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Lecture 13. Hybridization Examples and MO Diagram Introduction


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worse off at this point in the slides so we've done some hybridization now it's actually take what we learned last time in applying to a bunch of examples of now costs a little bit from scratch Air mobile bacterial other Lewis structures that we drew here and a little bit too but I was kind of that idea at this point to make some new structures not just go back to our Lewis structures right away this reminded you and you know how to draw Lewis structures and haven't been through everything so we can kind of threw everything at once so if I want to know the hybridization of the carbon and C H 4 kids look at this and maybe he entered yesterday knows adroitly your is great I mean probably can't and that's fine but no 1 knows which is probably more likely nobody this 1st Lewis structures that I structure is always going to be a 1st step so any take input ,comma 1 it's listed 1st which is normally a good clue now we have a lot of times also it's hydrogen can perform multiple once so common got a goal in the Senate well ,comma electrons just to make sure that everything works out of which at this point you may kind skipping over with the simpler ones snake stranger are complicated ones we draw a skeletal structure we make sure that everything has not for case of hydrogen duet were Saturday we have all of our electrons atonement for so that
such Lewis structure by tsunami need to figure out what kind of hybridization is present so what is the 1st step to securing that house figuring number because that almost how many hybrid orbitals need so where there staring American bought so harmony however rules do indeed for so we need for hybrid orbitals commentary on older women have to mix together to get the 4 so we start with low-energy which and we count out so we need some key is how he's doing it for 3 Certain as 3 hybridized problem now when you look on your slides the other part of that question was a each avenues to bond with so we haven't completely talked about that explicitly but we've taken on roles and we media new hybrid orbitals in order to form bonds into long Pearson so let's look at the hydrogen 1st because I think it'll will easier here moral of hydrogen using the bottom line using it as sort of it's the only allowable electrons and if you're in a look at the electron energy diagram for it just looks like that it's the only thing that we really have to work with the December 1 at select and 1 orbital requests now more complicated 1 this common using the violence nor do we have the Orioles anymore How did make 3 levels we and we took our ass also need to copy orbitals mixed up together in the Main St 3 orbitals so do we have any ArcelorMittal's left in the car now do you have any funerals often had no word on all the rehab ST 3 also what orbitals are coming using the bond with St fear so common bonds with 3 and then hydrogen bonds with us but next 1 you're actually just for fun instances that review which did geometries you right when I was at young suddenly for things I wanted to it and so it's going to be Tagesspiegel geometry is the lecturer molecular geometry the same yet In each 3 so 1st step .period Lewis structures so we know that nitrogen has 5 valence electrons each of the hydrogen have 1 so we have so we draw this out With that a hydrogen bomb are we done now all right what is announced as a lone pair could so we have added right to know what isn't stereo number so what is the coronation of helps too so coordination number is yours the number of months according nation number is 3 in your steric number is your number of bonds and what else 1 origins a number of things that is bonded to animal hairs steric number is a man woman or about how we would get so much to geometries narrative so what is art geometry correct Townsend along here and what a molecular geometry Our nitrogen in the a wheeler-dealer Louisiana's my annually Adams because it's a little bit faster so if all these Adams that we have that and now we take this silly we put a lone pair there so base is a triangle and it looks like a pyramid so it's the trail around and next partner hybridization so how would we know it's steered numbers for itself how many hybrid orbitals doing for so how many do we need to start with thought so it's going to be T 3 1 asks entreaties that starts with 4 we make some altogether we make asked the 3 orbitals also now do we have any more and sawmills on maintenance they have a materials manager know what kind or Moses at nite in half ST 3 articles of so what hydrogen used bond with 1 after the other 1 of nitrogen used to bond with as the 3 wears lone pair what is mentioned in half would see only orbitals nitrogen has test history right doesn't have any answers now that it is now they only have what as the series so it bonds with the nasty here and through here and ask history here and has a nasty through the this b a little repetitive here seem to last longer hydrogen bonds were Nigerian bonds of the S 3 In lone pairs in the SEC good considering Oh
