's going to completely Council now of course they don't have to interact with the overtime for his father in exactly in this manner the get the idea that you can remember back when you talk like algebra to class of some sort and you have said to go the answered at these points together you have actually number here and the number here and he added together to see what you got the same thing here you know at this point here in this point here to see what you got the same sort of idea it's just you know very well just looking at it effects announced look at this in terms of warbles .period navigate
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the western region of Xinjiang only apply the story also so let's say we have 2 hydrogen atoms become so we're starting simple so what sort of morals do I have drawn here just after now we can combine so this is the 1 hydrogen atoms in the euro the hydrogen atoms there were indications hospitals and Morganica mining company or the research so how many were going to get 2 1 of is going to be a bonding oral and 1 going to be entered on our which anything as higher energy finding the intent on foresight and had entered Monday so the the higher energy 1 is going to be as head of the compared to you and to the bonding will 1st and then you add the and had done so I have this sort of drawn out this is basically an energy level diagram right seem ideas when we did the atomic energy level that I fear each individual atoms will now we have an animal diagram with the energy levels so will still have the city will still have us so if you happen to together you end up with a bombing world and if you subtracted 2 together never the entered work now let's look at how we would normally jobless because drawing this would be really tedious expression we start getting into no fewer bills and things of that sort all of this so fast and so this just goes away said so we had the intent on being the molecular orbital here we call this star event now we have the binding here call this a no so in the stock represents India binding whenever you have entire on moral people will start next to it and that signifies that at any time finding this segment represents the shape just like when we talked about Sigmund pipe bombs and hybridization and of valence bond and that represented the shape that we always talked about the signal bonding overlapping and not on the same world lies here this is going to read this is going to refer to the shape of the the upon the Bible but at the same time and sort of the standard way of how we look at at these how we've been drying them up until now if we don't notice is going through and through the 1st couple of elements in the periodic table office for so here I have hydrogen now hydrogen each other ,comma electrons 1 right so I have a strong here when you drop is a modem you need to drop the atomic diagrams to OK if I tell you on an exam to Johnny animal diagrams and you just joblessness acquiring here that's not going to be corrected there was some points so make sure you draw these so I really didn't that's that's just sort of what we're used to drive notice we draw tool right because we have a hydrogen over here and the hydrogen over here now ,comma electrons do we have told it had to so that means that we're going to have to meet our from electrons lethal and to win part lowenergy highenergy 1 in each low energy OK so single supplies when we're doing atomic orbital diagrams restarted the energy and work their way up the same rules apply here so we've got involved we also still do stand not spend down just like before each orbital can still only hold 2 electrons like before so although seems certain rules apply now 1 big question they get past when people start doing a lot of these as well as the tongue in a dry do I have to put these labels and get you have to put the labels so you have to have the stigma in you also have to have a little subscript that tells us where it came from these came from the 1 s orbitals pain we took 1 s orbitals mix them together and got these new orbitals so that's the subscript where it comes from do you have to have the starting at the point yesterday that tells you that it's antibodies that tells you that something in this horrible taking away from the bond so you have to drop all of this together .period now she wears the same sort of idea behind me a lot from the revealing enough for support us so we fell into the the same rules as before you once you and then we move up to the higher energy if we have to so it's Latin hence and insisted that 1st new capital Road the periodic table now when we move into lithium beryllium now we have to us orbitals to work was still so noticing a little bit more complicated but it's really just this redrawn appear industry drawn up here was no big thing that changes from year to year the number is I although have to consider the the 2nd energy level perhaps soon look at this How many elections we have totaled In this lithium 6 so we fell at the start of the modern go up we don't have to worry about where these elections really come from the 1 we certainly has more complicated ones will care little that but not even then you really want to know how many of electrons we have and we haven't built into our atomic level atomic energy level now it's just a matter of filling and we have 6 elections we start at the bottom and work their way up the same thing for a brilliant yet 8 so we go through a felon reduction it doesn't matter where they came from I wasn't sitting here concentrating on effective killing of 4 here said Paul oral hearing to hear effort to win there could well that Samantha but you don't really worry about that it's just filling and again notice I put over here and at the atomic level that put the atomic energy level diagrams you have to draw all then you have to label and you have to draw these
10:02
