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Lecture 07. Periodic Trends Continued


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Title Lecture 07. Periodic Trends Continued
Title of Series Chem 1A: General Chemistry
Part Number 7
Number of Parts 23
Author Brindley, Amanda
License CC Attribution - ShareAlike 3.0 Unported:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal and non-commercial purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor and the work or content is shared also in adapted form only under the conditions of this license.
DOI 10.5446/18972
Publisher University of California Irvine (UCI)
Release Date 2013
Language English

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Subject Area Chemistry
Abstract Chem 1A is the first quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: atomic structure; general properties of the elements; covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding; intermolecular forces; mass relationships. Index of Topics: 0:00:29 Examples of Ionic Radius 0:06:11 First Ionization Energy 0:18:53 Second and Third Ionization Energy 0:21:13 Electron Affinity 0:31:08 Electronegativity 0:38:07 Inert Pair Effects 0:43:16 Diagonal Relationships
so what can had started talking about a different periodic trends and we had started with effective nuclear charge because that's 1 of the main reasons behind all of our other trends so certainly
continue with that inward and the cerebral left off doing examples of ionic 1 so talked about a few of them so it's time to a few more seconds exactly the sorts of things expected no so he will appear on cable for you to be able to use as we go through but as always when you're listening to the fluctuations in the period cable from you so that you can follow along even when I don't have it up on the so it needs to 1st base 3 4 so we have a lithium plus brilliant you plus in flying minor so you can find all the sum of EUR table is so there's lithium 1 plus so that has the same sort electron configurations and brilliant you Plus which was also the same electric invigoration and an F minor so only got fairly put this all in order we will monitor plus 2 plus charge 1st because that's the near Smolensk and then go further and put these in the 2 plus 1st because it's the smallest their lithium 1 class because now we have a little bit less of an effect in their charge and there are flying in his 11 months now we have a whole extra role of of the whole extra row as well as the 2nd is the finance charge so the effect nuclear charge of love and so that gives the electrons a little bit more room to spread out the combination which makes learning definitely the larger so in these 2 RIC electronic so just looking at the charges Maureen now that it has a whole nother role of electrons and have a lower effective nuclear charge With the minister but here next month to cover plus coupled to In potassium so we don't get appear until we find him so there's copper so copper 1 class copper two-plus would just have their ass electrons removed member always moving from the ocelot transfers so then we look at where potassium this same column the same row but all the way over to last so that's going to be a similar attorney Oregon so when we look at these and put them in order the 1st thing to look at is the charges which means that our which ones going their smallest well this year to that's definitely going to be a small so that we thoroughly say Well what about copper and potassium built on the same charge an area seem well on the periodic table so which ones to smaller there at that point we backtracked to what we did last class in these look at where they are in the periodic table and we do it just like we would do atomic radius soul what happens as go across the table this way to radius will to know that we have to think about what happens to effect a nuclear charge so as you go across the periodic table that way are effective nuclear charge becomes greater so our culture around the nucleus and pulling in those electrons heart and it's making it smaller so something on this side of the periodic table is going to be smaller than something and despite the periodic table so between copper 1 and potassium the copper one-plus is going to be smaller because it's further to the right and so we have the soaring through the smallest because both further to the right and the highest part charge in this 1 because it's further to the right and potassium sodium and others in charge at that point backtracked to do it how we did atomic that the natural synergies are all high and they're all our halogen answer all minus 1 so there's nothing here really to look at his 1st charges got so the only thing we need to look at is the trend as a good on the periodic table so as a good down the periodic table were adding shelves of electrons and each time we have a shell electrons it's going to get larger and so because of that our smallest is going to get here and our largess is going to be down here so that makes Florida smallest and bromine Elijah and so are ordering is like that so this is probably the trickiest long ago but keep that in mind it's really no different than that just like here we can say Well we're going down the periodic table they're all the same charge and so all we're looking at is the trend we're doing the same thing here we just look at the trend going across the periodic table I mean let's do 1 more we can do matching so I only give picture with these 4 islands enacted their pictures so we have sodium magnesium chloride and oxygen an erratic performance so let's think about how we can do this so again you looking appear on at cable when you're thinking about the size difference here so I haven't relative size differences to each other we know of In this case that I have a one-to-one ratio so if we look anything which was going to be our smallest of the ions and which was the Madeira largest of these ions William farewell