Lecture 11. Dipole Moment


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Lecture 11. Dipole Moment
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Brindley, Amanda
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Chem 1A is the first quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: atomic structure; general properties of the elements; covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding; intermolecular forces; mass relationships. Index of Topics: 0:00:12 VSEPR Geometry 0:10:11 Dipole Moment 0:19:35 XeF3Cl2 0:25:18 Two Different Lewis Structures 0:41:22 Greenhouse Gases 0:46:32 Two Theories of Bonding
I'm still want 1st governor of Faryab master geometry where we have to figure out direct number right we anything out of the 1 of the assorted number 1 that coronation number but still what look at taxi for Soviet Jewry Lewis structure out before we haven't set up now that hysterical number here remember stared number is coming behind or I should say things that bonded to the central Adam or whatever and we're talking about along with lone lone-parent so are their number for this would be what well how many things we have gone into this environment for 3
have to start number would be that's now 1 of the coordination number that removing the amounted to a right so it is part of that so instead allosteric number of 6 was Miyanaga left John Anthony remember that there were calling AEG through the three-member it's time I forgot for a 6th alignment to as manager of the away so that the electron geometry that acting weekends kind of the electrons are coming that as part of a geometry now number even tho the 6 thing bonded to at 1 :colon RTC draw because that's the three-dimensional shape at the start of it so that we have to move on to what geometry molecular geometry In another major concern that is just an energy for the sake of new speed all at of that so what shape doing out there that so you're picturing started 6 things coming off his sunglasses and we take away 1 of on and we take away the 1 directly across from where 1 of the side directly across from who seems to be a lot of debate about their own so let's just make this far the level of debated hydra-headed late but but chlorine and a shortcut way this sincerity that out the molecules so what did you don't think think monitoring food like 3 sticks straight across from each other now tools or electron pairs of solar take away 1 let's declared sober along pair which ones although American inter-Korean technologies pointing at you guys on the top 1 right and why we that we want the electrons to push on each other equally right we want elections with far away as far as possible so we took 1 from here and 1 from Connie's to electron pairs in the next to each other if which is OK me choice based here and we can put 1 here and 1 here so what freedom that square planar area square Mason at all on 1 plane the square planar sorry the next 1 stay as Boren trial hydride battery so we have the central Adam and we have 3 things bonded doing so against a stake in a shock that was just instead of the full molecules in the state so it that please don't area so 1st of all I want is stare at number 3 where the coordination 3 molecular electron damaging of the different thank you and it's trio players Over now as you're going fear no problem for action this so not so we have a few different things that we can talk about on the floor so let's start with the sulfur geometry but what is the steric number and sulfur nearly careful the former 6 for that right remember we're not counting the number of bombs we're counting the number of Adam there directly bonded to it so it's 1 2 3 4 so the stair economic coordination number the same and therefore somewhat geometry development His I actually kind matches prefix Qatar he dropped now is the electron geometry molecular geometry or both for the sulfur right there is no longer cares so the state note that sulfur geometry come out on top of the oxidants geometry so I'm a talk about this accident In this oxygen they have the same geometry these are despondent 1 thing so you don't talk about the geometry but what about this oxygen What is this number at the start numbers for right we had 2 long into things bonded it now what is the coordination number 2 because we had the sulfur that Parliament there and we have this hydrogen bonded so now we have an electronic free-market jumped different right so what with the electron damaging winds careful it's lectern down trees coming the electrons in that part of the geometry here so it would be such for things they no what's the molecular geometry that now remember for all the hype and writing in the binding of sprawled with the new we should do that for some to make sure that you're remembering to do that so what would your bond angles on this authority 109 . 5 now what about the oxygen it's tough to illegal electronic commentary so that 109 . 5 now what is that good less than are the real estate is still 3 also found the same as what we've been doing so on the Falun Gong but still for soul this 1 with an eye on but we've already on the Lewis structure sources ,comma structured on you don't worry about
the fact whether it can iron out too too much you just facing off the Lewis structure and we recounted that an already so we have a steric number of what said and we have a coordination number of what 4 various Astaire number comes from 1 2 3 4 in each longhairs once affects coordination number comes from the fact that we have for bonded to it so what is the electron geometry 6 thing Bonded Area 16 in certain respects so happy Jerome so where again sitting with this sort of structure so when the here in 2 of those bonded Adams into long cares what happens what has become a preference we're doing these problems I would really suggest sitting there like toothpicks early so you know if you wanna carrier around the you intense whatever but I don't care if you bring to the city on the examiner kind of playing around with them that the balance of OK both world and therefore of structures don't structure the way we have 1 slide in the actor Marlon something else doing a lot of run out of fuel structures of cement accident we need to spend some time talking