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Lecture 05. Emission Spectra

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Lecture 05. Emission Spectra
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Chem 1A is the first quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: atomic structure; general properties of the elements; covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding; intermolecular forces; mass relationships. Index of Topics: 0:00:20 Rydberg Equation: Derivation 0:01:22 Sign Conventions for Energy 0:03:52 Example of Rydberg Equations 0:05:19 Find Initial Energy Level of a Photon 0:09:11 Wavelength of a Photon 0:13:32 Lasers 0:15:38 Why Can't We See the Laser Until it Hits the Wall? 0:19:00 Wavelength of Beam of Light 0:26:15 Emission Series 0:27:47 Emission/Absorption Spectra 0:29:21 What Do We Use Emission Spectra For? 0:31:01 Emission Spectra in Astronomy 0:32:41 The Grass is Green Because... 0:35:16 Why is the Sky Blue? 0:39:06 Black Body Radiation 0:40:11 Other Transitions 0:42:46 Green Fluorescent Protein 0:44:41 Shrodinger Equation 0:46:07 Atomic Orbitals
transition states Wasserstoff initial Lecture/Conference Kellerwirtschaft Bohr saline derivatives case man
areas transition states type case Electronegativity man Computer animation initial electron Magnetometer Magma Library Lymphangiomyomatosis Common
chemical formulae transition states sense type Arginine Maische Ethylen-Vinylacetat-Copolymere Electronegativity case conservation firm man Wasserstoff Wasserstoff Computer animation initial electron coupling color Alu element active site Library form
fall Bohr Gases capacities man Computer animation metabolic pathway electron Erschöpfung chemical structures Dielectric spectroscopy period atom amplifier
Graukäse sodium hydride orbital case food man analogue chip Brown adipose tissue stone Spring Optische Untersuchungen silver processes chemical formulae nitrogen Angelic acid Eau de Cologne Wasserscheide end water Drops Computer animation Tau protein Hab Flüssiger Stickstoff screening hopes
Wasserstoff emission transition states Wasserstoff Computer animation Brown adipose tissue Maische BET theory set death man
fall Digital elevation model man Wasserstoff systems emission originators Wasserstoff absorption spectroscopy Computer animation electron active site Zigarre
flame burnings set case spectrin man Wasserstoff Potassium electron barium color mass spectrometer chemical element flame phosphorescent Alopecia water emission van conditions Computer animation function Silencer (DNA) Can (band) mixing
emission areas firm Wasserstoff collection Computer animation race blue spectrin stuff man
wear factors Cross plant case Calcium hydroxide firm chemical emission molecule firm lead absorption spectroscopy van Computer animation Orlistat coupling color parents oxygen
green Soil horizon Bohr steps man emission lead Drops Computer animation Magnetometer blue temperatures color blue orange active site silver
transition states activities Radium gene case chemical man firm important cell color protein cell nuclei Fluorescein Quenching (fluorescence) Spektroelektrochemie fall transition metal phosphorescent type chemical element set Holes fluorescence paintings slides mutation emission Computer animation GFP protein Sekundärionen-Massenspektrometrie
pilot Maische orbital operation solutions gold solutions Wasserstoff Computer animation electron orbital active site nanoparticle atom
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Digital elevation model sodium hydride Computer animation orbital Optische Untersuchungen atom man
I had last-minute at least left off with class we left off with this derivation mind you real quickly about what we do here because we need to talk about some signed conventions Sony to remember exactly what we talked about ceremony went
into this we wanted to find out what the energy transitions where the difference between 1 energy level in the next energy level and salinity that we did the same thing that we do for a change in anything we took our final and subtracted our initial now we don't have actual values for these that we do have these equations we have this equation says well the riders constant times by wineries you depending on if it's not hydrogen over whatever energy level you're talking about is equal to the energy level so we can do this for a really generic case single ahead In right this out for each 1 3 at the initial energy level in the final until we can fill those in we can get this equation and then with a little bit algebra we end up with
1 of these 2 and that's where we had left off last time I remember I said well you know this comes up and that both directions you'll see this trend both ways the only differences in 1 case the negative signs pulled out in any other case it's distributed so now we need to
talk about some sign areas because people tend to mess this up Alliance 1 of the main reasons people get what will start calling library problems along these energy level transition problems of wrong now if you have the lowest energy levels an equals 1 Persimmon most negative so you'll look back on equation look at what it looks like that's going to be your most negative which means that you lowest Schmidt said Senegal's 1 should be you lowest energy so now let's think about what happens if we have the 2 different types of transitions before going up and energy for going down and energy so 1st was looking for going from low to high so something of this sort if we're going to low to high energy then our final is going to be higher than our initial so that's going to make it positive because our final is high on initials low so final minus initial higher minus alone number is the new positive that I can remember keywords to look out for the same things like photon absorb that'll Q you off to the fact that the Delta use negative no let's look at the reverse what if you're going down energy hearing from medical 5 to any calls to level if you see something like that you'll see words such as full-time admitted and that means that