magnesium deftly tiny strikers only a plus to birds plus where oxygen is going to be our largest because of the minus too so there's not nearly as many photons per election so that would make nests are magnesium oxide In this sodium chloride since the sodium chloride solution between and so I can to label and all this is good this is the biggest of the grouping and not only that we know that magnesium oxide would form a one-to-one ratio and sodium chloride a former one-to-one ratio of a summary containing go through and but it's not certain it Florida ,comma Grady I and II and is in the eye and I am agree and now we can move on to 1st ionization energy so what ionization energy is will think about the wording here ionization so the amount of energy it takes to find something to pull off an electron to take electron from an adult and pull away so we have some trends here that we're sort generally showed you earlier but as you go across the periodic table this way that ionization energy going increased and as you go up the periodic table it increases now the dissolution of the tunnel exceptions that talking about in a minute but 1st of all let's explain why this trend happens is never enough to just memorize the trends are waiting to know why they happened and I will ask you that so as costs appeared table there's something else that increase so thing about always talks about when talk about atomic reactor in increased and the trends before that we talked about being effective nuclear chart said that effective nuclear charge hostage has today this the reasoning behind a lot if not most of the other trends and this 1 is no exception that as you go across the periodic table you affected nuclear charge increases was like adding another in adding more strength than inside nuclear in that you know the outside electrons but not having another shall so we were moving the electrons the way they the same distance away so that effective nuclear charge increased so if effective nuclear increasing from the side to decide well now you have to look at it and had to say OK well now you're saying My electrons army Holland trying I so if I want to remove 1 of those electrons have to pull away with more strength accusing them of putting 2 magnets together which is harder to yank the magnets apart with something that's a very weak management at the very strong and quick something with a very strong so this is the same sort of idea you're trying to pull electron away from something with a very high effective nuclear charge furor here Over here you have a lower effective nuclear charge so in comparison it's going to be relatively easy see the energy of the relatively low now with that being said there's a whole bunch of exceptions and that they followed exceptions follow their own little trends so we can look at this and see why they are in there are going to be from the half and fully filled so this comes from an
older but comes from King but is also highly edited so I've added something so I want you to make sure you copy this style now and when this we have each of the elements as we go across the periodic table and I want to explain why there's these exceptions because as you start on the 2nd row when you with their way across the CIA with helium and lithium now you would expect expecting it to just go beryllium boron commendation options on me and all way up straight yet you haven't looked the other exception here and such here so what to do L & aggressors in English so do this we have to go back a little bit and talk electronic invigoration the Somalian good electron configurations right out the electron configurations for so for beryllium you'll go to helium and you say OK well knowledge to asses the cells and you have to us too now if you write down borrowing see 1 further on the periodic table so it's going to be to 2 P 1 so what happens here in here if that you reach this sort of level of stability here that you don't have and so forth and has 1 electron transiting P orbital so that's a lot easier to remove than trying to remove this so this one's going to be lower than beryllium because of brilliant enduring moving from a fully filled shall endit there's a relative stability here with boron he just had to P 1 there is there's no sort of stoop added stability that comes from that 1 electron being and so it doesn't take much energy to remove it the analysis revealed do nitrogen oxygen so you're looking carefully at you finding not and then you read on the left invigoration since the start off the same as these In started feeling and and to and two-piece hurry now this is something we haven't completely talked about yet but when you have a half-filled some shall there's a level of stability there to it's not quite as good as having a fully filled shall but there's still extra stability and so what happens there is and then when you move to the oxygen In you add this 4th 1 you get a little bit of a repulsion and when you add in that 1 extra electron combination extra stable half-filled shall and then add a little bit of repulsion from adding in that next electron and having it be the officers spent 6 combination of the 2 issues means that perhaps this is going be with a little more willing to lose that 1 extra electron in become the same sort of electron configurations nature so this 1 it might be good to also out electron configuration diagram on your own we see how this works that this you'd have your PC or orbitals in you dry your 1 electron pourable it's United have failed so adding this 1 extra electron destabilizes a little bit In you end up with this little 1 exception now on your own a home where you're going to do is a allied array the electron configurations remains an aluminum and phosphorus and sulfur in fruit yourself that it's the exact same issue so when you do that we'll see is that the could basically just the numbers that end value will change as moment you that improve yourself why this is like it is so that you can explain it to me at the initiative of exemplars of so let's do lunch of examples now with and remember you're always keeping this in mind that when you get to this half-filled shall you're going to have seen may have some exception the need to look at it when you have here you're going to have some exceptions you have to look at now has 4 0 here I you know you can look look at the exceptions Taylor attention to ensue when they are they're interesting but not in a test you on all of them that goes into a little bit more of inorganic chemistry that we're not going to get into in this class but these indefinitely explain just using electronic configuration suddenly you should be able to explain but so soon and is