you mean for Spurrier the hybridization 53 Park those the other 1 pair CIA it's because taken all the s orbitals another pure but also in the mix and the other leaders forming sort of water so that all we have left effective immediately known in do that because when we set this up we want the lawn-care industry bounced all have a place to go there far away from each other as possible the next on PCL 5 so we draw this 1 out In plan all along Paris are there any free have all electrons will see that were also set so now we get to go hunting together down from the state numbers are appointed him so 1st of all stare number and coordination number at the same this time so what is that going to be library at 1 2 3 4 4 so what is the make geometry trailed by rental if for both but had not hybridization so staring numbers 5 so many having hybrid orbitals we need 5 here being the space modest much as possible and so we need to start with murals right so we have asked Peace three-day gets us for urinals indeed Estes 380 the the next part of what is everything bond with so let's start exploring well as electronic diagram acquire look like we draw this out so what is exploring the means to bond with as Melchior something else the is key that's because that's all I have that's only open spot for go OK now what about the fastest just because the sign for says Pyongyang survive out so what is the fastest in it's a 1st small doesn't have any answers orbitals Ershad surveillance of sort of know what about your bills no we took all the way to someone who doesn't have any has some electrons and we can use with indeed but were not going to use D on it's all right what used ST 380 renews is a hybrid and that's how we used to bond readers S T 3 d orbitals to is that these bonds are made up of chlorine is pure gold overlapping with phosphorus is asked to 3 D what you do so when these products like this yeah you can you can usually say that because what's going to happen is easily organize bondage 1 out now that doesn't work if you move on to the very next example because this 1 doesn't really have just a central right so if you're talking about ones like we've been doing up until now where you just have a central London and the outside yet the ones that are on the outside you can say and hybridized you could in fact tried making argument saying that the hybridize but there's no real reason to do that so next 1 CH to Earth 3 C H L so this is testing whether you can draw your organic structures in our city can forget about any of those so luckily they tend to give you hints on how to draw them by how the written so we haven't seen with 3 ages on it and then that's going to rebound into the which is bonded to an H no How did I know not to make that like in try sitting in the China do it there's not going to be a freedom by on seats everything in debt for bonds everything and have everything worked out perfectly so go ahead and give it a shot if you want and you can see why but said now let's talk about each covering individually because we need to so I'm just gonna call this Carbonell Food Co I was just call carbon-dating company so we have something to refer to by so what about the carbon that we have labeled what is this number OK so just fun what's the geometry such huge alright for I'm at now hybridization so we have 4 bombs we had we knew how many hybrid models for so really
need to take a class in 3 peas and combine them together so that'll be asking but what is that common using the bond history so if I pointed this pondering here and they say what overlapping orbitals makes up on you would say from hydrogen it is above 1 asks in from carbon it is as but no sooner carbon which I believe will be OK with that start number right this form but there's only 3 items that are attached so that a stock number so that means that our geometry is what plans agreements the 3 things that we need to get spread out as much as possible so you can your mind rotate around happens that eventually fell on hopefully seasonal that it's a triangle and it's all 1 plane so it's trading range up to now hybridization staring emissaries of many orbitals renewed from have a role 3 so what in 1 arson to please stand to 3 now can I simply for all the so far distance in what is a bond with the beginning at the Farrelly said the song and a little more explicit right so let's say 1 of them form its signal bonds with so remember singular any of your single moms an Indian economy the first one but I guess 1 of the bonds of the double what had so what is the form Barnsley St to get those odds hybrid orbitals you made those hybrid orbitals sought to set up so that skeletal structure so that's all in a abounded and he made with your hybrid orbitals now what other kind of bond that carbon has a primer know what is your plan on 1 was what we had last year the right but I think you're being a little too smart cities to backtrack a little bit of a so what we have left leftovers we haven't the right because we had 1 and we had refused so we took away and after we took away 2 of the peace so we just have 1 the looked over some of intolerance that area and that is what we had to begin with and what we have left over so that spawned with your P orbitals now is that orbital than the overlapping with the oxygen on and on and for the time sign on the side for the the sign on Friday single lines overlapped and none and Pinelands overlaps identified L occurrence right so the Fed .period in this bond right there and I say want to overlapping orbitals make that bond you'd see from this commented as a nasty 3 infamous carbonated a Astacio can now just fast enough I could say how many similar bonds do we have 1 2 3 4 5 and then any rules count 1 of on that faces 6 trade once used 3 4 5 6 bonds in how plan 1 now what if I ask you to see if we can draw line structure of this something online structures so far we haven't really had any that work well for it but now we do so to draw a line structure of this we put our nominated for 1st and we already here and that's a 2nd city and now we have to put whatever is on the carbon so we have an oxygen here double bond so we're drawing a double bond oxygen do I have