you're losing your boat 100 parity electron is losing energy it's going down and so if that's the case now final energy is lower than your initial entered still finalize initials and a small number minus a low number which means that it's going negative small number minus high number a negative number and adult in that case is going to be negative so when I talk about dealt that can either positive or negative depending on the situation now I think what this equation that we used throughout the course equals each new for each in frequency or HC the 10 that ever been negative well frequency can be negative and landed heavy negative sold this can never be taken so the energy of a photon is always the positive the Delta III you have to decide whether it can be positive or negative based on whether you're observing a photon .period emitting a photo and this is going to come into play when we do the Ribar problems it's also the reason why I tend to prefer doing them the way that need Europe but doesn't as opposed to doing your homework give you hints on how to do it so with that we're going to go into
a couple examples so far a first-round bye cinephiles 180 million when hydrogen so we know that equal the 1 undergoes a transition from the any cost to levels and I also tell you that the 4th time that's going to be admitted has this frequency and I want you to find the initial energy levels so there's going to be a few different things that we need here 1st of all we have frequency and we're looking for an energy so Oregon and probably need equals agent we also have a transition have so are going to need divided from so at that time now we need to figure out how we're NFL this and so we need to know the initial energy level we're looking for the given that we know our final energy level tendencies so we
have evil each new we have adults equals negative R H z squared 1 and ask 1 overnight so we have each won now we know that we're looking for an hour but we don't have dealt city all we have is the energy of the focus the frequency of the photo but we can find out too early because we know that whatever the energy of the emitted photons this is gonna be the magnitude of this energy we don't know what the sign that we're going to have to make the decision for so will start here equals each new so we fell thinks constantly end South that which always pay attention to sink shake somebody's gonna put a little I'm there to show the that last significant figures now that we have this weekend just fell into here but we have to make a choice and say Well we know there's always have to be positive that's not always true belted so stealthy tainted positive or negative well since a photon is permitted that means we're going down in energy levels are electron is going from a high energy will lower energy level and that means it is going to have to be negative so we fell this value in we have to change the site and that is 1 of the main reasons that people get this these types of questions on exams so from here we can fill everything and we know that our final energy level was too don't forget square and after and I was so disappointed just becomes a massive algebra problem and I'll let you sit and work through all the details the algebra home something Dmitry do quite a bit of practice on and you are I 4 so that means that went from the articles for state down threatening calls to stay if this had come out to be 3 . 9 8 were nominated for me anything will return here energy laws there has to be a major break in between energy levels you have to be this energy level and this energy level 9 between so if you close to 1 to 3 . 1 around the 3 US 3 . 9 0 run for just round now if you're not closest U.S. 3 . 4 3 . 6 don't round that that means you screwed up go back and figure out where you messed up most likely in the case of a photon admitted it's actually right here it's forgetting to say that that dealt is negative on and that happens a lot if you use the formula version of this has won over land and says why choose to have you guys do it this way but if you do it we walk just make sure that this is an actual images and if not you messed up on examines were partial credit you go through and you say Hey I know that this is the speed manager but I can't figure out how to get so make sure you write those down to 1 more example now I say what is the follows her on what is the wavelength of the photons emitted during a transition from the any costs 5 technicals to stay in a hydrogen atom so oriented in the same sort of situation so we fell in Delta analysts however I in equations so at this point we conservatives fell in our values and work backwards to Waverly making sure to scrape everything making sure you remember that theirs is being here this is another place where everybody does it a little bit differently depending on the listing about Korea homework or branded Internet sites sometimes what you'll see if that is is included either here or hearing here it doesn't matter which and other times what you'll see in the 6 specially convened he started rolling around on the Internet is that people will include z in their library and 4 constant and you'll see Tables of constants for different clients under 400 like guidance so where images generalize it to say that well in general you can take in you can multiply the square by the Redbird constant 400 and get the right answer in use this form but you should be aware that there's lots of ways to do this so that you see on the Internet it it doesn't bother you or he sees the equation rain without the it's not that it's wrong it's just that there's seemingly during his Arriva constant for which are Avenue talking about but we're going to keep using this way so when he feel the same In fact notice it's negative that sense we're going from a high energy level too low energy level it should be negative but at this point we need to wavelength of the should be thinking well that means and have to use this equation In will arrange for Linda now the question becomes what I fell in 3 info fund the rest