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Lecture 06. Quantum Numbers

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Lecture 06. Quantum Numbers
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Chem 1A is the first quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: atomic structure; general properties of the elements; covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding; intermolecular forces; mass relationships. Index of Topics: 0:00:16 Quantum Numbers - Introduction 0:03:56 Principle Quantum Number 0:04:30 Angular Momentum Quantum Number 0:07:01 Magnetic Quantum Number 0:09:09 Filling in Quantum Numbers 0:15:05 Shielding and Penetration 0:18:00 Energies of Orbitals 0:21:12 Electron Configuration 0:26:11 Energies in Relation to Periodic Table 0:28:07 Diamagnetism vs Paramagnetism 0:30:15 Electron Configurations of Ions 0:33:14 Electron Configuration Exception 0:36:05 Examples of Configuration 0:40:30 Discussion Question 0:42:25 Periodic Trends 0:43:37 Development of the Periodic Table 0:45:24 Periodic Table Outline 0:46:17 Effective Nuclear Charge 0:48:47 Atomic Radius 0:54:39 Ionic Radius
analogue Computer animation electron periodic table quantum
orbitals analogue analogue Computer animation quantum addresses Revenue
areas orbitals Computer animation level quantum
model level orbitals Computer animation quantum Medical prescription quantum case
Index Gange Lamb and mutton rates orbital striking quantum Electronegativity Organischer Kationentransporter firm end man water Computer animation magnetic model cell tuberculosis Deception level
antigenic asset fine Adamantane set additional quantum case solutions Calcium hydroxide end man Computer animation electron Orlistat orbital cell nuclei hopes processes
Digital elevation model Cobalt orbital fine Bis (band) man orbitals Wasserstoff rubidium electron Edelgase race Magnetometer penetrative cell nuclei Butcher level processes areas nitrogen Weinfehler Cobalt Gases steps man firm Wasserstoff Valenzelektron orbitals level Computer animation model periodic table Zigarre bottles rate
sense physical chemist left diamond chlorine food blocks man orbitals Neutralisation molecule VSEPR Diet food Edelgase electron important shot stone parents period Calcium chemical element carbon Adamantane Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor slides firm systems orbitals Computer animation magnetic Gasoline periodic table coupling Iron carriers
Cobalt copper blocks man Neutralisation orbitals molecule blocks electron Altbier level mineralischer Chrom processes areas Katalase slides young orbitals Computer animation periodic table compounds Chromium Oxidant scale selective RWE Dea AG
areas Cobalt copper case stability Neutralisation systems firm Computer animation Edelgase electron periodic table Caffeine form Chrom
systems molecule firm Computer animation electron periodic table Altbier stone case form selective man
areas chemical element bond Electronegativity case man atoms man Paste Computer animation Ionisierungsenergie periodic table EAS History
chemical element Computer animation periodic table atoms man
areas rates steps Stahl Katalase proton case Computer animation electron periodic table shot tube Butcher core period atom
Schelfeis Perioden atoms Tensiden Calcium hydroxide Computer animation metabolic pathway electron coupling periodic table Altbier aspirin cell nuclei nuclei core atom
areas Selenium Perioden fluorination aluminium end firm Potassium samples Computer animation electron race periodic table coupling barium Lithiumcarbonat cell nuclei lithium period atom
areas species copper Topic sulfur Adamantane proton source Calcium hydroxide Ionenradius Computer animation electron Lake periodic table cell nuclei species basic
still today the spending most of their time on quantum numbers and along with that election configurations and energy level diagrams
so that we can organize top start those by climbing abilities as a sort of explains how were going to build up are left trying to figure editions so there is a good analogy that goes along with this is not a perfect analogy in you may have felt he had me not love a lot but always willing good as sort of a starting point to explain how this comes to kind of Indian analogy for how this works so in the winter ,comma numbers on is your describing the distribution of electric two-year describing where you can find electrons at the combination of lists specifies what the wave function as it specifies
which 1 of these you're going to be using now you can think of this as sort of an address to a doctor not a perfect analogy but it kind of works so for instance was they were trying to find a person campus and state how are you going to building number 403 so that insisted this building then I said it's in Building 1100 sometime near the town it's OK we're into this world so 1st got us to the building that I got a certain number role at the Nouri notify rose back to America .period only 28 noisy chair 1 so talking about that person right there now I think the mailer female that gets me to even more description so certain narrowed it down all the way starting from anybody on campus which is quite a lot of people down to over a number of it's about 400 revenue to grow 10 of you the chair 1 of Anderson added descriptive so this is kind of think
of quantum numbers and all that those those that these numbers are going to get you to the wave function which was will kind of stopped airing and do a lot with that but that that is what gets you there so know how does this work with actual Adams so will the 1st column number the principal quantum number we've already talked about leaving using there since the beginning of a quarter this is and so would not hold a quantum number but it is now the next 1 we just sort of recently introduced not talked about a lot so remember back to when I said we have these orbitals
net asses and he's in these areas said that OK while I mean they're asking the world is also numbers associated with Arcelor 0 the peas are 1 of the duties are too it's
about so we have here no not listed any close 1 level you're only allowed to have Elliott was 0 if at any point to there are only allowed to have a legal 0 in hours ago the ones 3 hours ago 0 1 into now the next on our inhabitants about know what this is all about if they