about In dipole moment so In this I think to be morally based on that video that I sent you guys so hopefully all lost over the weekend otherwise may be a little lost so if you need go back and read it what matters the study 2nd of work out so your work should be out by the so it formally this also knew and abductor edition of magnetic moment polar bond now what does that mean that certain the technical definition for so if you have a lot in a lot of things you want think this is that the tradition because that's what it is if you have any meaning sort of more general feel for how it works and what it is the ideal time has died moment hospital in that polarity that I talked about the video and the difference in electoral later today so when I wanted to look at the these I talked about the difference between a other unelected negativity no when we had talked about the weather you watched in a bind let it stamp Paula bond was he said If you would have very elect negative and 1 that's not very electronic deliberately is another lecturing given and the other 1 that you would have told boss soul is something Watson elected negative element that you can think of many the most awesome at Florida International at the negative 1 mediated and so if you have something like the job would that be a poll about that now intends to have insisted molecules like a in here that on color the analytical about that because it was happening there is the flooring is taking all that electron density is pulling the electron density toward a bad and that's making that bond pull now In a mall type on behalf of a molecule where it now you have lots and lots of different I'm now you have to look in the geometry is a little bit so you still have to go through and decide on the polar body once you decide if there's polar bonds then you can't actually see well how do these Paula Boland add up and that's what I mean by that tradition but you can just sort look at it in general and see if they cancel if you have a bond going electronic demand going that way in a lecture about negative I'm going that way they're going to cancel each other out In this island's gonna pulling the lectern then the outlet the founded employing electron density that way and they're going completely canceled now if you have Bond that are in the same direction now that we have to be the exact same direction obviously I can't help you to bonds going in exactly the same way to 2 different outcomes but if you had to wonder same general direction there in add up sold something like 8 task that the good example of 1 bond where you just have the highest soaring taking all the electron density to it there's nothing to cancel out there is no other option that you have to worry about whether that particular behind this polar enough In so we're just going to get a polar bond and a polar molecules now this is how we write so there's too about ways and you can pick 1 or the other it doesn't really matter just you don't have to write involve idea just to show you that sometimes you'll see 1 or another Delta positive Slidell to mean just a partial positive it's not like it actually has a positive charge but I haven't powerful positive charge and then a negative over here saying Well this is a partially the only way you can make is you put this little plus sign area on the positive side can you draw an arrow to the other side now what did something more complicated so for instance CLF 3 entrances to construct apartment of something like this is the 1 of the hottest 1st of all is the bond between a sealant have polar that's the 1st question I reasonable amounts that inventory but they're the polar flooring is more electronic and then I chlorine so there's going to be each of these Florian will steal the electron density wave Florida it's another question becomes poor market so the way to look at it and what him from what had gotten so it's this was pulling off this one's pulling down and again at consulate Nunavut is a mail yeah you and is very more complicated than you do the next the of himself so you know for the sake of our our little discussion of hilarity can pretend they're you know not having any impact here is the full name in not so is going to have a diaper yeah the and in which direction that I want to be that way with mobile .period balance right because the cylinders cancels the flooring is more like a negative so your partial pardon would be here the plus sign the error in your Delta negative people would be over there and so you can store and just think of it like that without having
to think of an impact rendition or if you know you really like this is the map aspect of it you want included fullback predicted the and you can do that too but now I think of more examples but let's look at at the asked to all too now yes you know it when
people so even then doubled in a way that they have a dipole or is Paula either way means the same thing and it went out and I hope that it would be in the direction where everything that the campus so when I had a job like this at the top and the bottom would cancel out and so we would have just been in that direction yes yeah I knew would use periodic trends so in earlier years Chapter 1 if you haven't quite go away unfortunately free I've seen half remember that fertile period cable yeah 0 concussions go through that selection is so best way to start when you're talking about this is to start thinking about the on electronic a and then moved the molecular geometry keeps you from making mistakes so we are reluctant geometry would have been like this but to but would have been replaced by lone pairs so much shaken but was turned on its side when she confessed the face so having everything bonded to it doesn't make eternal flame because you have to pay attention to the lone pairs in the long Perez negative difference now how do you know about the belong here and there while you would have to drop full Lewis structure which I didn't necessarily do here but you would draw out the full Lewis structures before you can ever decide on a geometry and therefore before you can ever decide on whether something is color and you have to to go back and you have to draw the Lewis structure because otherwise you might think well