and have to label those with some scripts In starters were necessary all right now let's take a moment and talk about Barber will see a bunch more of these more complicated ones in a minute but I want federal bond order 1st and how we figure that out so we've already talked about this sort of whether something taxable bond order but not exactly how to calculate so played a lot from the bombing or in a bonding orbital which set at 100 evil into an international level attracts about now each 1 is done added subtract half a bonds this makes sense of what we're doing coming in with what we talked about up until this moment in time how many electrons make a bond to write in a single line would have found the election did in a double on how many the act for German 6 that so that there already kind of flows of the logic that we have we know that in a single line we have to which means that each electron would add a new that's what happens here force subtracted the entered marble so this is sort of the formula for it but quite honestly I mean it's almost easier to just think about rather than using the formula you the way you want to find will walk through balls so this formula says that he take a number of bonding electrons so the electron Delaware finding little finally he subtracts the number letter and intent of and then you divide by 2 and that just count for the fact that intellectually really calls for half a day were not actually the and electron to Albany moral Italy adding and half not awful so you can roughly think of this course find a single double or triple bonds it's sort of the equivalent thought process just a different theory but in your life have bonded as a decimal points which is nice because before we can really do that very animated talk about it but how did we have to join those bond if we do think here sapling homework think about that and it was his and all 3 immediately headed off hundreds of Sadr that in order to see what the bonds look like President structures right so we couldn't get in there wasn't really a distinctive way of drawing in a half of Iowa we just kind of had to say it now we have and so let's go back and look at this again and actually counted the bond orders for each 1 so 1st look at hydrogen so how many electrons do we haven't bonding orbitals just this 1 right are environment know all those on even really very rightly taken those immediate molecular orbitals are among the largest ah ,comma goggles so we're just looking at these 2 bonding this is a and had so from electrons we have in the bonding to come in and have so what is the 1 right to minus 0 peoples divided by 2 was 1 already so what do we think hydrogen is going to be and a molecule is each 2 going to be something that exists now and when we draw I wouldn't we always draw hydrogen would look at a bond sale by which goes along with this quite well on helium How many electrons do we have the bonding bottles they come in and about 2 on so according to a formula then that's to minus 2 is 0 divided by 2 so so there really a kind of a if you don't wanna fell under the formula all the time will he had to hearing to hear the completely cancel out suddenly 0 slightly faster is thinking about it so you end up with this so do we think that each early helium diatonic feeling I was going to be something that exists in nature now I wanna 0 that's not stable that's not something that happens but now also at so how many electrons we have been bonding were also 4 1 2 3 4 and how many 210 too so what is the bond but will start over the coming 2 and money models How many do you have any undermining models in what's said about 2 but now about beryllium 0 so to every week beginning about we can fill in the formula and say Well we have harmed the money models for 2 hearing to hear how many intent on models to hear and to hear anything new to go back and talk about 100 about Israel's emerge if something doesn't have a staff that the bombing was is something does have a that year and had 1 so any many of these here in here so the amount are we these on the side at all no bills are atomic level diagrams with what they're trying to show where the rebels are coming from but those were not coming were not counting those electrons as part of the war bonds were just looking at the IMO diagram which is assigned head so we have found the electrons and binding levels for many Intermountain models for so formations for so 0 I want us to be there quick area it's
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analysis goal in this sort of next complication level 1 evening organist arguing with now murals so now
16:33
we have to combine in the world now there's a couple of different ways we can do this because we have multiple durables so this is an irony nearby already so we're taking these 2 Urals and with these 2 Urals were combining them together now how we urinals told do we have in the last 3 and were combined to atoms together 6 so harmony orbital there really get out of this whole thing 6 or so once we combine all these together were an end up with 6 now here I only have 4 were kind of so why do you think that is I think that's what our others things look like when you don't have hibernation we can overlap in 2 different ways right it was the 1st way that makes a signal bond and 9 and rightly so it took a long look direction and finally got alive on and in what was the other way that we could do it signed on fire of imaginable here here Loepere Loepere using influence satisfied but we could do that in 2 different dimensions right if we did this in this dimension of this industry can we can go there so there's a lot of this same sort of thing applies here says knowledge training at Qana mechanically rather than sort of the other way so here's what we're doing if we look at this this kind this looks like a few of earlier history is thinking of it as the start of the 2 loaves of a balloon and you can overlap in 2 different ways because of that the positive and negative loves to see you can get a bonding work well or you can get an about now what they look like that so this is sort of your pictures of waterborne arrival in international now that they are not direction seeking fantasy than this 1 and this 1 coming together now that if we do decide on fire now you get this sort of attack was that would really similar to those already talked about you cannot so seems sort of idea just of slightly more mathematical treatment of it and then you have your entire bonding now of course is why you could do in the other dimension as well and that's why that's where the other 1 will come from so you would have 1 of these and you have 2 of these the fact that they would look the same just 1 in onedimensional in the other however so