get 1st so right here if I just say any calls to and is equal Erickson and Jose go the 1 so the P orbitals now I still have 3 and still looking at 3 different P wobbles insult How do we decide which 1 it is well that's going anywhere and some of inconsistent at at which orbital then last wondering how this ends back and that's going to be just 1 of the numbers will talk about it
tropical 320 the so 1st of all principal quantum isn't we are lot talking about so and this gets us to the energy shall it's going to be an integer any positive integer 1 2 3 0 is a positive integer in this case so we saw this in the morning all the energy levels since O'Leary has on the field for we know what allowed you we talked about energy levels up like 5 technically they can be as high as now comes the 1 that we haven't really spent a lifetime on the angular momentum .period so this is the elder even talking about and you make sure you write this script doesn't also you know it's now once again computer from gets this distinguishes the shape so that's thought I was talking about when they pointed to the the picture that we
and I said it distinguishes whether it's a natural appeal already were
these are going to have both values and letters soviet asurvey only havezero Phillippi orbital we have a 1 who D orbital we haven't eh so the hazards associated with the Sorrels we just talked about the there's roles for for an only Harold Hill it was just kind of simple spent a lot of time focusing on it was any positive number anything from 0 Erickson from 1 Oct 11 now for is dependent on and so if we say that and is equal to 1 I was allowed to equal and minus that solves logical 0 if we say that ended the call to form a large equals 3 2 and 1 who say it is good a 6 I was logical 5 4 3 2 1 so any time you have an and I was allowed to go from 0 all the way up until minus the and minus 1 so where does stop building a table here Morgan adjusts add to it with each each 1 week of her so for each and we have these cells associated with no anomalous in the cells have Aceh have Oracle's associated with them letters associated with them this also you could say anything it equals 1 is only allowed to have a sort of and was too is only allowed to have an accident worked on illegal Serie S P in the water and equals 4 as did after work so for the 4th energy shall if I had that this is a way to ask the question we could say Well and what of the present model as equals 0 please at the the calls 1 is Ali close to an Athens equals so for the 4th energy cellular and had asked the 4 but no I don't want that magnetic quantum number so we rate does that mean when we say this is an SUV about only its ass will say and unsurpassed so you see it now this distinguishes the sheep now and this is what we were talking about that and Sibelle we're talking about things we've we've gone through said it's in this energy level whatever the Ellis some shall announce this this is going to have different orientations so when we talked about this in terms of P U 1 Peterson and destruction when he isn't destruction and 1 keys and destruction that and several designates which were talking about you're allowed values of this go amended and up and so are Ellis depending and in the n symbol is dependent on so let's go through look at this so for any calls for were allowed to have Al equals 0 1 2 and 3 and enhance knows logical always from industry up until now keep in mind all that this table may be a little bit misleading in the fact that this is only true if l equals 3 if 4 in the deal there are 4 models if I tell you that were in the end equals 4 level but that Al is equal to 1 then about only allowed negative 1 0 and 1 because of this I was always depended on what Allen and so if I tell you that equals to it doesn't matter which energy level were in all that matters is that ICL equals to which means and said I was allowed to equal negatives to need a 1 0 1 1 2 so keep that in mind that if I see any calls for what is of similar to equal then you can go from the list all these out but if I define Al as 1 of these lower numbers he define and about based on OK ,comma numbers kind of laid out for you to this is that seemed to show that the picture they showed you but only now
are going to go ahead and put in our Arab levels so I think there were in any calls 3 level just to sort of give us something to start with so that we would have on all of these so let's go through and fellow listen to now we have asked the Indian F this is SPD or we defined as ask use increases D I've given you a quarter of a given you then set out values you don't have to worry about which ones which says that doesn't matter all of it we have that our our our values never and some of our society how you could relate it those pictures no I wouldn't ask you go through and draw this year almost hard ask these questions in a minute but this is just a hobby picture so
now we can go back and look at those held on in the intentionally walked in and some time saying how those work I'm the 1 work on and we haven't talked about and that is the and so you're going to see this and some assets were in here's how it's right what this society is the spin axis so you can think of electrons as having a spilled and a light call the spin bursting down In you're allowed to values and this is processor might be it's impossible however minus 1 half an hour in the other value except for that so now what comes out of that is to think about it and tell me how many electrons are allowed in each individual so our energy level Thomas which shower and a Prince R and R Alabama's warble worried the interviewer some showering France analogous what were lowered and now within 1 or all were only allowed to have values a plus one-half or minus one-half you never allowed to have all of your values do the same so what this new knowledge requirement numbers to the city's so this is year only allowed to in each order because 1 can be up 1 can spend that they can both be sped up they can both be spent on making a career like Foreman in there and have fun spent apart from pronounce you catch only have 1 each in within any given Adam although they can only have 1 set of quarterly numbers per lecture what goes through and they give you some quantum numbers and urine Tommy whether it's allowed on our so the first one and in a 2nd look