there's 3 things on those 3 things bonded to a Y when the trio play in you might drop like that no if it was shaped like this would have on the books 3 canceled their ongoing completely opposite directions and so they are canceled so if you had a trivial thing a molecule you'd say 1 no I don't have a type which is very different from the T-shaped where would have liked make sense so you know Lewis structures by far away you can't always structure in you cannot properly you're going have a really rough time on this tax-exempt so you always start the Lewis structure that's why we've been going back to our our our pages and you start regular structure and you work your way all the way through good question come in the office but in said of the sun X E F 2 C L 2 summers along haven't drawn out yet so when we got a job as there's a couple of different arrangements we can have a willingness Oregon handling matter now learn the differences between so look and radicals the 1 Sardinero mean that it's coming out at you the other means that it's going into the forest so you need a picture needs to to be able to see what's going on some the best tossed free of building years so was shaken which intellect and geometry actively draw that the 16th bonded to it what shape is that a lot turned on the TV market currently yes so the Islamists but that they once knew that the coming out earlier in the evening that they're going into the board you were weakness but so this is what we have the 1 thing now is which 1 is the son of good as on this 1 so there's a couple of going to make us wonder problem directly across from each other like that where the chlorine the floor there directly across from the same town in 1 about the next to each other thank right now there is a difference on what these are and whether you're going to have a dipole or not so if we look at this 1st what we and the chlorine across from each other and Florinda prostrate on the there have question and that was 1 undeniable right so this corner scoring will directly Council with each other and this Florianopolis line would directly trample each other and so you won't get a direct cancelation everything you have no nose-dived now are 1 of his more than the other 3rd season walloped a negative than the other which 1 which more elected Florence so now the singer and have dipole Mt yet because happen shown in the chlorine some cancel will that all these bonds the polar array of chlorine in Indiana still going to be a polar bond is not going to be quite as people meanwhile busy on foreign money is going to be a lot more people In Seoul while will cancel little bad news for England and overpower the chlorine in Europe have a diet now what they I just signed from Real Estate of consistency with fearful that like this which way the straight up today while likes to this side of the site the scientists cancel right so even this is going to the left of the right a little bit and not going that way a little bit decide decide part cancels out but they're both going off and so they're both DiNapoli electron density up and so you're on by diet was to be straight off if I'm holding destruction pence Solaris servers was the going into the water they had it all so what little the polar but if we like then implement directly across from each other is that many no can this 1 and this 1 will directly consul in the city some of all sold this on this alone I can give you an example of how I would have to draw out for you or something like that yeah this is the 1 that I could just say X E F 2 C O 2 is the polar enough you wouldn't know postal workers going to have to draw like this 1 and ask you to draw like that you should know what it means so worst draw these students say which 1 is Paula you could circle at something like that but don't worry too much about having to actually dropped tracked a guy having a dipole make something polar but if something happened dipole because everything would cancel than they would have people but to continue and so was the 1 thing that now if I to the sample abound about what the answer that yeah right it has more bonds it just doesn't have a guide so be careful with that OK so obvious interest that but so this certain shows you how the geometry really matters but now sort of a lesson in drawing Lewis structures properly in what will happen if you don't let these 2 examples see enough for us to the CLI for science that C L 4 In
sailor were minor so let's 1st look at this 1 so How many with the serial number on this 5 so what the electron geometry gives 5 a mail said something fresh and so was the 1st to directly across from each other but this year if you didn't see the leveling you really shouldn't feel bad all that's in 3 is for a while those skills people can develop but some people have it more than others to begin with so if I think bonded to them 1 of that but what is this look like if we put it triangle the China-based would have a pyramid right if we did that we had to parents so ashamed but that yeah but trail libraries of novel question becomes what's the molecular geometry so I have to remove 1 international hair therefore a visualization purposes am I going to remove this 1 or that 1 where Anderson that 1 of these calls Equatorial right you can think of that while in the things going around the clear where these calls the axial Serena will remove a laboratory the axial a mail a flood of money overnight agreement yet so what is the bonding glory here we have 360 led by 3 so it's 128 who was phenomenal here 98 when he United into society so we want to get everyone to give electrons lots of Birmingham at 1 20 on each side or a lesser only given I'm not to write letter most sold putting up so now we have our molecular geometry and lower than called the acted on by the 3 seasons and so now what we think that Poland would well let's look at the for a 2nd using these are going to contribute to the dipole all know they can tolerate this was going straight almost straight up this ongoing by almost straight down so what about these 2 full that just like that what we would be that will be there directly that we're right because this part that's coming out of 1 going into the board those parts are going Council meanwhile since