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# Lecture 05. Emission Spectra

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#### Automatisierte Medienanalyse

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I had last-minute at least left off with class we left off with this derivation mind you real quickly about what we do here because we need to talk about some signed conventions Sony to remember exactly what we talked about ceremony went
into this we wanted to find out what the energy transitions where the difference between 1 energy level in the next energy level and salinity that we did the same thing that we do for a change in anything we took our final and subtracted our initial now we don't have actual values for these that we do have these equations we have this equation says well the riders constant times by wineries you depending on if it's not hydrogen over whatever energy level you're talking about is equal to the energy level so we can do this for a really generic case single ahead In right this out for each 1 3 at the initial energy level in the final until we can fill those in we can get this equation and then with a little bit algebra we end up with
1 of these 2 and that's where we had left off last time I remember I said well you know this comes up and that both directions you'll see this trend both ways the only differences in 1 case the negative signs pulled out in any other case it's distributed so now we need to
talk about some sign areas because people tend to mess this up Alliance 1 of the main reasons people get what will start calling library problems along these energy level transition problems of wrong now if you have the lowest energy levels an equals 1 Persimmon most negative so you'll look back on equation look at what it looks like that's going to be your most negative which means that you lowest Schmidt said Senegal's 1 should be you lowest energy so now let's think about what happens if we have the 2 different types of transitions before going up and energy for going down and energy so 1st was looking for going from low to high so something of this sort if we're going to low to high energy then our final is going to be higher than our initial so that's going to make it positive because our final is high on initials low so final minus initial higher minus alone number is the new positive that I can remember keywords to look out for the same things like photon absorb that'll Q you off to the fact that the Delta use negative no let's look at the reverse what if you're going down energy hearing from medical 5 to any calls to level if you see something like that you'll see words such as full-time admitted and that means that you're losing your boat 100 parity electron is losing energy it's going down and so if that's the case now final energy is lower than your initial entered still finalize initials and a small number minus a low number which means that it's going negative small number minus high number a negative number and adult in that case is going to be negative so when I talk about dealt that can either positive or negative depending on the situation now I think what this equation that we used throughout the course equals each new for each in frequency or HC the 10 that ever been negative well frequency can be negative and landed heavy negative sold this can never be taken so the energy of a photon is always the positive the Delta III you have to decide whether it can be positive or negative based on whether you're observing a photon .period emitting a photo and this is going to come into play when we do the Ribar problems it's also the reason why I tend to prefer doing them the way that need Europe but doesn't as opposed to doing your homework give you hints on how to do it so with that we're going to go into
a couple examples so far a first-round bye cinephiles 180 million when hydrogen so we know that equal the 1 undergoes a transition from the any cost to levels and I also tell you that the 4th time that's going to be admitted has this frequency and I want you to find the initial energy levels so there's going to be a few different things that we need here 1st of all we have frequency and we're looking for an energy so Oregon and probably need equals agent we also have a transition have so are going to need divided from so at that time now we need to figure out how we're NFL this and so we need to know the initial energy level we're looking for the given that we know our final energy level tendencies so we
on a bet now we certainly although the mathematical backdrop in order to talk about some really interesting things so that's kind of a large portion of this this park and maybe even next time is going to be discussing emission spectra sold here I have extreme difference series written out in these are not something that I expect you to memorize as with about all things in this this sort of classification where you have to memorize what people invented what people dead and prefer you just to make sure if I talk about Lyman series series passion series 5 years I see walking around campus and asking that you shouldn't we feel that only the Hey that has something that's that's the mission series last year transitions and or necessarily carry the memorized which part of the spectrum therein or exactly which when they come down to the device is something like it's in the ball Mauceri transition the bomber series has the final energy of any calls to you should be able to use that bonus you shouldn't throw you off so what did the 1st set of transitions and each 1 was discovered by the persons named after and what you can see is different light spectra these different transitions and it can actually see this using different specter scopes and look at what this is really useful in a minute so the the 3 in the series in the hydrogen so
you can actually the system of the visible region for hydrogen and you can see these and they look like this now if you've ever done Frank House will talk about those already telling them that but this is what you're actually seeing same task so if this is the emission spectrum this means that this is when you look at a hydrogen I win you know whether in new site the hydrogen electrons in the fall back down this is what you're going to see which means the Fed submitting select things it's absorbing all of these there are always going to be office that so I have draw you in absorption spectrum Johnny emission spectrum just by drawing where there's missing lines and crisis is just the full specter of so you can see that now this is just 1 those origin which is a pretty small parts of and so this is also drawn out for all the rest of the region's what these are talking about is the series that I talked about in the
slot so not all of these are indivisible and they all fall into different ranges