at it said and it was 1 that allowed that's our problem known as Al equals 1 all theoretically well that's not like disallowed in general if is equal to 1 the only thing allows allowed 0 and so we can't have cost 1 2 this is going to be around although Western would be OK otherwise this Ohnstad had said Ehrlich was too will be fine so were not allowed to have so the next 1 so it and is equal to 3 it's not a problem with ours equal the 1 that's fine because well and had other courses 0 1 0 2 in this case because that is publicity 3 and some illegals natives to salary allowed yes No 1 balance on be allowed all right because its allies equal 1 and sells only logical negative 1 0 1 1 you everything away and equal the 3 so it's OK well short end is in the end user called the 3 an hour with equal to 2 then you would be allowed to have this but I didn't tell you how the to I said there were in the keyword overrunning the to even know there's an additional hazard warbles has L equal to 2 we're not talking about that were talking with the P word and so this is a lot and next and calls to 2 we're OK they're eligible the 1 the European and so nosy below 0 that's fine that I am and Spencer's equal the that's obvious in our great and semesters only allowed equal plus 1 minus 1 never anything else so that we disallowed right away because of the and semester so 1 more today so we have and musical The 3 so OK the eloquence 2 which means R&D shall for some OK there that allowed and sells a golden minus to find an answer must the minus one-half nets .period too so were set on that 1 the so now that we've sort of Sabra quarter numbers we set up the way that we can describe which some shells and energy shells and how many electrons we have with summaries in hopes that we can figure out exactly where the electrons are now we just need to actually come to lay this out in Figure our ordering all of that To do that we have to talk a little bit about where these are in regards to the energy levels and how close they are to the nucleus
so annoyed we go about doing this and the terminology that we use for this is to in terms of shielding going from up a lot in this section penetration comes up just for the sake of describing how close the different rules are to the nuclear so this is sort of the technical definition for it or it was as orbitals with real probability closer to nuclear tests are more penetrating so straight that downloaded rules real probability when Israel probability well that says not distance away is the electrons most likely to be the electrons most likely to be here with a small area probability here the larger retail probability so all this means is that bills that have a probability of being closer to the nucleus are closer to the nucleus not so Baroness is Bertinelli the terminology for it is just that now the closer to the moral of the closer to the nucleus that the orbitals is those are going shills the outside so there's no way of thinking about this that kind of work know when dealing with 9 straight so let's say we take a nucleus take a positive manner of some sort and we put it down and we've much paper cups around newspaper companies stick to the man right now we cannot know later paper cups and those are probably gonna stick to because tenants astronomy can you know go through the paper cups and another layer paper cuts pay those Valley a paper clips might stick with another layer of paper cups while lying on the outside paper clips and ensure an optimistic anymore that's because those inside ones of blocking right it's keeping the outside one's from feeling that this is no different this is the way that shielding worked the 1 ass electrons are blocking the 3 electrons from feeling the nucleus is you're places like Gary here and pretty much all of electron density from your 1 assist here to assist here with those are in the way of the 2 3 the threat celestial monofilament criticism and that's called shielding so these are shielding the 3 electrons the serious electrons in this picture how are the most shielded their shielded from the nucleus by these electrons now that's how use that term so in this sort of picture we could say that 1 asses the most penetrating and then to an inferior and we can say that 3 is the most shielded and that 1 is shielding to us 1 shielding 3 so that's certain the the convoluted terminology here that we won get through I'm so with all
of that terminology of quantum numbers ended up descriptions of the backdrop now we can actually draw some energy level diagram the other so we had to win drawn out and have won hydrogen and I suppose I should say hydrogen like clients as well so he only 1 classless to class and someone anything with 1 electoral and here I had the energies of everything else so we have all drawn out for you and there's going to be an easier way to do this rather than drawing a mile every single time using the periodic table but for now we just want be a bluesy already know so we have a 1 here in their energy level to our energy level 3 4 in 5 no notice and these are all at the same energy levels these are not so as to what's the difference between a that sort the big 1 right so these we are all in the same energy levels are all completely cost energy is we called that the General Assembly has the same energy across the entire energy shall be the degenerate so there's a few different ways we can use this terminology as well we can say here that the to Western toupee levels are the generous have the same Over here there's the generals to it's just not with an energy also to us those are degenerate anyone riding out the same energy level the 2 pieces soldier generally themselves OK so this is really how we can represent where are electrons are playing now I don't have any electrons drawn-in will do that in a minute but that this is kind how acquaintance would start this is what we call an energy level diagram now let's look at this last question I have free of Syrian John hydrogen with atomic orbitals higher than what is that correct so how we electrons was headed only 1 electron now if we put 1 election in here that means everyone as Orioles felt so a common mistake on the exam is Alaska job you know had objected to a certain level and everyone starts with the hydrogen at 1 and they say Well they don't have any more bottles now we know