therefore ring the so let's 1st to someone that don't have exception now costs when you're given us and you any sort examination would be told whether the normal or not but in this case were we're a stock that way said helium neon in art Syrian guardianship cocktail and say OK love you never know what passes the new here helium neon and argon and entering order some which closed in the easiest to pull off in for that matter why we didn't necessarily talk about the trend going down so going down we know that it's easier to pull off from things lower on the periodic table why is that while not because the further away or so during visit to magnets this tidying up it's going to be like easier to pull out the future Minnesota nearly touching and pulling apart the he left from the further away in the family of all those inside electrons so America is a freezing further back to you on the inside electrons are blocking the outside electron from feeling nuclear so the buzzer that 1 along without shielding the inside electrons are shielding the outside electrons and so they're able to deploy a lot easier the further away the shielded so with that in mind helium is going to be a smaller In the neon and art so the site as a patch Chris so the furthest down 1 by the decreasing from Newmont lowest to highest so far and is getting their lowest and the neon and then helium so we start with the lowest 1 here because electronically I furthest apart and it has the most shielding so it's going to be able to be pulled off very easily documented very much energy to pull off that electron something like helium go now there's no shielding their there's no electrons between the helium so electrons and the nuclei so that's very very hard to pull off there's no shielding their very close to each other but it next In brilliance so now if we look at this issue lithium for ongoing destruction Indian they're all in the same room and they're all going straight across so are trend going that way has to do with effective nuclear charge in which 1 has the smallest effective nuclear charge well let me and other makers around the site and so if it has a very small effective nuclear charge that it's not going to take as much energy to pull off the electric and so the ordering of it will have to do it doesn't take much energy to pull off the electrons the ionization energy is very low so because lithium has a lower effective nuclear charge it also has a low ionization energy In the and so on across the periodic table but it those are normal ones those are the ones that followed the rules right there is no weird things going on with the electronic configurations or anything like that that's not always going to be true especially when you start looking at board and we see a boron brilliant coronation oxygen and anything below it that's anyone start looking at the current the electric figuration so now it's still lithium beryllium and boron lithium beryllium and boron so what Finley's there wasn't a section on images went straight across the product table we would know during the solar smallest and then beryllium now we have to think back to the last flight don't anticipate electron configurations factory in here that will bring him here that I have fully film shall it's warehouses relative stability boron houses 1 extra electron in this keyword little that is Minnesota have filled the Phillies village state so but election being out on its own it doesn't necessarily mind losing it it doesn't take much energy to lose it would draw earlier same while I'm at kind at this level of stability Carlisle lose that electric so instead of going lithium beryllium and boron the beryllium and boron fluff see lithium boron OK and the next c and so right here across a variety of In again and this 1 if we are looking at this and said OK this is going to follow the trend what we would do it exactly the sort go see and enough because he has the lowest affected nuclear charged oxygen has the highest so actually the hardest removed but it's not only based on the trends it's also based on electron configurations and if we look at the electron configuration for nitrogen area has a half-filled shall oxygen you added and 1 extra electron so you're not making a fully soldiers adding is taking away the 1 so In this case oxygen doesn't really want the extra lecture necessarily it adds a little bit of a repulsion it doesn't add any stability so oxygen is OK with losing it's not going to take a lot of energy to remove that 1 where nitrogen has of her have those shell always so that'll really wanna lose another 1 I don't wanna lose electrons in separates to MAP warble and so instead of going with the trend the oxygen inches and it doesn't take as much energy to remove the electrons from the oxygen as a dozen I'm so other examples some following the trend from now not and you should be able to recommend annuities these regardless of whether I tell you it's the exception there as just you for intro Oh next thing you know we're going to talk about the 2nd and 3rd ionization energies now this is something that I could expect you to countering within an hour water have look at the electron configurations took to figure it out so what the 2nd and 3rd ionization energy is is after you pull off the 1st election will hold and uses it to pull off the 2nd 1 ,comma gentility to pull off the 3rd 1 that's what what you're