to dollars 107 no so the only Aso's whole 7 thinks is just draw you that it would be drawn a little bit nicer with would struggle other delicate and nephew all the same questions about so don't worry about line structures I talked about the main Class license the video with the examples so don't forget about them I now may sound so keep this molecule started in mind maybe even still up because I have a better pictures In a of drawl them all for you but are in the really making so I made use pictures the computer that so this is not a lot we just looked at drawn-out now I'm drawn out the Orioles 4 years ago the same molecule just on slightly different angles for a transitional monthly concede these pictures online so if you can a don't Tread Rollin unless you really like drawing their own line so if you have something like this so what this carbon right here be what was labeled in our picture the 8 right at the carbon and that's the 1 that has the 3 hybridize straight you have these 4 hybrid orbitals coming off similarly you hydrogen are or forms a sort of overlapping structure in here so that you have this bond which was your bond between your 2 carbons so you have your overlapping asked the 3 In your overlapping of the 2 now this would be a 2nd comment I actually I have for whatever reason I decided to draw up home oxygen hybridize which I didn't need to do not sure why did that you can do it either way so this overlapping view about what would that that formally applied months I haven't drawn quite yet fell flat to
houses different of sup now you have applied on so you can see those is this pink 1 time-honored 2 pylons 1 pay is just like appeal it's 1 or middle that has 2 walls this is 1 Thai bonds but it has to evolve set and you sort of a picture of what we were doing with the Lewis structures is what you kind want think about your had as you're drawing the structures out of this is not something I would ask you to draw but I'll ask enough questions on it that I know that you have in your head so when
relief for you now apparently not
the other so some industrial list of things to remember and you're going through your homework and you're doing these problems in your getting ready to study however many and hybridized orbitals you start with common you end up with so few tell me something it passed key to hybridize it's going to have a family member also 3 at which we had to work backwards and that's the right we need for orbitals we know we need to do ask history because we need for articles now hybrid orbitals are the atomic orbitals Ray so in at only takes its own atomic orbitals in new form these hybrid orbitals from hearing the bonds are formed by overlapping the atomic orbitals but each Adam trade keeps its own board adjusted overlaps in that forms its bonds were not combine eh In survival from this out from the start of anything like that this will offer hybrid orbitals hybridization your bonds are formed when the hybrid overlap each Adam gets its own hybridization typewriter when you look at that last 1 it didn't matter that 1 country was asked the 3 1 carbon was asked you to you each Adam individually you say states this 1 is sealed this hybridization 1 this hybridization and they don't they don't rely on each other here's single bonds are formed from your hybrid orbitals event or if you have on hybridize Adams they can be formed from your asses are peace but they do there are some people in your own mind hybridize Adams or hybrid orbitals up your time answering e-mail from your leftover orbitals and they're made from that side on-site overlapping direct services to serve list summary things the things you want keeping your mind as you doing all of these I want to help you in the visualization again because some of this is really hard to picture I
have some videos that are actually work for the day so this is so it's 2 CH 3 groups so you can see it all a lot our it buy a little quick let's start so you have the 2 CH 3 groups coming together and notice they have a 2nd little old there which I had it's very difficult to drive selected times they don't ask don't necessarily draw them and you can see them all and then you have the hydrogen is coming in and bonding see agency where you get the geometry from agency this 1 is the spine called Sigma Pi at the same time as overlapping and on and and in each of the other bonds between the carbon and hydrogen is also signal so the agency drawn out like that I want to at the then so been if
you remember from your fundamental section that have a double bond so it's a siege to stage 2 With a double bond so that 1 right there is what Bonsignore signal and then that the yellow band your so that's how you get your double bonds then you had your hydrogen is coming in the agency held the geometries all worked there in all different directions now those studios those online gesticulate or illegalities as comes from your books that comes from Iraq that I can but so I don't have those posted online but if you was steaming into some office hours and can replace in 4 years which is unique already renal Baxter some your Lewis structures and our endured a little bit quicker so we went through a year older structures that we just did a pretty quickly Wearing a triangle little that Foster Lewis structures where does the negotiations we have everything else done up and we're just going to hybridization we're skipping maintenance because the outsider itself that's 1 not so interesting so this 1 so what they're staring number 3 so how many need 3 hybrid orbitals so it's going to be what hybridization has now I wouldn't performance England 101 of the common from single nonetheless that's the to orbitals I pointed this what is common for forming the high bond with as the 2 heightened farming and I would ask that and what is the primary formed with How will he would actually actually the but the event so common the same abounds performed would be asking chortles and the apply bond is formed the the key it's not decide what is the hybridization on board has mustered for so it needs ,comma hybrid also foresaw what kind of religion as the 3 at the moment the maintenance the same thing a 1 2 3 4