that it has to have morals not because we know it has more energy shells right when we've been doing up until this year last week herself in class think about what we were doing the right button equation you're taking we're taking a hydrogen atoms and we're taking election from energy 1 shall we are promoting the art and the energy 405 shell and then back down again so we know that has to have higher energy levels sure we don't really talk about simply India waddles around but we know it has higher energy levels which means that has all of these they're just not filled in general moment there felt as if we excited add up but that doesn't mean that they don't exist so yes this is still find just because they're not felt doesn't mean they don't exist we have now Morgan Jocelyn little room look at some but so let's look at these and will look at a wrong version and the White Birch so here we have an electron diagram for if I good job like that the film these 2 that's wrong now this it kind of goes into some rules here so we have politics was in principle in Huntsville so what the Polly exclusion principle says and that no electrons can have all quantum numbers the same we heard kind of alluded to this because we had to and we alluded to that when we so there's only 2 electrons orbital because no 1 has to be spent up in 1 has to be spent about 1 has to be unsurpassed plus one-half one-half to 1 has to be and Celeste minus in what the Polly exclude the ball exclusion principle is the thing that tells us that it says that if any is the same it's OK if I was scene that's OK and of OK that's the same in answer was locates the same but they can all 4 of you see all of the electrons half to have 1 of those numbers that's a little bit different so what that effectively means is that you have to have in each orbital you can have a stand up and not to spend opt not to spend months in Europe and of course it has been adhering to state here that the problem because the all lover number is different we did have a step here it's been adherents fine you know the outnumbers the same they're both because the ended so 1 of those choir numbers has to be different filling the electrons in order of energy levels as important you're going to start at the low energy level and work your way out which we did here we still haven't really broken any rules yet on this 1 yet the sums up the right the total holds 2 electron that comes from Nepali exclusion and also we just talked about now comes Huns Israel's we fell across the general energy levels before you fill in order and that's why this was wrong you have to go across state energy level 1st and then you can come back In double so that was not right because of for this would be how you have to do it you have to go 1 right here in 1 right here if highly about nitrogen which has 1 extra electron we could go another 1 right here only then once you fill the crossed the people models do come back and start going down but now let's write an electron configuration for cobalt so we find workable isn't attractive so staring you know probably about 10 minutes ago I up and tell the 1st midterm you really don't want I'm just bring a periodic table with you in heaven with you at all times while going through this so fine global onion Periodic Table the figure out where you are In figure electrons again so we shall in all electrons feeling across the world 1st I don't think and we just keep filling Intel they're all gone and that really have the right number of electrons circle now we can write the electron configuration for it and this is what we do for the electron configuration basically just take and we right up each 1 of these mortals with how many electrons are in and so this has to so 2 1 st this has to so to St P in the 611 so to P 6 and so on and so forth all the way up now you can magically like down the bottom periodic table like rubidium or something that this is going to get a little tedious to write and so we have a shorthand notation for it and that's the same what we know what they know the noble gas close to it looks like the only thing that really changes in the outside electrons so much draw in just call the nearest noble gas were discovered the nears noble gasses in morning to fill in the valence electrons race here so that when this is really practice really changing so this it's is up to the noble gas so you I knew period table enhancing value find Oregon and then call your way up until cobalt in this gets you there now and I'm talking about this looking at the period table thing and using that to call electrons but this is going a little tedious to try to draw every tiny a invigoration you hide industry for Ehrlich configuration that and then no 1 had to drop these out so there is a much easier way to do it and
that's to look at the news in relation to the periodic table so this is a periodic table with the f orbitals where they belong In you can call your way through it 2 in electron configuration only using this period using the periodic table and underserved .period through so for instance would look at the example that we just did to Cobol right here and if we go back to started Oregon because it's easier to start Alaska noble gas you can start at Oregon and then you come over here and the former energy level for now the thing we care for this your duties they started 3 serves 3 D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 D you done without having to write out that big meal cable in things so let's look at ,comma which means you kind of military operation carbon to into those charts I gave you know what knew of the periodic table so it's good to start from scratch was not staff that on laughter will gasoline we could so we'll start with 1 Arsenal 1 S 1 2 so 1 has to to St 2 P A 1 and 2 2 P 2 if we're looking at faster now it's often the last holdouts will start from the same here and we come down here it's 3 to 3 PAC-3 now we faster so you can use the periodic table to just sort of . 2 elements go back to the last known and then work your way through until you get to the element that unique announcing you a lot of times you don't have to drop the energy level diagrams unless I ask you at the