going to receive the 2nd 3rd and in someone with ionization energies of so your first one it's always going to be a smaller which sort of makes sense if you take 1 off the lead more protons than you do electrons have a cat have a positively charged ions in so of course it's going to take more energy to plot the 2nd 1 because now you have more positive charge for negative charge you so each 1 year removed the energy is going go up a little better now we'll it'll have some homework problems I'm trying to rank the Inuit having to have a lot of data form so that's why I will leave that for the homework but what happens is is that as you increase as you go through you'll be able to see big jumps back here so I have appeared table to explain why so for instance when beryllium you'll see a certain ionization energy and then it'll that means it will be down to 1 asked her to ask 1 pulling off that with it's going to be that of the effort the 2nd 1 US select now it's going to be a little bit bigger but it's still going to be relatively small at which point the BIC electronic or you have the same electron configurations helium and when you go pull off that 1 it's going to be a little larger than the 1st and the 2nd 1 but it's going to be issued to job seriously a little bit of a different a little bit of a difference is huge jumps in that's how you know how these work if you look at the differences between the 1st and only the smallest and then they get bigger and bigger and bigger but you can tell what sort of electron configuration dealing with based on the differences between them and you'll have some new examples of that in your homework such flare-ups of ionization energy now election Constantine and will also talk about a lecture negativity even tho it doesn't technically follow chapter of the tour very similar and so I won't talk about them together so all affinity is sort of the opposite of ionization energy without irrigation energy we had an our and we took away electric with electron affinity were going to be doing the opposite we won't know how likely is that Adam to take part an electron so to 1 atom by itself to bring on electric now so something like Clorox chloride taking on electron to become chloride mine so ionization energy use we were making contact and we're taking away electrons With electron affinities were adding electron sorter making and I answering negative electric negative ion no when that's because the trend sort of follows allowed the other ones we've been looking at where it increases as you go up the periodic table and increases as you go to the right on the periodic table now I wanted to show you this industry as as nephew for ways for electricity but this website is really great for looking at periodic trends you especially you're visual person you can go in and you can craft any other trends that we've been talking about in the periodic table format you can wanted different ways if you like numbers will fill in the numbers for you if you like seeing it the sort of like cityscape idea it do that you can do it squares circles on the sleeve see a lot of fairways and Carnoustie with the trends fall its I think helpful for a lot of people to see it that way and so on you take a look at it to different ways of showing electron affinity in it but there's tons of different ways to display the but it can always talk about why these trends are so disappointed he was still missing all your other turned how we explained knows because they're pretty similar explanation so as we go up on the periodic table we're increasing our status were getting smaller right so if you think about going down the periodic table we'll be getting bigger In so are electrons already further away from a nucleus Our outside electrons are able to feel the at the proper the nuclei very well because I was 1 distance there just further away into shielded by the fact that those electrons on the inside of blocking the electron on the outside from feeling the nuclear sold as eager down the periodic travel table at the electron affinity gets smaller because it's going to be further away and there's more shielding as we go across the periodic table this way now what is increased by effective nuclear charge is increasing its so as we go across the parent Cable are effective nuclear charge increases so in the electrons are able to feel on nuclei a little bit better insult and new electronic the feeling clearly the better to so as we go across the periodic table it gets larger now you'll notice there's a lot of exceptions to this just like there was with ionization energy if we're graft ionization energy like this you it would actually look for it out the kind of similar on so you go go play around with website in graphic and the so you'll notice warier exceptions are here well there's this exception here with this to us to Eriksson the S to depending electioneering N this there as to P 1 again depending on what and level you're and there's other exception right here right which is your nature gender where this is that seem idea result violation energy so there is that except that exceptions what we'll do is more detail later but this is just so you have a picture going into it and now the same idea as every other trend this channel works well until you get to this halogen so if you call already see that this is the the 7th column right this is your halogen so what's this hidden block here that you can't see well that's all you noble gasses and they're really love their real for electron City ionization energy all that and that's just because they're particularly stable they don't want election they lose electrons and so they're going to be very low and they're going to break all of those rules so the rules are really well except for when you have these exceptions because of electron configurations straight here right here and of course you know what I asked but now I want to show you some