of so Michael also on 3 we don't want negative that right because you're solving for land In wavelength can be negative at a distance and so that's always going to be positive so what we shilling for energy years into his positive too because this energy is Delta energy this is the energy of the photons In sometimes it's useful to go ahead and just right energy of a full-time especially when we get a little bit later in the chapter and we start having the difference between tall energy and energy of 1 so that's going to solve this problem keeping track of our 6 figs all along and so we get this now oftentimes you're around this region of the electromagnetic spectrum I see that they asked for Indiana meters and so will going write that our non-indigenous the only reason for that is again this is sitting around the visible arranged it so sometimes it's nice to see you used to putting things in when you're in that region because people get the thing O'Connor were the colors of the soliders had Selby asked for in any year I don't know
To no armadillo little bit talking about leaders and how they work so basic idea of the week tonight at little more for this is that you have a certain to like structure and you have gasses to and then you have something like a literacy usually from battery that's going to take and make the gas but the giving of in the same way that we've been talking about here the very emitting life in order by in order to offer you promoted the electrons electrons fall back down in minute like now what this actually stands for is like invitation by stimulated emission so what that means is that your forcing it to emit radiation you're forcing it to emit light and then you amplified and whether the the amplification works is by having a bounce back and forth in the new let off a certain amount and all that is of the exact same wavelength are very close to the exact same way so here I am a little picture of it that shows you this where you take in you put in some energy you push it out In fall back down earlier falls back down lets off like energy and so we gotta do this this is how you get a little later .period and this is how we all believe that we go through now there's something a little interest in the talk about lasers to before some problems of muscle problems that were into surrounding the talking about how the photon of 1 1 felt tiredness is going relate to the total energy package for the total managing 1 little Paul Salazar so let's think about this a little bit how this works so once again it's bouncing back and forth the near reflects that most of which amplifies the light in the some of it passes through the mirror is only partially years and that's what is your like so this is all coherent it all goes on 1 ones pathway so I
don't think about something here that happens of laser light denying workable laser up like this compared soon anything going on between the right you can't see that line that must be going from this laser pointer to their you just see when it hits the wall so Of course is 1 of the great catch Missouri can they don't know where they're coming from some questions why can't we see that if I shine in this light that same thing doesn't happen so how his loser light work and is the way that we can make it so that we can see the laser well it's not as if the White magically appearing on the other side and handed it to consider laser so here we have the liquid nitrogen so he is liquidation off and on for them also in the source is very very cold so liquid nitrogen has has a very low boiling point the boiler ahead at room temperature so when I just have a sitting out like this it's actually to boiling and that you I can kind of see as it evaporates away so when angling lesson you can see some some steamed or some deeper so the that government could nitrogen using redesignated evaporating later saying that's because it's so cold that water nearing condensing so we have a little water droplets so now if they shine a laser pointer and poor liquid nitrogen over it you can see the laser beam is Italian spy movies they have this sort of thing that this spring financial liquidated but it's the same principle can see the laser beam to another laser beam house actually passing through something so how in that case does it actually work well we need to think about what the laser is and what our eyes actually work in order to see this so hard I see anything when it with this laser pointer appear for instance how do we see that upon the screen well if we have up on the screen that is I was really happening in the light bouncing off the screen and is bouncing into your eyes the way your eyes see something as for photons of light to hit the back of the soul when I .period the laser pointer at the screen on the wall around the scanners it's because of the way that the the laser works in never scatters into your eyes and see you never get to see it as soon as it hit something like this wall now scatters into your eyes and now you can see it when they see the liquidation anyway poured over the life now what's happening Israel's water vapor those water droplets are convincing meeting 100 miniature cloud paid by the right and so the laser light bouncing off the water particles into your eyes and that's weakest so that's how we found that the way that pleases work for them now how work use in calculating work with raises for the most part here is entering problems like this because this lower comes into play but what we've been doing so here we have a monochromatic beam of light and they tell you how many angels are in that time in that all pocket so when we say packets of light beam of light but we can mean is I take this and just Pulsipher and how much of the total energy that but in a white pattern of light and so this really really tiny having laser cannons Paul sell-off and 2nd peak seconds or you know and accuses me because actually go so fast MS in the back so what do this problem the Syria 1 the other questions for an hour or so to do this we need to think about how what we cancel for and what we sort of know from real life and saddling Formula One is kind of a figure out so if you know how many moles we have a total energy how can we relate those 2 together we're asking what the wavelength is now if we want find wavelength we really only have 1 way to do that they equals each silver so to get this meaning had that energy so the question becomes you just fill in for 2 . 5 jewels well you know what this is where it's not a bad idea to regulate isn't a