but it's still a few more definitions for you said Diamandis along verses Paramount to them in what I kind of was 1 of the worsening systems of all time so apparent magnetic Adams the ions are molecules will ever have unpaired electron so paranoid that anytime you have unparalleled foods that's going to be considered part magnetic now the interesting physical aspect of paramount that spare pair magnetic molecules is that they're drawn toward them now diarrhea magnetism knows how all parietal so if you have a single unpaired electron it automatically permitting it doesn't matter how many more unparalleled friends you have it you have at least 1 it's permanent To be dire magnetic every 1 of your elections must be paired and so the diet magnetic molecules and there could just be a little bit of a tiny bit Republic diamonds but not very much the me physical interpretation here is that these will be drawn toward the so for comment if you draw this out he had a pair of magnetic mines near the diamond now really the easiest way to see this is to actually go ahead and draw out the energy level diagrams all you can do it without without drawing now but somehow a little hard mostly because if you think about what the left hand configuration for cover looks like readers wrote this out 1 has to 2 S 2 2 P 2 if you see to P 2 this is really strong temptation the others to Obama OK the parity moving on but that doesn't that's not right Iranian to actually see that there 1 2 because we felt cost energy levels 1st and most of you know that I'm you know it's fast you to draw this to draw 1 here and 1 here it's just there's always that occasionally singing even the number to automatically say that they're paired even when they are so you it's a good idea to draw these out but soon now that we have that's a definition taking care of threats to going with the electron configurations so we don't want the bottom so far and drew out a few along with drought a few that diagrams and we look to the parent table and we thought we could just do with the practical knowledge look at what going for ions so far I don't see you just didn't have a subtract debate depending of course on what kind of irony is that the carrier and you have a positive charge so you're going do other people will answer at all it's positive that means you're taking away if you would have it on the Internet unit near you need an avalanche OK so let's start with calcium so if we drop out the electron energy diagram of calcium this is what we get which gives us an electron configuration of the so make sure you can try to do that on your own to now if we want to turn this calcium from unusual calcium which we have here into a calcium to plus what we need I need to take away 2 electrons so you don't want to take them away in Kopperston order that you Adam right you always add lower high you take away from the high ones and and I knew we down you always on integrating the outside shot which makes sense if you're gonna try to steal electronic have all these electrons are going to pick 1 of the outsider 1 from the middle of the variously gonna pick 1 from the outside To take from this this for see you take away the 4 as electrons and you're left with this which gives you this electron configurations so that's where hundreds of times a positively charged that stone and iron so here we have the neutrals chlorine and I'm John both the energy level diagram intended no something that I can come out of the original diagrams the room is on the line that says he hears that his importance as an energy level diagram it's kind of like a graph shows 1 haven't axes to make sure that any sort of exam or or anything of that sort you draw that like did in the 1st couple slides with merger everything I really OK so we have this electron configuration you could just get out of the periodic table you wouldn't have to jobless and now we need to make a chlorine 1 so minus 1 charge so do we need added attractive the 2 at once so we go ahead and add 1 in here To give us there which changes or electron configuration to BP 6 please I have some oversight of the normal ones now seems certain general but we're going to get into the D Block so you spent some time talking about that I'm have so half-filled and fully Fallaw bills are going to be more stable it's nowhere near a European bloc there's not a lot that we can really do about this that will affect some of our periodic trends that will talk about a few days from now but it's not going to affect our electorate configurations however we indeed block it's going to and
that's if you look at this as being granted this is that the scale obviously played trying to draw attention at the little obvious that year 3 D in your forest areas where the Fourier 5 asks you for a D in very very close to each other the former asked 3 levels there so close to each other that there can be a little bit of exchanging going on you don't necessarily have to follow all the rules and sometimes is more energetically favorable the and this is where the half-filled and fully filled exception they're going to come in so when D orbitals have electrons and need to make a positive don't take from your d orbitals it always take from your ass sort of so this actually the only this is really more just in an exception whenever you're making a cat I enduring 90 block of the periodic table take from ass Sorrels 1st packed so always removed from your ass of it will do example that now as is going to have a ton of exceptions after lock and a few young Borodin in look at them and the book has a list of all of them as well as Wikipedia lists all of them are free to that you can go catalog of don't worry about those if I ask you What the f Block I just follow pick 1 that holds the world so primary spoiled this question for you on what you would be so the change electrons from Aston in the world once again it's because they're so they're so close with the energy levels that even the DEA is higher you're going to take from the US block and in just a minute we're going to see that there some that we can promote a selection comes up to the bloc In order to get half-filled and fully functional so we're going to talk about examples of this and so the they're too big big things that we have to worry about and is only as good as you only have to worry about when you're in your for now on European rivals Union European box you're talking about Adams there in European bloc don't worry about it just worry about your