numbers to you numbers so that they see that they are quite a difference that shows you the exact same thing they should you here
except a number forms the conceded no see these are actually so lowly really were pretty much 0 maybe even negative on demanding any of the the same thing when nature treated so we have seems certain exceptions we talked about with ionization energy and is for the exact same reason is because of the electron configurations here you are already a little bit stable not gonna 1 had another electron to have selection configuration with nature you're already had a half-filled shall you don't really want to add another electron and become like an oxygen In so because of that you get these little does exceptions and then you'll notice your noble gasses all the way down you noble gasses undertaken under the the common but so much closer and actually walk through some of these altering configurations so that we can see how this works but in why the one-day and seven-day form stable atomic and so you're one-dayers of Europe sodium role in your 7 happy so 1st Seles earlier halogen most of of the ones that were used to looking at beginning of having an entrance to the honors were not super used to looking at this as violence as an think of it so we're right on our electronic figuration for flooring not quickly down your electron configuration for a fluorine mine so costs still Ireland from here knowing that with so now let's think about why this would be wiser seven-acre forms and that well if you get a negative 1 charge you add an electron Florian high electron affinity area has a very high electricity it wants to take on that electron and up until now we sort silo 1 simulated noble gasses so that's true this definitely give the noble gas configuration in so that's 1 of the reasons behind why as a of Hi electron affinity is on the right hand side of the periodic table has a high effective nuclear charge thereby having a high electron affinity and then you fill it shall so it becomes like a noble gas so although the reason they're good reasons for it to 1 of the and make it 1 now let's look at the next 1 so if you break down the sodium we have them it was sodium minor we get that no women at New still looking as anti-Muslim minors but it's it's possible it's not quite normal normally would if we just take away this electron emitter plus charge but we couldn't guarantee that it's not the worst thing in the world for it and it gives the full sum shall so it's not gonna filet shellacked with Florene but it does give a little bit about stability said he planned the exact phrase circumstances it could do this and it would be a little bit more stable than sodium on its own now of course it's also more stable to remove the electronic of science but on either 1 is is more stable than just so im I'm not noble gasses why don't they from civil atomic and that's why the electron affinities solo so let's pick 1 up neon you could pick any of a mail in red electron configuration 0 8 on the electron invigoration and everything felt everything stable so it's not going to want to go ahead and take on another electrons and outlined in a lot of negative charge because it doesn't add any stability to it and so it's electron affinity is basically 0 now let's look at 1 more must look at majored in why would this 1 not 1 form II so why would alone would not have been nitrogen negative 1 well if we did that we would end up putting into pieces for In the extra electron causes a little bit of repulsion so there's this extra Paulson comes from having the pair 1 electron now if you pair all 3 of them in you yourself to noble gas configuration will OK that's that's that has a level of stability to it but just adding 1 is that the that lowers the stability and so that's not going to happen so that's why nitrogen if we go back to this Page has basically 0 and that's also why even if we will look at the 1 before that we can see that
this row breaks that trend breaks a trend goes lower because of that the half-filled shop now we can move on to what technically is Chapter 2 but I wanna cover in Chapter 1 and you'll be tested on in Chapter 1 and that's electronically to this is very similar to electron affinity and people getting confused officer be careful you realize the difference this is the ability of an add-on to attract electron density in chemical bond so it's not attracting a whole electron in bringing it to itself that's electron affinity for this is that there has to be a bond now than they sing about it being a bond that takes away most of the exceptions so make sure that you can identify the differences between this and this is why this is technically in Chapter 2 technically we haven't learned about bonding yet but you wouldn't be in this class if you didn't know bonding was only we talked about in the fundamentals so but this is going to follow the exact same trend electron affinity and ionization energy and is going do so for the exact same reason so you really have to memorize the reason behind these for every single 1 of them is they all have the same reasoning as you across the periodic table this way what's increasing the affected nuclear charges increasing any effective nuclear charge is increasing its holding on those electrons a little bit more and so senators holding onto the electrons a little bit stronger it's going to be a little bit less likely to lose an electron it's going to be a little bit more likely to win attract electrons or in this case it's going to be a little more like loophole the electron density toward it if it chemical bond now as we go down the periodic table then it gets smaller and ask for the exact same reasoning jokes as you go down the periodic table the electron shells a your adding electron shells you making outside electrons further