so here you see the linemen in the bomber and the passion and in 3 of the other ones as well as some other just select parts of it that people look back and said Hey I can see this whole grouping of lines and I can go through I can calculate where arcane and same thing here and now costs would these you would need some sort of spectrometry to show you exactly what the wine spectra are because you can see that you can see compiler get to alopecia diffraction grating and look at something burning and you can see it really well the rest of the some sort of answer from afar so
what is useful for someone the places that it's useful for in simple to do to me you can do this kind of 3 seconds in a lab is emission spectra to identify certain elements so you need to any time you want to try to do with this sort of emission spectra anyway look at it you have to excite the electrons 1st denied images magically excitement often and fall back down you need to do the excitement and then let them fall so In this case you can just do the flame you go and you can burn something and in that the heat from the flames will go through excite the electrons and then they'll fall back down and you can get these colors and so what you can do is candle taken elements put it below the water just a kind of you know mix it up and put it on a loop stated in a flame and it'll grow glow these bright colors now it's in this isn't really an exaggeration at all sometimes no pictures on the Internet are exaggerated and the exact perfect conditions being with the glow displayed in its it's fast even do a bunch of times I don't think that you guys actually do this and lab that you can see videos and that online it is really cold in really simple now there's obviously some difficulty in identifying elements of the mixed if you have both barium and potassium in there it's going a little too hard to see what's going on and so you would again need to get some sort of diffraction grating respect from there to tell you exactly what's coming off there is only 1 element if you're allowed setting in silence as here's an unknown figure out what it is this works really well now the someplace
else that its used a lot that in you can kind is chairman of the news and stuff sometimes is for astronomy application applications so it would be really nice if we wanted to know where no particular star was made out of this with the just kind of you know race over there grab a little collection fast and come home e-mail either but that's not exactly so 1 of the ways that we can do is we can look at the like that's coming in and we can see what it looks like so I just hydrogen here the let's say you're looking at some sort of a supernova star anything else and you go through when you look at it with the diffraction grating This is a really cheap on the home in the city in this mostly that's nearly there some other lines in there but they're you would know that that's mostly made out of hydrogen if you looked at it and I had an emission spectrum that was mostly helium which is the littlest things it's available at most inarticulate and so these emission spectra allow astronomers to go through and look at prudish exactly what other area is is made up of the and again if you have overlapping sections and canceled toss but they have really good equipment to do this and they you sort through the mess and figure out exactly what all there now let's do a
little bit of you know going back to when we were located the really answer some questions so
we're answer why the grosgrain wise blew in probably also do wisest sun yellow so why is the grass
sky blue so at 1st standing in for that matter sometime blue and sometimes not so blue and sometimes Red Bay is always sold to look at this we need to think about what's coming down from the sun so what's really coming down from the sun as white light if walk out into space with just the white light now what happened then is informed directly underneath the site really would almost think same just white light but both directly under some extent even more as you go out along the outside so what happens is that the red and orange light those Kincannon go straight through but blue light that has real short wavelengths so you lose your purples and things like that will short wavelengths and scatter around now collateral laser experiment to society and say you will how did we see the lead was our eyes Our ISA always going to see scattered like this the only thing if it doesn't scare me don't see it because we need those times to hear eyes so the laser was scattered by meeting will you water droplets kind making a little miniature atmosphere for it and then scattered something's going to happen here but all light doesn't equally so something like blue and purple in that region green that region of the electromagnetic spectrum they have very short wavelength and so those are going to get scattered around a lot and short wavelengths gets scattered that's what we see so all of the blues scattering see as the sky turning now you may notice that if you go outside and you look at your blue sky and you look right around the regions of the horizon and it's not blue anymore it's mostly white what happens at this point is that so much of the state's scattered now it all back like 3 re-election the when he talked about scattered light and we talked to are constructive and destructive interference thoroughgoing always back if that happens now everything being scattered around in it's being completely destructively interfere about so that becomes white because all the Blue has scattered and cancel each other out is kind of like know dropping pebbles upon what he dropped so many of them that you can actually see interference carrying more is just kind of comes along so interference on the pay and thus horizon is the scatter that out but up here it's gonna scattering of the can but not so much that it scatters each other out and now we have 1 more question and why is the sky yellow or orange exuded by the sunny yellow so looking at this and thinking about it 1st of all is the son actually yellow or orange it's a good question asked herself and it's not if you find in this space and you look at the sun it's not yellow-orange if you look at the pictures sent back from the astronauts on the space stations and things like that it's not yellow or orange and white so why don't we see it as yellow-orange well what's happening here all the blues and greens and purples are being scattered away so the only thing that comes down from the sun and what originally was white light the blue purple green that's all scattered into the sky and the atmosphere and what we actually see directly coming down from the sun is what possible what is left over silver blue greens and purples gone that leaves us with right and yellows and oranges and so that's what we see directly coming down from the sun because that's only part that we can look at the sun and the atmosphere doesn't scatter away but I want to