D Block so let's do some examples so all were gonna take on a look at these 2 rows the 3rd columns on the periodic table because this is where that 1st exception comes and the fact that you can take the electrons from your office block move up into your d orbitals just in the 1st half filled in this fully felt to be the handiwork Maine exceptions there take place I so are starting point for this 1 guy I if you will talk about the easier of the exception rules for so we have to cobalt 2 plus 2 drawn out the 1 for cobalt needed this mineral slide so we have the strong now we have a strong out there we need to take 2 electrons away so where are we going to taken from we taken from 1st and so we get there so this is sort of a rule here on you take from the US block 1st and again rather than being an exception is really more of a world so just make sure you always do that it will sort of leave that 1 where if you're and you have to to remove electrons make and take away from the US box now let's go on to the Haaretz and this has filled fully filled some shelter she still wants to neutral crummy so neutral chromium on his own looks a little weird her little different from normal and then when we go take a R 1 away will do the same thing that we just so 1st of all we need to figure out what neutral chromium oxide so if I would just ask you to drive based on the periodic table this is probably what you would drop but this is the right thing areas because of this we can make half-filled we can make filled by moving the and then it'll be more stable so let's do that sooner and so this is what neutral chromium actually looks like if you on a job there In view of this would be wrong this is what you would have to drop so unusual chromium looks like that and if you look at the periodic table it follows on the column not so let's say also say I want to know what 1 plus chromium one-plus looks like so this is where we have to take it from here so we take that 1 away and that gives us neutral er activist chromium 1 class and the like ,comma likes to formal one-plus silent because it its new truck compound it's neutral electoral invigoration looks like this and so this is a kind of a relatively stable .period and that you have 1 electron here that's often its all that's not overly stable In so by taking away you've made the molecule closer to an ideal gas configuration Oh so now let's do copper
so if we look at copper and I tell you drop the electric configuration using the period table like we normally do this is probably what you come up now In the same way that have filled some shells are relatively stable so artfully felt such ending this is indeed to be fully filled and the lot stability so if we take 1 of those electrons move up this is what Mitchell comparable quite so if I ask for the lecturing invigoration neutral copper this is what I would expect you to drop this is what gives you your points this is not correct it you have to from the 1 so given that widely copper wire from a plus 1 electron but that's what I am well we have 1 electron here fired although that's not very stable in Silicon just remove that we feel a little bit closer to an idea vast area and noble gas configurations I so now
using the logic that we've just done so we've already worked out copper and cobalt urged using chromium and now let's go through it and think about why is that always form for slams what this whole role the column and this whole column they follow the same sort of electronic invigoration pattern where you have either an almost half filled just missing 1 or almost fully felt it's just missing 1 pattern so promote in all cases where lecture on and in all cases you're left with the system where you only have 1
electron in the outside shall so just take away in Digital plus 1 and so a good bit of
going home when working something out the exercise would be golfer in right the electron configurations of all of these In both the neutral form in the ionic form in which proved yourself in each case that you're going to have a system very similar to that
we need to remove the Select
but it would be good practice to correct them all OK so now we
have electric invigoration and we know how to write electron configurations rehearing on something we can start moving on to more book properties we what to molecules look-alike who is where eventual goal is in the heart of the act this sort of stepping stone that we have to get through here is also the companies do Adams in general have and what was the easiest way to look at this is to look at the periodic table on hold because hard to go through and say OK what is each harm in particular have that's a lot of numbers a lot of memorization is not allow use so useful but if we look at the periodic table as a whole and we can go through it in the well was certain
trends can be seen to see what happens to the radius the size can we we see what happens if we have an Adam as opposed to a and how that affects the size Tunisia happens the ionization energy electron affinity in Leicester negativity To see all that includes seal that just by looking at the periodic table as long as he is in a lot of cases we can there's some exceptions and sometimes doesn't really work but on the whole weekend networks are released so in this sort of section of the chapter this is a very very long chapter we're going to move on and do a little bit of history on a periodic table development and they want to talk about all the trends in the area and expected to be able to compare and predicts the the ordering if I bunch Adams you'll need to be able to tell me the ordering for all of these bad habit on the line as I have elected negativity here that's not in your book covered until Chapter 2 of and that's because you need to know a little bit about bonding to be able to do it but you also need to know all about 1 of class so where talk about electric utility here because I think if it's in all of the past so