staring number for hybrid orbitals also so it needs to be asked the 3 hybridized what is both boron and Major-General below their bonds formed with as the 3 articles where the hydrogen formed what bonds that orbital the hydrogen Vermont with that all right at at and remember this is left for Class 1 so young couple that look very similar to the snake she realizes that the 4 plus 1 OK so what is the staring for so what is the hybridization as the 3 going back to to this 1 so we had ended in an hour or so were really just talking about the 1 nitrogen here what is the harmonization of what's a certain number To some your unit to surge past the such as the hybridized when single bonds formed with some of its local news editor what isn't what warbles a single man from there so From the nation is going to be asked the right now what is the major news form the pipe bombs here get the time under form with the euro that how similar bonds you have in this out To the molecules are too how many 10 the training every different way attended tests on this so these are the questions on throwing out you living really quick test questions but we have the sells stared number equals 60 so hybridization women asked previous and harmony doing India's sex yeah as 3 D 2 at happened hybridization the other 1 of these X after this time without the 4th loss so what is the staring number 6 straight don't forget my own pairs 1 2 3 4 5 6 so that means that we have to have what sort of hybridization the 3 D 2 this is is counting on this 1 Peachtree so if you have 1 2 3 1 also being so it's going to be as please do 1 2 so
once did the Lewis structure on their excellent questions a relatively quick once you but I know that you want kind of practice just going through and picking a random structure drawing at figuring out the steric number coordination number electron geometry molecular geometry bond angles and hybridization of any molecule you can find it on the best way to practice the whole section write this line said a couple of Alonso looking here 1st looking at the sulfur somewhat higher radiation and the sulfur well actually not our this over was of the opted for this 1 so it's just look at the oxygen while in the hybridization of oxygen these oxidants letters as P what right don't forget about these I heard if you ask he's in there so that counsel accounts for these 2 warbles the 1 going destruction along going this way you also need a compliment Peiris said SG 3 earlier this month for -minus still so we have during rest 6 so how many have varietals Iranian 602 B S P 3 days yes so we're escape that 1 gets into having the keys in the deal is there so just don't worry about that dollars while I can escape this seeking but about it yeah the travel ban this a Union for the on H C and maybe a new book makes on your question there is no answer without having it up so that the triple bonds you'll have 1 single mom there and then there will be a pipeline for each of the other 1 so it'll be too high singing the other things going on in a molecule ahead of the time on the ridge just the 1 triple bond they would be Tupac the ground 0 I actually see like with the and 1 so yet if there's only 1 that's more stable than the other you have to stick with the most stable 1 so you just sticking with the most stable 1 if you have something like this where all the same stability it doesn't actually make a difference in the other population so we can do this 1 just as it has so far we have this 1 what is the hybridization mandated in here you know the exact same way so just because you have resonance doesn't actually change anything so How many things that we have 3 so what we need as the and then the Kia market appeal orbitals will be used to form the sort of political violence yes on the Net :colon and the sun yeah yeah get that this is going to go through the set amid the absence can we go through the primaries they want everything uses bond with everything so let's start with the Florio was flooring used to bond lotus flooring have it was just another valence shell so if you draw this out what a flooring not yeah has curable here so Florin uses key now chlorine so while exploring use of violence yet however also so chlorine users the 3 detailed now 1 other questioning nastier than that I actually happened and a few the other ones where the lone pairs that so where they would orbitals that St Theresa Ireland pairs are also going to be a those however yes go further you know had the