photon thence is energy polls so worried that so I need to figure 100 the total energy in terms of energy photon instead and think about this this is just under the right I think that in this way to remember this is really food because people like to think about food so if you have a bag of potato chips and each 1 has 10 calories and has 10 potato chips and watcher told a number of while 10 calories 10 potato chips at 100 calories is multiply them together this isn't any different it's still energy it's still numbers of things and so To take aerial potato chip cookie example and put this in terms of that while we took the number and in this case where the using photons instead of potato chips and we multiplied it by the energy of 1 photon were before analogy a potato chips and that is the total energy so that's certainly equation for the visitors demanding landowner memorizes equation just think about how works the number of something times that energy is the number of photo that there is a total energy so now we can rearrange a and actually treat this mathematically we want the energy of the photons so that we can use equals HCR reminder so we're going to take the total energy divide by the number of photons so we have a 2 . 5 jails now the question becomes can I just put it 8 . 5 6 10 cents a negative for let the correct answer Well no this is moles right and I said number photons so we need to convert this into a number of photons so we do that with our number just like we can always converted between walls and the number of whatever and as always you can take that out and do it as a separate equation or just fell into 1 and when you do this yet and I held said things that's fine just underline the last significant and now we can that it's equals HC and because now we have the energy jewels for each photo motorcyle attends useful time as a unit and that's if you think you have to put there but it's a good thing to get in the habit of just because that picture you know that this is a job per photon and not a per mole and not a portable jewel so even tho it's not really an actually it's like saying I have 5 eggs right and this really unique here but it's descriptive seemed thing here you don't have to have a to be right but it is a good thing to so now we can fill and self-reliant so rearranging that interfering in our constants Hindery and we've played miniature calculated the Internet meeting To round the final answer as appropriate since we only had to think thank and accused and we get that Americans so that's how we go through and these problems already have a certain number of malls a certain brand items on end in Canada in between everything in other ways they can ask the student backwards direction as well but this will the sort of equation "quotation mark hope will help you out there just don't memorize listen don't expect me to give it to you exam because that's something that you should be able surfing through logically in this life and the food example always kind words we soon I will be
on a bet now we certainly although the mathematical backdrop in order to talk about some really interesting things so that's kind of a large portion of this this park and maybe even next time is going to be discussing emission spectra sold here I have extreme difference series written out in these are not something that I expect you to memorize as with about all things in this this sort of classification where you have to memorize what people invented what people dead and prefer you just to make sure if I talk about Lyman series series passion series 5 years I see walking around campus and asking that you shouldn't we feel that only the Hey that has something that's that's the mission series last year transitions and or necessarily carry the memorized which part of the spectrum therein or exactly which when they come down to the device is something like it's in the ball Mauceri transition the bomber series has the final energy of any calls to you should be able to use that bonus you shouldn't throw you off so what did the 1st set of transitions and each 1 was discovered by the persons named after and what you can see is different light spectra these different transitions and it can actually see this using different specter scopes and look at what this is really useful in a minute so the the 3 in the series in the hydrogen so
you can actually the system of the visible region for hydrogen and you can see these and they look like this now if you've ever done Frank House will talk about those already telling them that but this is what you're actually seeing same task so if this is the emission spectrum this means that this is when you look at a hydrogen I win you know whether in new site the hydrogen electrons in the fall back down this is what you're going to see which means the Fed submitting select things it's absorbing all of these there are always going to be office that so I have draw you in absorption spectrum Johnny emission spectrum just by drawing where there's missing lines and crisis is just the full specter of so you can see that now this is just 1 those origin which is a pretty small parts of and so this is also drawn out for all the rest of the region's what these are talking about is the series that I talked about in the
slot so not all of these are indivisible and they all fall into different ranges