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when we go currently making these sorry showing you a few of the simpler ones but this is sort of my way of the house stepping out all the stops for you for me in the forum among the more complicated 1st step is you're going to draw your atomic diagrams and so the same things that we do around the last midterm material during a need to be able to do that so you can enjoy your atomic orbital diagram is off to the side right Yuri to fill in the electron they normally would so know something like ,comma then you would put your electrons in your casserole and elections New pure bills just like before now this is hard that's going to be a little weary until we actually look at it this as a decide which order the energy diagram would follow where is without alone for a moment and I'll show you what we actually I have pictures of elects a new kind of all the valence electrons in but sometimes will draw and no 1 asked I'm in and above all the way up above all I really care for them or diagrams that you draw the valence shall right so if we're talking about hydrogen and helium just 1 ever talking about all of the 2nd rose just drove to the to listen to so once we draw although then you're going to take the valence electrons from Europe ,comma diagrams here Apple's electrons which is what we did for lithium and Berlin right we said OK well there's this many electrons we added them all up and we feel that seems thinking now this next part Pauli exclusion principle Heinz enough of principles still apply what all those I want the principle that I sort of told you about and said you know make sure you know the basic ideas you can follow they don't care enough about these will 1 said Can I want you electrons going up In order now on the 1 has to be spent up 1 has to be said that they were the ones I said How do you feel across keyword or do you failed to win the first one and then 1 by itself or would you go 1 2 3 1 2 3 across all those are all those roles during unitary does exactly the same as hasn't come up yet because we've just been dealing with a florals seem apply knowledge actually do these liberals make sense of the entire 2nd road I so it's not counting the 1st 2 that we're dead he is only not to be able to replicate if I handed you a piece of paper and to do this at all as you goes on in get super complicated out and I'll tell you exactly what you do need to know but for your reference right now you should be able to replicate the slide by on your own with a blank sheet of paper I'm not actually do that and you're going to paper and say no make that we should be able to if I wanted to to but some born that's so 1st step is making atomic level died so I've already drawn isn't for you just for the sake of time but I don't have to Johnson free ride on an exam I can just say making them a diagram of boron making the ammo diagram of carbon but for the sake of time I drafted in for so if we're right in the valence electrons from Borland it looks like that 3 so I did this for each side donors were born here now we just the next part if you look at your side wasted decide on the order of the diagram look at these born carbonated and inelegant oxygen flooring what's different about the order His Python so here we have Sigma's higher than 5 higher high signals higher and higher Pius silence is now where this kind of thing was referring to
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these are the types of bonds so the way that we overlap so we overlap in 1 way and we get this this that is Sigma Pi say applies hybridization of assignment with the same married and 9 and the segment and in these reply that's why we have to hire local sorry we have 2 different versions of this we can overlap in 1 dimension or the other dimension of Baptist so that's how we
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get this pie Anderson now we have for each 1 of those we have a bonding and entire bonding so the user morals the there and I binding models so when he might decide on the order is basically for the slide is boron carbon and nitrogen you're going to do this order Is the oxygen flooring this order now a question that may be running through your mind is somewhere in the world that I get this wrong right I just put up the whole picture and not really completely explain how I got basically people plugged in all these equations and the computers just like when I showed you the pictures of the warbles and I said Hey this is what the probability density look like all mapped out single people want Sinochem here in a calculated these see what they look like in inactive really well extend so that's where he's come from so that's why we know that this is a different order here in here now if you look at this in your book you'll notice I mean my own diagram of this is based off make can but not your In your book they have all at the exact same energy levels they didn't really enjoyed as energy level by that the incident governing after you so it looks like it just flip flops here but there's some magical thing that flipflops if you look at my mine where we notice about this .period years they're