orbitals bonds yeah I wondered how about the civil so yes "quotation mark yes anything else all right now it's a Tamil theory itself this 1 started drastically differs from hybridization theory they're both very useful just to written different things in general still in Allenspark hybridization have overlapping atomic orbitals right we had orbitals from 1 out of overlapping with laurels from another and now when we make those hybrid orbitals we took all the Orioles from 1 out opinion use those to make new atomic orbitals now what we're doing is we're taking atomic orbitals in releasing them together to make molecular orbitals instead so those orbital they're going to go on to the whole molecule already sold this look quantum-mechanical treat bonding that this goes into the quantum mechanics rather than sort of and it just a general explanations so you also belonging to your molecules not the Adams which is a big difference from atomic bomb from the hybridization now O'Meara combination of atomic orbitals whatever that means so what that means is that you're adding or subtracting atomic orbitals together now remember back before the 1st midterm wholeheartedly get those orbitals 100 BC when an ass warble if you were to look like we're what but did that come from what mathematical thing that that come from became the wave function right your probability density is so this is a linear combination of those atomic orbitals the winner get that is by adding and subtracting those atomic orbital functions together now this treatment yields better agreement with experiment so meaning that there's a few places where if you try to use hybridization and you look at what actually happens in real life they don't really match up very well and all theory tends to do a better job of MO theory is considered predictive rather than acts when explanation it actually predicts things as opposed to just explaining things so we use it for everything while I'm going into this year and there it's really complicated on it's much more complicated than the other ones and honestly hybridization works really well in most cases is just a few cases where it doesn't end it also is a minimum cost much deeper places where it doesn't as well but in general that's kind of the Justice thinks of it so Rosario so it's a little bit before you get ahead of the release of a new book when they start talking about more than the diatonic we're gonna take em all theory up through diet comics that you'll be responsible for knowing all the home or nuclear diatonic in the 2nd round meaning you know asked to any 2 of those you wouldn't be ironed out the new issuances suffer as we go along for exactly what you will be responsible for knowing but just keep that in mind the need to the very end of the chapter I'm not going to require you were not going to hit on like water and benzene and things like that so don't worry about covering that but the printing so in hybridization when we took story orbitals and we combine them together in the new orbitals coming to me about Zimmerman seem rules supply Vermont therefore Emil theory now the only difference here is rather than combining atomic orbitals getting atomic models were combining atomic orbitals mixing them together and getting molecular orbitals but if you combine to atomic orbitals unit to molecular orbitals compact so it's still the same number that you get back In 1 case you're going to have the addition of 2 or moles and any other you're going to have those subtraction now if you have the addition to orbitals call this bonding work or any electronic you put in these orbit will surely Austria picture that before too long maybe next time on any or all you put in the area electronic these orbitals Oregon add to the bond they're gonna make the bond stronger the other 1 is going to be the subtraction of these 2 articles if you plan an electron 1 of these is common in tight binding orbital that subtracts from the bottom it makes the bond weak so you have edition of 1 of the 2 atomic orbitals you have subtraction of the 2 atomic orbitals in if you add them together in you at an electron into those on old you answer the bonds that bonding orbital if you add what to nearby bonding were is subtracts from the back OK so just sort of backtracked for discussion with it's because her back into this concept of having things on the waves
near number wave interference in how we talk about things how we can add to each other and how they can subtract from each other this same thing
is that all applied here so when I'm old theory here and what we're treating our electrons as we've again and we know that our waves of interference saying we know that we can weaves together if they interfered constructively warranted the as you add them together if they can subtract from each other if they interfere destructively and this gets into the difference between a bonding orbital 110 bonding orbital whether 1 is interfering constructively or destructively so adding them means that the interfering constructively subtracted meaning that as meaning that the interfering destructive power and we will in
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Formal Metadata

Title Lecture 13. Hybridization Examples and MO Diagram Introduction
Title of Series Chem 1A: General Chemistry
Part Number 13
Number of Parts 23
Author Brindley, Amanda
License CC Attribution - ShareAlike 3.0 Unported:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal and non-commercial purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor and the work or content is shared also in adapted form only under the conditions of this license.
DOI 10.5446/18978
Publisher University of California Irvine (UCI)
Release Date 2013
Language English

Content Metadata

Subject Area Chemistry
Abstract UCI Chem 1A is the first quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: Atomic structure; general properties of the elements; covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding; intermolecular forces; mass relationships. Index of Topics: 0:00:13 Examples of Types of Hybridization 0:25:34 Ethane Video 0:27:34 Back to Lewis Structures... 0:37:52 Hybridization of ClF4 0:39:55 Two Theories of Bonding 0:40:49 Molecular Orbital Theory 0:43:16 Bonding and Anti-Bonding Orbitals 0:44:59 Wave Interference 0:45:07 MO Theory

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