so here you see the linemen in the bomber and the passion and in 3 of the other ones as well as some other just select parts of it that people look back and said Hey I can see this whole grouping of lines and I can go through I can calculate where arcane and same thing here and now costs would these you would need some sort of spectrometry to show you exactly what the wine spectra are because you can see that you can see compiler get to alopecia diffraction grating and look at something burning and you can see it really well the rest of the some sort of answer from afar so
what is useful for someone the places that it's useful for in simple to do to me you can do this kind of 3 seconds in a lab is emission spectra to identify certain elements so you need to any time you want to try to do with this sort of emission spectra anyway look at it you have to excite the electrons 1st denied images magically excitement often and fall back down you need to do the excitement and then let them fall so In this case you can just do the flame you go and you can burn something and in that the heat from the flames will go through excite the electrons and then they'll fall back down and you can get these colors and so what you can do is candle taken elements put it below the water just a kind of you know mix it up and put it on a loop stated in a flame and it'll grow glow these bright colors now it's in this isn't really an exaggeration at all sometimes no pictures on the Internet are exaggerated and the exact perfect conditions being with the glow displayed in its it's fast even do a bunch of times I don't think that you guys actually do this and lab that you can see videos and that online it is really cold in really simple now there's obviously some difficulty in identifying elements of the mixed if you have both barium and potassium in there it's going a little too hard to see what's going on and so you would again need to get some sort of diffraction grating respect from there to tell you exactly what's coming off there is only 1 element if you're allowed setting in silence as here's an unknown figure out what it is this works really well now the someplace
else that its used a lot that in you can kind is chairman of the news and stuff sometimes is for astronomy application applications so it would be really nice if we wanted to know where no particular star was made out of this with the just kind of you know race over there grab a little collection fast and come home e-mail either but that's not exactly so 1 of the ways that we can do is we can look at the like that's coming in and we can see what it looks like so I just hydrogen here the let's say you're looking at some sort of a supernova star anything else and you go through when you look at it with the diffraction grating This is a really cheap on the home in the city in this mostly that's nearly there some other lines in there but they're you would know that that's mostly made out of hydrogen if you looked at it and I had an emission spectrum that was mostly helium which is the littlest things it's available at most inarticulate and so these emission spectra allow astronomers to go through and look at prudish exactly what other area is is made up of the and again if you have overlapping sections and canceled toss but they have really good equipment to do this and they you sort through the mess and figure out exactly what all there now let's do a
little bit of you know going back to when we were located the really answer some questions so
we're answer why the grosgrain wise blew in probably also do wisest sun yellow so why is the grass
green so if you had you know don't depending on exactly how your parents wanted answers and it's time they had enhanced the major said it's because lead you off because you're 5 and you don't care as much they told chlorophyll which is still not wrong but let's go little more in detail see this is chlorophyll so did you find chlorophyll and you know maybe you knew this maybe you didn't is that it takes in 1 color light and reflects the other so it's going to absorb red light and reflect the light so you're either going to see the reflected light so this is a graph of this so that you can actually see the absorption spectra Soames option emission spectra or something that come up a lot in analytical chemistry of not an don't necessarily mean the class analytical chemistry and in actual applications of it he needs lots and lots and lots of people do different had too many of his Austin and emission spectroscopy so here's an example of a graph of the absorption spectroscopy of all of a couple different cloth also so this chlorophyll absorbs right here and right here so you can see this huge absorption peaks in the red breed so it's taking in all of that red light 8 now we've been talking about this absorption spectra of 1 at only 200 and mostly or different you know Adams this is a big molecule I'll do it and that's no different in absorbs that by by a complex system ally year Balaji teachers are about 10 teachers go through but that's why this happens to can see this absorption peak year and the same thing for chlorophyll at you get this big exertion take care so what happens if you shine green on plants and what happens if you shiny red lights points it's always good to kind of look at this and see what's going on so you may or may not know but this this absorption of light is what allows it to go through and convert the C O 2 in oxygen and gives it its energy so if you shine green light on a plan let's look at what's happening in the brain and the party mission back Earth absorption factor nothing there's no absorption here so if we Shangri-La another player it's probably going to die it can it photosynthesise that nowhere to shine that light on a plan well in that case it's not really understand the difference they can absorb just as much red light as they can wait like us pretty much for the whole absorption as and so because of that edition and let out a plan will do just fine now Why is the