away from the nuclei which means that the outset electrons have less of an effect nuclear charge because of distance and because of shielding In so as you go down the periodic table you're ionization energy decreases because you're it's easier to pull off an electron your electron affinity decreases because it's easy but it's less likely to attract electrons in your likening it to the decreases because of very having enough so that you know it it's already less likely to hand with all electrons is a lot less likely to attract electrons Vermont so all the same reasons behind the other ones are true for this as well there are some exceptions to the US and those exceptions are in the deadlock involuntarily realm of more intense organic chemistry that you can learn to take inorganic chemistry so we're not really a mess around with exceptions here so let's look at this so you can get sort of visual form and you can see that he had this looks a lot different than our electron affinity ionization energy on picture straight as you go across it's almost of pure in ensuring consistent exceptions here but in the media that you move after a discussion of electronic variations you may actually be able to figure out some of them were rolling more about it too much just note that as you go this way it increased now let's talk about why there is no exception to the isn't it you may not need to know the exceptions for us we should know why there is an exception the lottery city but there is electronification and all ionization energy so what's the main difference between the 2 well let's 1st just talk about
the differences between the 2 and maybe at that point you'll you'll know why so they have the same trend we just look at the trends for both the same trend they're both talking about the ability of an Adam to attract electrons now your main difference common comes in fact electric utility the ability to do in a bond so it's attracting electron density it's not shocking a lot it's still sharing the electrons but it's just attracting more than it's being you on equal sharing now electron affinity is the ability of its due in an isolated act so I Adam on its own not bonded to another item with likelihood of attracting the whole electron on its own in becoming an art as opposed to electric utility we're talking about the ability of the 2 attractive in a shared by so this example would be something like C O 2 something where oxygen he find that a new periodic table is much more reluctant than carbon so if you're looking at where all the electron density visiting most of its being stolen by the oxygen the oxygen taking most of the electron density in not sharing it with the carbon with something like electron affinity really talking more like we have a chlorine atom on its own not bonded to another taking electron in becoming a sale might up to now with all that in mind why would would you have exceptions for 1 and not the other well if you're talking about electron affinity and for that matter I envision which energy to why is it that we had the exceptions what is it that made those exceptions happened 100 we explained we did that will attract the Eurasian plate we said well below trend invigoration say that were at a heart of fully filled some shelter where half-filled sub shop so why wouldn't that matter for something about there are only have enough time everything in a bond you form that bond for reason with C O 2 we
formed the sealed to mind so that this would have an architect at sharing with the oxygen form an architect in the oxygen the sharing with the carbon to form an architect so there's no exceptions here because the electron invigoration is already stable we did everything about that we've made everything stable so the only thing that plays any role in how much electron density in Adams gonna pull pull toward itself and steal from the other is it's effective nuclear charge and I of course as you down the periodic table how much shielding there is all about which affects the outside Shell's affected nuclear charge so that's why a luxuriating in this Husni sections of electron affinity so now I want to go through and explain something that we talked about in the fundamentals section we touched on fundamental section said Cheryl old trick to help you memorize it will explain it later now it's later so explained the inert perished so what kind of life they should be mentioned were moving on from periodic trend this on the last period transitory and talk about and so we were sort of done without an hour in a move onto a couple of different things that we need to talk about that come up with the periodic table on so it's still sort of in the relevant but I'm just not quite as strong the the Paris so this is like pulled this off during the fundamentals talked to state leaders will help you memorize how to do these ions because you can look at and say Well what are off by 2 these are off by 2 off by 2 insult a game and hints for memorization no it's golfer explain why these are how they are I'm so we have little miniature section of your table so let's to do this right of the electron configurations for everything so a 1st warning June to worry and do antimony and left so that will do 2 examples and then I'll leave these other therefore Frida do at home for practice so we'll start with sp so we start here so you should remain periodic table in front of music and see where the sole section and once at the electronic variation for just to the neutral compound so if we do that were left with the noble gas fired 240 10 5 P 3 so if we gotta removed are electrons where we remove it from well after step remover appeal a In this sometimes gets confused in the midst of the different rules for where you removed from 1 when you're in the ass block he removed from the US block 1st Union people Lokeren movement people 1st that's which comes 1 year in the D Block then and only then you switch around in the new removed block 