really just a flipflopper what's happening here it's a slow greedy and it said here this happens to be quite a bit higher in goes lower and lower and lower I don't care that you know exactly these ordering services this isn't scale or anything of that sort I just wanted to get across the idea that this isn't just this magical .period where flipflops it is agreed and that are level that someone calculated that the computer Peter will calculate for went so when that middle bulletin .period on the last flight when 180 decide the orders forward these you have to know that for this grouping the signal is higher than the and for this grouping this pious higher than the summer does that happen appeared be used now those are the same rights as just the bottom 2 of the key that you have to worry about now if you may defending your slides glance the head notice I don't have any of the other died comics in the periodic table on doesn't want anything that means you have to memorize all the followed throughout table now where is as far as we're going to go for what you have to me like Noli ordering for this year had when I'm going on a morning and afternoon making memorize like any more than that of so this is the sort of thing we need to know when you need to know how this flipflop but so let's actually make diagrams so we have this we decided that the order is the tide is lower than the same month because dried out so from electrons do we have told the workers 6 serious felonies notice I did with the key tonight but stand stand down here and 1 or no you fill them crossstrait just like he did when he appeared on walls near drawing the atomic global diagrams we do the exact same thing here we spread them out come on what's the word for this new tool or bills that are the same energy levels in London that the that coupled people remembered so remember that freezing to write and I say winding area virus saying what is the meanest to areas that to energy the 2 Orioles sitting at the same energy level using that's to gender switching that terminology but it was an undercurrent harmony male electrons where so if elements you have to fill that in in order to get all your points you can just leave it would just the ammo diagram you have to again remember all of the subscripts so notice what changes here a substance used to us right where does that come from we're here demand from the when these come from to that at some electrons so you can fill in the 1 House for this and I think here but they do although personally I don't care if you do or don't for exam because they're all going to be the same in so it gets a little redundant Ollila carriers valence electrons to that we're going to be filling until your valence electrons are the ones actually doing the binding so if you just do your valence ones refined and honestly for lithium and beryllium if you just to us and find that you don't have to draw on the 1 st bonding like Bindura criticism doesn't actually make a difference because many filling the electrons account for a company would you have in the bonding orbital of 1 and that's you and how many we have in the binding and Emmanuel to say we can't file anyway so it's it's strong both ways let us know if the electrons so he can draw the Marlins now for nature and we have 5 billion before you can be getting the pattern here so a little quicker so how many electron 10 it yeah next summer Nunavut 12 total yes exceeds the total at 3 and catching apparently any questions over during this oversight and it's redundant if I talked too much so so this is sort of the bird the Mac's figuring how to replicate from scratch without some information from any these free game for me to say job ammo diagram of nitrogen without any other information now it's concerned calculate the order since the little bit more complicated exact same rules apply to right the questions looks like members of the of and so on and so on all that good catch that the toupee fashion thank you keep thinking and I will I will be satisfied and positive but so now it is also calculated monitor so how many do we haven't bonding orbitals here 4 once you and indeed 4 come in and have money models to so binary then 1 you certain cats also the pattern that these just all cancel out and so if you're doing this sort of on the fly in your head which someone you like to do that perfectly fine you can actually serving northerners notice that they cancel out Europe calculating it seems sort of thing but it doesn't make a difference in the way so next 1 we have how many over how many electrons and models we have 4 here but then don't forget these sex and how many here 2 so to show that I and so we look at this and say Well how many do we have in mind models well it's 6 years then to hear some and then how many here so we get a shovel Over the next 1 oxygen so many Miami adults 6 2 with 8 and how many intent 2 and 4 some of the monitor to don't use a little
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bit slower home too and make sure that you can do this kind of all from scratch but have Florida so the same rules so we have to win bonding orbitals here 6 and bonding orbitals here to an Internet bonding here for the entire binding here so we get a minus 6 0 counting everything that's not in an unmarked orbital some money also doesn't have a standard were counting those demanding and anything that would also have the star on the antibody levels for putting noses subtract Indiana costs 0 because it's completely felt so long as insofar fires as practical significance in that it will change some of your bungalows on a little bit on the lower levels of much of the village that adjusts its it'll change others parent agreed adding that inventories love on as far as how it comes about it's because of the calculations is because when you actually plug these into a computer and you actually get the energy values out the significance happens below but lower than