sky blue so at 1st standing in for that matter sometime blue and sometimes not so blue and sometimes Red Bay is always sold to look at this we need to think about what's coming down from the sun so what's really coming down from the sun as white light if walk out into space with just the white light now what happened then is informed directly underneath the site really would almost think same just white light but both directly under some extent even more as you go out along the outside so what happens is that the red and orange light those Kincannon go straight through but blue light that has real short wavelengths so you lose your purples and things like that will short wavelengths and scatter around now collateral laser experiment to society and say you will how did we see the lead was our eyes Our ISA always going to see scattered like this the only thing if it doesn't scare me don't see it because we need those times to hear eyes so the laser was scattered by meeting will you water droplets kind making a little miniature atmosphere for it and then scattered something's going to happen here but all light doesn't equally so something like blue and purple in that region green that region of the electromagnetic spectrum they have very short wavelength and so those are going to get scattered around a lot and short wavelengths gets scattered that's what we see so all of the blues scattering see as the sky turning now you may notice that if you go outside and you look at your blue sky and you look right around the regions of the horizon and it's not blue anymore it's mostly white what happens at this point is that so much of the state's scattered now it all back like 3 re-election the when he talked about scattered light and we talked to are constructive and destructive interference thoroughgoing always back if that happens now everything being scattered around in it's being completely destructively interfere about so that becomes white because all the Blue has scattered and cancel each other out is kind of like know dropping pebbles upon what he dropped so many of them that you can actually see interference carrying more is just kind of comes along so interference on the pay and thus horizon is the scatter that out but up here it's gonna scattering of the can but not so much that it scatters each other out and now we have 1 more question and why is the sky yellow or orange exuded by the sunny yellow so looking at this and thinking about it 1st of all is the son actually yellow or orange it's a good question asked herself and it's not if you find in this space and you look at the sun it's not yellow-orange if you look at the pictures sent back from the astronauts on the space stations and things like that it's not yellow or orange and white so why don't we see it as yellow-orange well what's happening here all the blues and greens and purples are being scattered away so the only thing that comes down from the sun and what originally was white light the blue purple green that's all scattered into the sky and the atmosphere and what we actually see directly coming down from the sun is what possible what is left over silver blue greens and purples gone that leaves us with right and yellows and oranges and so that's what we see directly coming down from the sun because that's only part that we can look at the sun and the atmosphere doesn't scatter away but I want to
bring this 1 back again we've talked about black body irradiation the very beginning of quantum and I think it's going to talk about it 1 more time now that we know a little bit more about what's going on and how you can kind of see this a little bit better so this kind of goes into that the Suns temperature issue as well too so keep in mind when they said that the sum was wider yellow we now we know that because we have pictures of it but when we take the specter of it remember the sun falls into this 6 thousand category temperature and it falls into this region where we see all of these colors so we have a proposal Green the yellows and blues the oranges and reds in these parts that part of the spectrum is a part of the spectrum they get started in the sky this part of the spectrum is a part that can make it through our atmosphere at relatively unperturbed now but that being said of sons away at the horizon now even the red and orange and yellow have time to scatter and so that's where we get our Somerset's so now we're sort of
on last run through interesting span life in research slides is what are and what my show you this in without having to testimony a amount but important of those allowed transitions here that we haven't discussed we haven't talked about but that people use all the time research so we talked a lot about going ahead and is setting something is sending something up letting it fall back all of the there's some other types of transition that can be used to so this is actually from 1 of the places that does on the make microscopy for a fluorescence microscopy and this shows you all the different ways that you can actually had transitioned happened so you can have just what we've been talking about so far which is the sort of transitions from 1 state to another up absorption you can have these sorts of talking about down which are emissions and don't worry too much about this and singlet and triplet state here that the only about that there's also this whole other state that we haven't really talked about much at all and we're not going to but if you go over here no hole not the sort of emission happens so mostly what we really been talking about when it comes down to it is fluorescence the idea that you met that you'd say something it falls back down and we haven't talked about timescales very much because it happens almost instantly you try something and in that sort of fashion comes that down very very quickly and that's how fluorescence works even think of this as sort of you know black like you turn a black light on some of the spotlight black-white active it glows you turn the black layoff in well anymore and I will talk about these Anderson it now this section when you have something that comes down here and then down that's called something else that we actually depending on how many little brothers and sisters you have you might still have in your daily life I still think that fall into this category Prince phosphorescent so what is phosphorescent using the glow in the dark so the Florence and things that we can it can see whether I Allen about are things like Barclay active paint on things about sort this sort of transition talks about phosphorescence and that's lower that's the way things are going dark fall into the phosphorescence no it's not a little more about what's going on in these pictures