1st some long history so how was the periodic table actually develop soon now if we look at the periodic table we know that it's an order of atomic number may all that was something that they knew right away what might happen right away is 1 man believed looked at that and said Well you know have these massive increases definitely Simpson's characteristics in general if you put them in order of the masses you get the sort of trends the happen where all of these grew elements have similar properties in all of these elements has similar properties and so if you put the order of atomic mass it works pretty well the problem is that they're actually the knew there were some exceptions to this I mean that there is a few places where it didn't really work so they just kind of manually switched around it's OK well we know that this really should be here in this really should be here and then later on what happened is they figured out
that whole it's not actually that's deciding their properties it's the atomic number that's deciding the properties and that's what led to the more modern periodic table that we have so many feelings was actually a bit different so that are able to build up inside of me appeared table before they even knew all of the elements and in so many elements weren't discovered until pretty recently new-look answer to this box here that they were pros think making 22 1961 that's pretty reset so they were actually able to predict that some of these elements should be there even tho they haven't figured that out yet In based just on the fact that they were missing from so when that
work in this this is sort of an outline of what we're going to do for the check and talk about each 1 of these individually but this is sort of a means adding somebody will you can find Wikipedia and added these has outlined how about as well the answer these lowering to go through in detail and talk about each 1 individually and of discussed how the periodic table where they are in the period cable relates them and how we can ranked No it's not to based solely on where they are in a period table we're going to have to remember electron configurations to Seoul Italy based on where cat tables and in many cases the electron configurations so before we talk about any of the other ones we need to talk about effective nuclear charge and the reason for that is that this is
the reason behind almost all the other trends at least I decide so effective nuclear charge increases from left to right so again pulling a European steel tubing and the If you go from left to right on the cocktail against it not really even discussed vertical turned but so what this actually is is the amount of charge than electron feels so you can think about is you have as many this area and you have the electrons going around it's the amount of charge that the electron going around fuels from the news that this changes based on where you are left to any other period now the reason why this happens left to rate increases left to right in my were not talk about going down the periodic table is is the way that shielding works certainly had that finally shielding was in talks about it as he had his magnetic and you put a much bigger cuts around that you put a bunch more paper have surrounded and eventually the paper stiffening and that's because all the people considering I'm a shielding the outside one's from feeling the pull of the magnet since similar all another paper clips are repelling each other to sustainable Vermont but as you go down the periodic table happens is that you have this electrons electrons and those outside electrons are farther away In the inside electrons are blocking them from feeling in the this so each each layer has its own affected shot sets going down the noticeable crossed the periodic table something different happens now here adding you're adding protons this each time step across the periodic table In adding electron too but you're not having another energy shall not having initially so all you really doing here is you're making magnet stronger you're adding more and more protons around more and more charge and so as you go you at each electron is long and you know have another energy shall it does it it is not further away it's not more shielded and you just have a stronger magnet and so the amount of Paul that the electrons feel is stronger and that's what effective nuclear charges and that's what all the other trends that in talk about is based on so
are sort of the last couple of things today is really talk a lot sizes reverse about atomic radius around great so atomic radius is going to be based on the effective nuclear charge as you go across the the periodic table and then how some shows you have as you go down the path acted so let's talk about going down at the pier table 1st because I think that the easier when understand so you're adding more electrons and you're adding more energy shelves so each time and energy shall you adding the whole another layer of electrons it's so it's going to get bigger so each time you add another layer new adamant to size now top of that the ones in the 3 Aster Street for ossified s they're actually being shielded from the it from the nuclei by all those other electrons on the inside shells so 1 it's just that you have we more electrons in we more energy shells into the shielding going so they're further away from the nucleus because the all rules are further away in the shielding now I someone that's a little stranger to talk about the left-to-right so you go across the periodic table this way it gets smaller not bigger so you proton you add another lecture gets smaller so that was a little so why do we think that would be well what's in the modern
effective nuclear church but surfactant nuclear charges you go that way across the practical gets bigger right because you're taking them and making a stronger and so it's been habits holding on those electrons tighter it's pulling them in closer In all
our size from an outcome is made up of the elected so the electrons are being pulled into the nucleus with more force in being held prior to the nucleus it's going to get smaller because they're being held closer so even you're adding electron you're not having the energy shall so it's not like you're adding 1 to the outside and you affecting nuclear charge is increasing and pulling those nuclear power electrons in end if any of you had checked out my exams I always ask ask for any of these why I a so make sure you know the reasons not just the trend don't go there for science and I'm just going to memorize this and be done with it know the reasons but let's do some