they're both going that direction they're going to go there have so don't let them pull bonds 1st .period there yes doesn't have a dipole yes so is the polar molecules the next 1 sealer on no that gives us an extra 2 electron which means that now we have a different theory number altogether right 1 of 6 so what the molecular 3rd CD of the electron with the electron geometry petitioned the this so that's far electron dietary now we have to long hair so it doesn't matter to 1st are the bombing of all the same were the also seem almighty so it doesn't matter if 1 began with so another remove that 1 which 1 do I have to remove the 2nd stop snowing alone nearly yearlong pair here associate director a square planar braved the square on on 1 plane by pursuing thing .period Coronel no this 1 and this 1 canceled the summons was so even tho we have polar bonds were not going to have a it was over they were if you had the most electronic Development Center in words but in general that's not how molecules get set up so for the most part the you hear the selected negative 1 is going to be the science and so all the ones on the outside will be more amenable and direction but I mean theoretically if you had a molecule that was the most electrifying innocent than 1 further Sunday when winning individual molecules also from the bonds that we're looking at the difference in so if there's a difference in electronic intervening then that's going to be polar unless it's so big that it moving away yeah so if we wanted to switch out too and this is something that didn't have the same electronic they include being the batteries in an exemplary had like fluorine chlorine and if this was something that wasn't as reluctant negative the hydrogen or something like that then we would have so we are neutral scarecrow square player in that case no dipole because they all have now because I know it's been like 5 minutes since we've seen those Lewis structures we didn't even single back so we have
1 spoiler there that are still not detonated so what do we think that since you would have a diaper there's although there have been more bonds now right next to United and they had the exact same electronically to the company and that the matter so your 1st step always will do they have all and then out of the nation going to have a now where we think about this 1 NL so that was our big residents structure 1 that there's that structure that we drove in 3 different structures and determine the best 1 but this is the best 1 so 1st of all do we have any Paula bonds yet which 1 then the All right share the next to each other but they still have a difference in electric utility and so it's going to have a diaper which direction for yes event will doubles square director of so we haven't I that which we don't right wears a poll upon which 1 Burmese people around here the carbon oxygen so which we learned I pulled in India clearly completely out and just so had the other way writing as well now what about this 1 so what's the shape and Alex electron acting Eagle may as well have been doing a lot of making on the and then so what's the molecular geometry now that we take 2 of those items away but I love Paris square planar and they're all the same patterns that are bound so they all the same electric utility so 1st of all is the polar about all of made it doesn't have a diaper not only are Cantoria it's this kind of thing example where we had them all directly across from each other in the 2 this way consulate to their this weekend so anything where we don't cancel all of the dipole all of the polar bond they don't are they directly across from each other those loans have I the other ones don't buy the top-of-the-line under the old agency so you actually have the most part shocking nor the agency here because the difference between carbon and hydrogen creative as is really really tiny it like if you were to look at the number they think it's like . 3 years and then like that of where the difference between carbon and oxygen is much higher and so you don't really have to worry about the carbon hydrogen issue at all because it's such a small difference as compared to the carbon oxygen which is a really big difference I'm no scientist is suing that most industry where the polar bonds were that you have to worry about yes of ask you if this other dipole I wouldn't want you to know that I would just like to say liable because all the looks like you're trying to make what eyeballs so even this 1 kind shows you where the polar bonfire but the question that yes in 100 a little of how a little hadn't actually started exception to the trend on some level so that's why it's actually pretty close to carbon is because it's an exception because they only have that 1 electron so it's helpful if you want to look at the carbon hydrogen issue it's helpful actually pull out 1 of the slide on electric utility and look and see that the pretty much identical this attack after the union like if there was like 3 0 0 so rule so whenever there yet so let's say it was 3 things of all the core of electronic so willing it will not make up a real example off the top of my head in case they you don't worry 1 that something like this space so that when she visits With so as make more consensus to write more consensus so what she's doing efforts would would like China and India on a plane in the period when it at the place string thing so if you all had the same in each of these bonds are polar and they were all Paula equally great they were all the same Adam would this have that no they would all canceled now let's stay that way we had to things that were kind of polar and 1 thing that was Super Bowl at been wedding of entitled it kind of depends really so if if these were just a little bit electronic data but very little bit Paula but you don't amount maybe something like of chlorine and something's was something that was you know more burial like a flooring it would be really tough to tell you actually have to do the bond addition like about tradition and I wouldn't give you that it would be something really obvious like a carbon and hydrogen with oxygen or something like that yeah Owen in my ear may think example here it's it's hard to tell because these 2 would be adding that direction in this 1 would be adding that direction so the store also sort of counseling with each other but also adding that way to the sort of a lot going on that becomes a lot harder to catch you know what I mean that's when you have to actually do some buck tradition in in actually add up that the dipole the the differences between the 2 and then and some of them it was all you mean going down radical swimming thing going down and periodic table what happens to