bring this 1 back again we've talked about black body irradiation the very beginning of quantum and I think it's going to talk about it 1 more time now that we know a little bit more about what's going on and how you can kind of see this a little bit better so this kind of goes into that the Suns temperature issue as well too so keep in mind when they said that the sum was wider yellow we now we know that because we have pictures of it but when we take the specter of it remember the sun falls into this 6 thousand category temperature and it falls into this region where we see all of these colors so we have a proposal Green the yellows and blues the oranges and reds in these parts that part of the spectrum is a part of the spectrum they get started in the sky this part of the spectrum is a part that can make it through our atmosphere at relatively unperturbed now but that being said of sons away at the horizon now even the red and orange and yellow have time to scatter and so that's where we get our Somerset's so now we're sort of
so this is indeed animals have a gene encoded into them that makes this protein and about this protein does is agreeing with commenting fast approaching and the shows up in the research a lot both elements in biological and chemical because the Countess really liked mutated into different things to it and make it useful for a bunch of different applications the biologists really like to use it and so I think it's worth talking about here always talking about fluorescent so this was pulled from this was a gene that was isolated from a jellyfish that the the notice kind of gloves sold the way that this works is the same way that we've been talking about it can take in light and then made it back and now the women works in these animals is that you can't take anything genetically engineered animals in this doesn't hurt the animals all the perfectly fine but the worst part about it is is you have to come under UV light for a little while to make them glow and that obviously the hurt them too badly so you take this and say what I will look at the skin cells Allison with happening to a certain proteins that the the skin cells of mice and the genetically engineered mice to take express the son of a particular gene and you can see it if you just kind of quickly throwing Duvalier GFP animals still see little mice just around their ears that they just wanted to track 1 protein in their ears or in this case they have lots of different fluorescent proteins 1 two-track approach in the nucleus I wanted to illustrate some sort of like a always something like that so that they could track 3 different things and could take pictures of them because were all different colors so originally this was green as shown by greed in fluorescent protein now they've done some little mutations here and there in the changed alleviate the whole spectrum of colors and so you know these are just had slightly mutated genes but we
don't know when that sort of thing now says you all missing talk on assuring the equation let's talk a little bit about that so we on this beachside was the site coming back now remember this is just the exact fighters before so I'll remember that our sigh here the wave function in no dissent that describes the movement of a particle and we said that there's been 1 of operator that I show you if we combine these together me that's how we found our energy levels N we talked about how sigh Square is a probability that city the places the way describing where you can find a lecture on the likelihood of finding an electron 2nd place now we kind of mentioned Wilson even talk about it too much and now we get to talk about a lot more these probabilities densities make up the atomic orbitals which describes a the electrons are so now we're going to start moving into talking about the atomic orbital so now we can kind of move on and talk about many electrons systems to and we're just basically gonna say Hasan people who know a lot about this have figured out ways of approximating the 2 really good level and now we can do this from a pilot chances and so were initially focusing on this section of for a little while so atomic
orbitals so you may recognize this as passes and penis indeed so if we had each of these we know that these are the exact solutions assuring the equation so what is actually
Moscow assurances that you can see it in the areas to take the probability density the size square and you use a computer to actually graph out the probability density to 95 per cent so the
approximate solutions and the reason I say that is that this kind of back to the idea that you can actually solve it except that there is a problem that come up so what they do is he taking the hit the winning they for the 1 electron system and put a bunch of little additional problems like that helped make it better and sold their approximate solutions not exactly when undergoing that that's Peter material so this shows you that we're and have a high probability of finding the electron it's about all in the usually drives the 90 5th percentile just because technically it goes out infinitely it's just that it's not something we want a 90 percent
probability of it certainly did
they look like you may or may not a scenes before where we had our sawmills in impure Moses hurdles like this double balloon shaped and the durables which versatile but before balloon shaped on plus the spot once so this is if you take the wave functions the square unseated the probability density and graphic now up until now I haven't shown you with these wave functions look like on the show and you but you don't really have to do anything with them but it's worthwhile and know that these equations do exist and that haven't been making them up so this
is all the more sit out from your book then we haven't talked about quantum numbers at which she will live in very brief moment but if you look at this this is the way function for the 1 that so if you take this new graphic
leadership the kind of square in the new effort to shape the colonel explained that and so for
the 2 of us the same ideas to slightly different the 1 that should seek to pee sorry to toupee and so on and so forth so that the book you don't need to worry about memorizing means but for info that's where these actually come from and so we're just going to be
using what they look like and filling in and and doing electric integration that everything like that just knowing our had that this is what they look like so I think for a
today we will end up in the next class we're starting on quantum numbers will spend some time on quantum numbers and then also moving into electron configurations and energy level diagrams and things of that sort
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