examples so I Hello meaning period until here although once again I suggest having appeared to rule out while we do all these lectures so we can make the following order of increasing so I have lithium carbonate and flooring to of lithium comment and Florida so are going to cost the periodic table now the smallest 1 is going to be on this side of the pier table the biggest 1 side so it's gotta be fluorine ,comma in lithium but now seeking this 1 assuming indeed it we have lithium potassium so our smallest is going to be near the top of the their table at the bottom of the yeah at the bottom of lithium and cetacean in I know a tricky 1 burial we have selenium yeah and the flooring the reason that and I had no hardly know what to do no yeah smallest 1 is going to be near the top so that says that his committee flooring and the smallest 1 going this direction should be the 1 over here as a matter that's going to so according to all the rules it's going to be flying In the next 1 Is there any selenium because that's the furthest up and the 1st to the right and then so books until last year showed that and I but I can ask that it's fair game for example Nellis look at the sun Trillium aluminum the geranium now the global locked in and you know a couple of weeks when everyone studying for exams will have no I know if it's going in this diagonal and also honesty you really don't in the reason this is going to be really really close so what happened here is that as you down the periodic table it's getting big race and geranium according to going down the periodic table rules geranium should be your biggest and brilliant should be your smallest according to going across the periodic table during engineer your smallest in believes should be your biggest so which 1 wins going across a veritable are going down the gravity of immorality sort of cancel each other out so intervene being very similar in having very similar sizes were and talk about this in at the near the end of this chapter in this actually gives rise to a whole new trend ,comma the diagonal trend where things going along this diagonal that crosses that that switches the boundary it's the opposite that the opposite then will have very similar properties so this isn't something I'd I'd ask you to do because in reality the clothes and you have to look them up to see what the differences are going to be however this diagonal slices barium selenium and fluorine and that's fair game because it both follows a trend for arranging the smallest of according to the vertical and horizontal trend the area and should be the biggest sponsor equates the vertical and horizontal trend yes I had no
lasting size 1 ionic radius so can find there are always going to be smaller than the new focal point the more positive the smaller they are so Copper would be smaller than the copper classes in the smaller copper plus destiny smaller than neutral topic and I had always wisdom bigger so as to minus is that any the larger than L -minus they both have the the same number of electrons to look at them on the periodic table Yukon electron they the same number yet sulfur is going higher effective nuclear charge isn't the reasoning to this this little blood is the reasoning behind the rest of it it think about what happens when you add or remove an electron so let's 1st talk about the source away election what's going to happen while the copper is going to be pulling the electrons closer right because now instead of having a one-to-one ratio we have an extra Proton per lecture urging the extra Proton for all the elected so instead of being 101 how we have more positive charge which means that it's going poorly electrons a little bit closer to itself it is going to make it smaller now if we take away another once we have covered 2 classes of copper 1 must now there's even more positive charge per negative charge and pulls it in just a little bit closer if we look at the negative ions the exact opposite happens we have this positive every have this extra amount of negative being added to it so you know the nucleus now has extra electron staff had a hold on to it cannot hold on to them as well and have another electron it's trying to add that can hold on to as well in so the more negative charge you have the less effective nuclear charge there because it can is being spread over more so let's say we take through these 5 different electrons early each have 5 different Adams and I say it was listed to figure what they are so let's look intended figure out which ones will be the copper ions in which would be the 0 to minus Adam the merger were filming for the moment so if you could please leave were filming here so we have the until 11 so we have to hold go to my area 2 0 accidents so let's say we look in the same which 1 of these electrons would be all minus in 0 2 minus in which 1 of these Adams would be copper copper one-plus and copper to class so if we rely only we can look at these and we can see well the biggest 1 would be 0 to minus in all minus and in copper there is however 1 plus and incompetent last at the
a hint that soon example Nouri hectoring colonies John arrow from smallest to largest species in the following basic electronic species series so non-interest New World 1st to a electron so I have all of these listed no but still I electronic means to him itself was into biology classes unevenly reheard isotonic that comes up a lot of ascendancy were isosceles feeding geometry that serious athletes triangles red so isoleucine In the electronic will not talking about electrons so we have seem so if you look at this issue ,comma electrons to these have they all have the same number of electron so that's what I see electronic means and so we draw their this way because all these have the exact same number of electrons yet sulfur to minus is going to have a lot more electrons per proton right because now this is the 2 ministers there's not as many protons in to hold on to the number of electrons meanwhile here you have a lot more protons and on all of those electrons which is why you have positive charge so it's gotta be down this way so next
class will go through and will do a bunch of examples of this and will rank all of the warring some irons and will figure out you know what someone matching but I announced to their pictures and things of this sort will talk about some pretty much the rest of the periodic trends but will end here 1st