the electric utility gets bigger smaller going down the periodic table it's smaller area by next month so these sorts saga after 6 that will yes No no radio contact only the direction they opt out of the next 1 Peachtree that now they're all going in the opposite direction and there's not there's not much of a difference than some trades the area by next 1 so that's what this actually falls under the category of 1 they probably will not feel the exact reason I was talking before so if you look it up I looked up at some point it had happened that won the school on the example of things I would have you know that so you can actually use right on if you want to know what happens is that these are all pointing in 1 direction we have attention legal geometry and that's going in the opposite ends of the Council adopted so that's kind of the category of things that you actually have to do all the decorations now the times switched gears a bit but not too much father-in-law of greenhouse gasses the of that that we can talk about greenhouse gasses which sold all I wouldn't say I hope everyone has heard of is the the kind of responsible for what important thing going on right now forlornly right itself you know of a lot of greenhouse gasses right you know what they're talking about such as yeah I used to think that our fault what makes something a greenhouse gas well what happened in the new leader of permanent dipole or what we call induced died which I haven't really talked about it so weary talk about a permanent or a different selected negativity and they don't the account for each other out now we have something like an Indian stifles selected induced dipole is sold a great example of this would be what was actually go through some examples lottery once souls goes through those and see which ones actually are going to have to be a greenhouse gasses which ones on so let's look into doesn't have a permanent not in there anywhere we can make some sort of dipole there by spending interest stretching into doing something like that you know you can't carry lights you there's only 2 out of the can't change anything about them so the ends of the greenhouse gas what about N O 2 so we have the sort of Cape going on within 7 so we have caller bonds going this way full abounded going that way so which if I'm holding elegance which revealed that I believe it down just how sincere the same thing to the double nobleman matter no it isn't really double bond no alive but some of the words here looking for residents right really that double bond is sort of Split between here and here we say those electrons and the localized right Zirkind going between the southern India greenhouse gas and have died what about oxygen development at what can we make and I pull out of it so that's exactly the way I see it yeah that current affairs that 100 IPOs we have a difference among traders in Art and 2 sisters talk about the sorry we have a died Laurey which churches going yet when the oxygen at the London here what's the what the monitoring of gas so it's 0 to ship it's linearity you don't believe me driving at the carbon with the does a double bond to 1 oxygen double bonds via other oxygen no longer sizzling so you it's usually greenhouse gas just general knowledge right now In your life this year to a greenhouse gas yeah now I told you I don't have a title no it does not have permanent I now how is the greenhouse gasses yet yeah I'd inducing so when I take this may bend it like that whatever that will be going with Drexel up with bundling that had been up so you can make a dipole in by bending the molecule you can't do that with something like you know and Turow touring you sort of just 2 out of bonded together but you can do that with it when you have the Central Avenue can back so that 0 2 is of greenhouse gas because you can induce a title yes it's so it's not really your changing the bond in that you're just sort of stretching it would electromagnetic radiation so you can just sort of just by putting energy into it and you can you can also stretched the bounds the only way to actually do this part of my hands so if my body of harmony the oxygen you can kind of structure like that and then 1 I would be different from the other Oregon will end any time you have a bond angle you can cut you can vent their pattern of what I saw in the last 2 minutes I don't
have money and are at the core of the fact that we have these 2 different theories of bonding and we have a lot of valence bond hearing and will talk about that in hybridization and something called animal theory so will start next time as the valence bond .period the hybridization and that will go on and talk about animal theory they both really have their benefits and therefore lost something like that ,comma hybridization is really quick and simple the look in we can we can look at really large complicated molecules and yet you can still go through them very quickly and also period a little bit better at predicting sales but it's very very complicated so when I'm also very honored sort of say the computer said this and show you some pictures explain you wise but all theory becomes very complex very quickly will only make it up to 2nd row diet in this class them theory with valence bond hearing will start looking at me over large drug molecules fairly quickly because he had into just 6 standout really nicely so there sort of 2 different theories on why you would use each 1 but you should kindly reminded they are separate off to some extent that you can use the lottery's use the other you could use both of them but they are very different then again if you what that video insolence lectures in a little foreign please go back and watch that


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