the price of a new really have to worry too much about why that is other than that it's In a 2nd I mean as far as I'm all of them it's the question was Is there any way to know a unions like such said to cheer question was you know how is there any way to figure out how many electrons are binding in the bonding orbitals only antibody models without making him a diagram not release of aiming at you get really get anything can mingle your head you could do that we're still creating a more diagrams and is a little tough to do that with of you can get kind of quicker and because they don't ask you to draw like you can just sort of dropped the lines without having to drop out the pies signals labeling them be really kind after Chretien to this is it yes so that the question was do do you use this starts for anything other than diatonic molecules in the answer is yes thank you for your own sort entertainment and knowledge gained through a book on over the section that had that has and you can see that they do for water and you can see that they do for benzene little bit beyond the scope of this class so word and leave that the you'll talk about it a little bit organic chemistry describes some things like how benzene works and then if you take physical chemistry of talk about it a lot but in this class kind of Gallego a diet now something that we will cover is currently about how you won't have know ordering like for instance whether pine Sigma flipflops like this like this but I'll tell you that you can create will do that and you can use them for much more complicated molecules it just there's this point where in this class and there's a level of memorization to it that loses a little bit value there is another hand but the question was for the atomic orbitals diagrams on the side you have to draw everything in her specifically the electrons yes you have to draw the electrons and make sure you label until on exams this 1 the 1 people forget to label and indifferent felony electrons because they're so busy concentrating on this part of it but you really need to have both the only out but so now we must do this for and so on the same sort rules apply as all of the things we've been doing before but now we're going to do the money order so we are in fact electrons as we need so if something is the negative ion a out from attack negative ion Patterson attract electrons that right given negative ion so you need an extra negative charge you at an electron would have only compounded taken electron or so the same rules as always applied here make sure you take them away all your properly United take to from the same if you're in the pipe bombs all ANC singles applies before giving a start low and build you start with the lowenergy electrons and lowenergy orbitals and go up to the higher energy or now what I came here this does not apply to homeowners there died on me now home on nuclear that means a nuclear strike so I had nuclear would mean different so keep that in mind when you're thinking about things so far we've only done the homeowner clear once and that's just because they're a little bit simpler to deal with and so starting but when we get that the where we're doing 100 nuclear once you're always going to give the electrons to the Electra negative ads where you can take the electrons away from the nonelectronic the Will automated need not after how much it wants to pull electron density twice so we have to act in an electron Oregon wanting him into the thing that wants a lot attendants fear the cynicism and I don't want them anything I wanted so if you're adding electrons give it to the Electra negative if you're taking away electrons give to the more never got shouldn't take away from the more likely get a takeaway from the last elected black straight another 1 a lot of electron unsolicited get away from them now that played any role does that matter when we get to the I'm over at the middle part now we're still just discounting electrons and filling them in the so let's see this real fast so was dominated and so this is straight from Europe other adult area other diagram that we I put it here just so that it matches with the charges so this is a whole nuclear 1 so it doesn't really matter where we added subtract from we should do it symmetrically once we get to a charge of 2 other so let's see the engine phosphors so if we hadn't plus I American takeaway Laterna added take away the narrow take from over here and so we fell and I took with 1 on the left those now we commonly electrons we have which is 9 and we fell however by next month so that students 1 so we have a negatively charged ions so I really don't add spectacular Veteran out electron does anatomy idea so again added selected as and when we fell and now we have a lot of electrons so that but so negative so we now added into electrons for 1 more from here now doesn't really matter we until we should keep a symmetrical so we should add 1 to each side so I added 1 to the side and 1 of the side so when we go to fill in yeah now notice here same rules apply with the ions that a fight with the regular atoms or molecules that I fill in 1 here and 1 here I don't put to a woman was right when you had the general also rules of the same energy level we fell across 1st and then double up if you other snow also did the bond orders for each of these so what was the bond order for nature "quotation mark look look calculate this year right but will be calculated