1st so we are well within the PC block of the periodic table so we're going to remove the peel a transfer it becomes the noble gas score 5 to 240 attack OK so what charges to the is a assisted plus charge right we just took away the key electrons leading role in taking only 3 electrons In not from negative Sophie takes 3 animal way will for the car so we take the cash and will make its SBC replied so now resubmitted the block were basically sitting here at the cadmium electron configurations so now we're doing from now is very from the block so when removed from the US block we removed both of these electrons area the noble gas cost plus 40 10 so that their views are valence electrons so you'll see it as soon as the reason for this is to different is because at this point you removed from your ass for 2 years moved 2 of now he wouldn't dream of just 1 of them right has an idea that sort of in between in not stable now so you wouldn't want just remove 1 series going to remove all of Europe's and not a mere asses for all of Europe's and all of your ass OK so that is Mets sp now let's move on to land so if we go through and we write our electronic invigoration for just neutralize we get there when we need to remove we were sitting in our people so we removed from anti-black 1st and that gives us what charge 2 electrons will take this to electrons away never plus charge so at that point now where sitting in a D block or city so how do we can we remove more Walshe weakening of these 2 US electrons Without You which difficulties which leaders was for Edward gives us the selection configurations so all of these are going to end up with a difference 2 because 1 of the electron configurations the lower 1 is going to be issued just appeal the 2nd set comes into play when you remove the ass electrons which is still always going to be off by 2 and so that gives you these gaps so up until now it is using this as a help to memorize now I could ask you to explain and you could you could say Well here here's the electron configuration for 1 among his electric configuration for another 1 Seton see that were always going to be removing these P electrons 1st and then the excellent so there's always going to be a difference of 2 so why the difference charge between this column this group in this group while they have a different Olympie electron very there's only have 1 key electoral so you're getting a plus 1 and we last last conjuring a plaster How many key electrons summer 2 c remove the Tupi electrons and then you remove this US election the U.S. has 3 elements with 3 Peelor transfers and then the 2 s electrons Augusta for the other 4 and right now the electron configurations good practice any electron configurations and you can use explained OK so now we have 1 more of the sort of periodic groupings to talk about this is called the diagonal relationship so this is something that sort of comes out all of the other trends and what happens here is let's so let's look at the start of the periodic table real quick In you have this sort of diagonal trend going this way now you think back to the questions that people said What can you ask me that immediate question was which 1 0 Mora has a high electron affinity phosphorus selenium because in 1 case the trend goes this way and in 1 case a trend goes up so it wasn't that finals against the trends I can ask I can ask you which 1 has it which one's bigger phosphorus selenium because going down the periodic table the bigger that would say that selenium is bigger but going across the periodic table this lake while they get smaller so selenium would be smaller so according to 1 trend is bigger and according to 1 trended smaller so which 1 is it in a sentence by added all I have to look it up and I also had said that the clothes right because those 2 trends there ,comma battling with each other ones making it bigger than the other 1 was making it smaller than the other ones and so they're actually very similar in that works for the other trends to the works of 4 ionization energy electricity all terms the habits and direction so if we're talking is a good down the periodic table this way that each time were saying OK well this slight increases as the swing decreases what happened there is that they happen to be very similar they have similar ionization similar electricity is similar sizes and so may end up with similar properties so if you sat in sort of picked for years for a book that's what the figures we book a trying to get if we look at it here at our sizes as we go this way there is an obvious trap right Nestle's trends that we've been talking about Florina the smaller fluorine is our most electoral negative and then as we come down here would be our largest it would be a released selected areas I so didn't mean you go this direction of the day this way now it's harder to see you look at this and this and this and they're pretty close to each other and this and this and this pretty close to each of the same thing as you go this way on the periodic table had a sizzling when it was released similar properties so that's come the diagonal relationship now that's obviously very different from the fact that we have similar properties as we go straight down group or straight down the rate that's based on electron configurations that's based solely on OK you had this many electrons that each of your shelves this just comes out of the fact that hate this have similar numbers for all of these things that we've been talking about in the last quarter of the trapped and so this is what the Diana relationship but so
that pretty much wraps up Chapter 1 that's kind of and this the 1st exam materials and I'm all of those relationships that go along with it so at this point will end for the day and the next time will start up with Chapter Two in starting to talk about 100 draw Lewis structures and how binding works and things of that sort
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