so this is indeed animals have a gene encoded into them that makes this protein and about this protein does is agreeing with commenting fast approaching and the shows up in the research a lot both elements in biological and chemical because the Countess really liked mutated into different things to it and make it useful for a bunch of different applications the biologists really like to use it and so I think it's worth talking about here always talking about fluorescent so this was pulled from this was a gene that was isolated from a jellyfish that the the notice kind of gloves sold the way that this works is the same way that we've been talking about it can take in light and then made it back and now the women works in these animals is that you can't take anything genetically engineered animals in this doesn't hurt the animals all the perfectly fine but the worst part about it is is you have to come under UV light for a little while to make them glow and that obviously the hurt them too badly so you take this and say what I will look at the skin cells Allison with happening to a certain proteins that the the skin cells of mice and the genetically engineered mice to take express the son of a particular gene and you can see it if you just kind of quickly throwing Duvalier GFP animals still see little mice just around their ears that they just wanted to track 1 protein in their ears or in this case they have lots of different fluorescent proteins 1 two-track approach in the nucleus I wanted to illustrate some sort of like a always something like that so that they could track 3 different things and could take pictures of them because were all different colors so originally this was green as shown by greed in fluorescent protein now they've done some little mutations here and there in the changed alleviate the whole spectrum of colors and so you know these are just had slightly mutated genes but we
don't know when that sort of thing now says you all missing talk on assuring the equation let's talk a little bit about that so we on this beachside was the site coming back now remember this is just the exact fighters before so I'll remember that our sigh here the wave function in no dissent that describes the movement of a particle and we said that there's been 1 of operator that I show you if we combine these together me that's how we found our energy levels N we talked about how sigh Square is a probability that city the places the way describing where you can find a lecture on the likelihood of finding an electron 2nd place now we kind of mentioned Wilson even talk about it too much and now we get to talk about a lot more these probabilities densities make up the atomic orbitals which describes a the electrons are so now we're going to start moving into talking about the atomic orbital so now we can kind of move on and talk about many electrons systems to and we're just basically gonna say Hasan people who know a lot about this have figured out ways of approximating the 2 really good level and now we can do this from a pilot chances and so were initially focusing on this section of for a little while so atomic
orbitals so you may recognize this as passes and penis indeed so if we had each of these we know that these are the exact solutions assuring the equation so what is actually
Moscow assurances that you can see it in the areas to take the probability density the size square and you use a computer to actually graph out the probability density to 95 per cent so the
approximate solutions and the reason I say that is that this kind of back to the idea that you can actually solve it except that there is a problem that come up so what they do is he taking the hit the winning they for the 1 electron system and put a bunch of little additional problems like that helped make it better and sold their approximate solutions not exactly when undergoing that that's Peter material so this shows you that we're and have a high probability of finding the electron it's about all in the usually drives the 90 5th percentile just because technically it goes out infinitely it's just that it's not something we want a 90 percent
probability of it certainly did
they look like you may or may not a scenes before where we had our sawmills in impure Moses hurdles like this double balloon shaped and the durables which versatile but before balloon shaped on plus the spot once so this is if you take the wave functions the square unseated the probability density and graphic now up until now I haven't shown you with these wave functions look like on the show and you but you don't really have to do anything with them but it's worthwhile and know that these equations do exist and that haven't been making them up so this
is all the more sit out from your book then we haven't talked about quantum numbers at which she will live in very brief moment but if you look at this this is the way function for the 1 that so if you take this new graphic
leadership the kind of square in the new effort to shape the colonel explained that and so for
the 2 of us the same ideas to slightly different the 1 that should seek to pee sorry to toupee and so on and so forth so that the book you don't need to worry about memorizing means but for info that's where these actually come from and so we're just going to be
using what they look like and filling in and and doing electric integration that everything like that just knowing our had that this is what they look like so I think for a
today we will end up in the next class we're starting on quantum numbers will spend some time on quantum numbers and then also moving into electron configurations and energy level diagrams and things of that sort