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incidents and have a large agreement so how many on bonding orbitals it's 6 here Institute here and how many years and murals too so we have in mind order of 8 minus 2 divided by 3 or Alex is currently the canceling the and and taking the 6 invited by 2 and so we get a binder of 3 for nature but now what we going to happen when we address attract electrons so let's look at the pattern of heard this attractive an electric what we think is going to happen here is monitoring the upper deck no doubt about where did take away an electron from what we have to wait is took 1 away from the on normal this 1 right here that the bombing orbital took an electronically from Seoul to do a lot from them but then bonding orbitals actual bombers attacked the ad reminding me to 1 of those away so this 1 should be lowered now look at this 1 where did we have an electron to a binding went on and had entered money so that when can be lower or higher that was losing about again if you ask lot to intent on the model does that add subtract from moderate since fracturing timehonored think in tight binding and it keeps it from Monday at the it's subtracts from the bottom so intense bonding takes away from the bond finding adds to the bond so now we have an electron to an intent on the model of orbital it doesn't make keeps it from Monday so they're going to have a lower bound where higher lower Is this 1 didn't even lower reasonable back routinely higher even lower rates and added another 1 and if needed another reminder as if we made minus3 even lower it's not calculator Mulholland through so if we take this and we made it we calculate all of our electron the nonbinding orbitals sets 2 4 6 8 and all manner and had bonding orbitals we now if we do it for this 1 we had to have and we know advantages are you with that now 1 3 and we do and floss now we have to 4 6 7 minus 2 it should have then there is any sense of what we just talked about what we started of 3 no we took away when I was in a bind would we expected to go down by half yeah right because electrons Patterson tracked how much of the land if you forget about that you can think about the fact that we have always talked about a single having to electron very so each 1 now over here we 1 we added to an antibody model so that when I had any subtracted a half as well here subtracted 0 hole in Vatican it added into electrons and both went to Atlanta by that so this is how you do I we will eventually get to 1 where you have to Republican leaders himself but this 1 we don't need any scenario think minute and look at a case I think it's fairly interesting enough molecular oxygen so this is not diagram for molecular oxygen I took it straight from the oven others libraries started with oxygen now there's something to notice about the 1st of all of the bond 2 .period I got that because how many are among the world's 2 4 6 8 Pioneer 2 4 so we get a moderate now is paradigm that occurs a diamond attic he was never far from a permanent diamond that needs paramedic that the unheralded paired electrons and their diamond Medicare and other so now we have character and articles on the diamond medical staff is paramount noted chairman that of I think we can agree upon us right now Lewis structure for oxygen normally drive and just take a few seconds and all the Lewis structure and forget about an Annadiane for interstellar structure time everyone is writing Of that would look like I'm so but the level of 102 In in this way of thinking about it is that the double liners in the bottom of the double 1 so that the party is apparent now level of that I can make it ,comma periodically bondholders I don't like that but now I have her magnetic but would Europe when I did that the bomber and I have a monitor of the respectively 1 there of well 100 dollars than to make it so they have a moderate to and that magnetic you don't think you can really do it so it's 1 of those situations so that what is experiencing right that however we should go to which which won the right is amount very Arena Stage dryer is a guarantee that this Lewis structure will it's good the experiment if I would take hour to the old porcelain with good oxygen over magnet you would see that it really is apparently so that's true is definitely paramedic and the thing is that when you mention the bond lengths we have ways of doing that the bond come not to be too so we can't actually accurately represented like this although it doesn't actually 1 1 or the other is sort of not represented properly the level diagram we can actually represent exactly when all you're exactly what experience as so they originally had said that at the animal very little more complicated but it's a little bit better at explaining things it's cases like this that ,comma on there's not a ton of money but it does come up some excellent eschew carbonmonoxide so this is the 1st time I show you a federal cleared by from now rules released from what I can cost you want I can tell you that dropping diagram of something like a lower and always something of that sort but I have to give some hints I have to tell you the order so you'll notice Kaplan will do this you will tighten drawing a diatonic and then I'll tell you the ordering of the energy levels this is what they're getting so in this case I just on this out for you I never went have to draw that but I would have to say Well have segment to us said which was started prior to the prior to the star and then segment to there is a copy paste which Chino to please and I'll I'll fix that by it's a glitch it's a systematic problem script on that so let's look at this 1st of all we're going to do similar things other than so why not noble gasses from died ,comma molecules and use low diagram prudent solution doesn't have to do CEO let look hear helium McKinney what is your bond order on all of us 0 so it was that if you were a former behind you know the exact same number of electrons in the bonding orbitals as the antibody mortals and so there it's going to fall apart you're going to have a reminder 0 there's nothing that's going to be holding it together so animal diagram she dried Obama I need your examples of how the next time you notice near
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saplings homework that London did moved back we'll make it quite as far as I hope not illegal arms earlier sapling deadline battle