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Lecture 01. Introduction to General Chemistry

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Lecture 01. Introduction to General Chemistry
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Chem 1A is the first quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: atomic structure; general properties of the elements; covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding; intermolecular forces; mass relationships. Index of Topics: 0:01:55 "Fundamentals" 0:02:40 Significant Figures 0:11:44 Dimensional Analysis: Conversion Factors 0:12:30 Fundamental Problems 0:22:22 Structure of an Atom 0:25:07 Cartoon 0:26:06 Isotopes, Natural abundance, and Molecular Mass 0:29:11 Average Molecular Mass 0:32:29 Periodic Table 0:34:21 Naming 0:37:12 Bonding 0:38:09 Types of Bonding 0:40:28 Empirical vs. Chemical Formulas 0:42:30 Cartoon: Ionic Bonds 0:43:28 Ionic Bonds 0:48:26 Charges of Atoms 0:50:50 Inert Pair Effect 0:51:36 Naming Ionic Compounds
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set rates factors Methylphenidat Bohr multiple man fish Calcium hydroxide end man Computer animation model Magnetometer Gamma conversions Auxin History Helium calculations Converter
sodium hydride Insulinkomabehandlung Bohr Potassium atoms Calcium hydroxide chemical man model stone Accurate level wear type Drink areas phase properties mode proton charge end van periodic table coupling chemical structures atom
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sodium hydride transition metal chemical element NaCl factors Bohr aluminium media charge case crystals Calcium hydroxide man Magnesium Kleine Eiszeit electron firing race Brown adipose tissue shot Insulin translation chemical formulae areas Malt organizations balance Electronegativity source charge firm end water Natrium collection Valenzelektron Computer animation function periodic table compounds chemical structures oxygen History form atom
Index sense Sulfate Oxidationsstufen Memorial charge man Sulfide originators rate Sodium thiosulfate oxidation chemical element type pilot Ethylen-Vinylacetat-Copolymere charge end Stream gauge Computer animation phosphate function compounds Iron oxygen
right what have 1 and so this is the 1st class in the general store series here so we're going to go over supporters started to some general introduction to the cost of some fundamentals and the thing that you're sort of already expected to know when you walk the class we have a a bunch of homework on that side for you so you can go to implement everything you need to know about it in the meantime I'm going to cover some the important aspects of it today and maybe next class so over the course of the class were going to cover the 1st quarter growth in Europe in the act but so will start officers cursory overview of the fundamental things that learned in high school or commentary and we'll go over there and in just skimming the surface of it and let you take care of most back home there also starting to Chapter 1 and that
talks about quantum mechanics Adams very very basic level and do lots of lots material on that and instead it was the 1st 4 weeks or so your 1st material covers just Chapter 1 and then move on and start building molecules of the embargo and complicate the little more complicated structures will learn about geometry about although the way it is look interact and how they form bonds in more detail rather than just saying that can't together N and that we will also enhance activities 1 molecule can interact with another volatile and language used these can change based on and different properties of molecules and now 2nd term is up but that time movement Chapter 4 which we certainly feasible properties .period certain gasses and how gasses interact with each other in our and will do that for the time so far the entire fundamental section where this is the thing that you already sort of they say that theoretically because falling back there somewhere from 3 years ago and physical chemistry intent very simple back-end review that's your age group and in your book a came out and really talk about that at all and the little bit of work on it that's going to be really important for 1 sees it if you haven't even when the other test you on that when we get there for this the testimony about not talk about it but everything up and James stereoscopic ability and is what we sort of go over in class today I'm still not 100 let's start where to start a significant figure this is really important and sometimes gets forgotten about and this is the way that measure how precisely can be in any of our calculations so for every calculation you do in this class you're going to have I worry about significant figures so there's a few future role for the first one is sort of any time you have a number of Members this is going to be a significant figure so every calculation you do you're going counterbalancing the figures decide how accurate so for instance with the Saudis 54 minutes to significantly and that means that we can be accurate to this 54 placed 3rd to this one's place right here now get is 0 that's when things start to get a little bit more complicated sufferers who doesn't talk about what is and isn't it is bigger than to have him on with that so if you have the between 2 other digits so for instance 0 where you have a 0 between 5 4 that's the also sing so in this case 504 the 5 in the forests as well as the 0 that's between them a dead-on if we had during the last of the 1st 9 0 so as examples here we have 0 . 0 0 5 0 for the lazy pretty regularly no decimal point and this 1 which is a a little bit more not something that you would ever see us really written not just in case that included it In this case we don't count either of these zeros these heroes I think kind of see whether announcing the Dias they're just placeholders we can't write . 5 0 4 and had the same number as . 0 0 5 0 there simply placeholders so they're not significant now if you have greater than 1 and you have 0 there to the right of the decimal place those are definitely Indian anything about international without actually memorizing the role could reduce right to while Corsica right to that change the number so there's no reason to include this . 0 0 0 0 unless you're doing it for the sake unless you're doing it for the sake of showing how precise that you cannot only just page to this 1 this 1 place you can go all the way out to here and so those are all now when you compare that to adhere to remember is that you can't just write 25 0 4 that changes the number so during the the placeholders here the assistant but no this continent month as challenge or significant unless the decimal point burst scientific notation is used so for instance here I had just have 1002 there is no decimal point after those 2 0 that's significant and that's because you can't just right according to their inhabited same number of of those zeros and justly so any time you have 0 placeholder it's not missing any time you have a 0 that is a place holder like for instance here those are now what we want all of these digits to be significant we can't force them to almost anything in made putting a period of so if we just put a period at the end a decimal point the and then in what courses that tells whoever is looking at your work then you really can measure up to the 1 place it just happens to be that in this case of the time and the ones placed 0 now what we wanted to just 4 2 in 1 adapts 1st 0 to be seeing if there is a way to do that scientific notation is the way to say exactly what want to be seen in the and would have done so in this case we can write out 4 . 2 0 and that says OK everything that we have written in the scientific notation
that significant so if you have a time thousands of Indonesian whatever is there is going to be seen the Soviet Union and round up to something like 4 4 thousand 200 3 significant figures how can I write that I have made the point on the task while its economy by going through and putting in the scientific notation so that I know that you know that as recently as figures now the next part of has had a population because just being able to call on the evening news he has great energy for something like taking a measurement that that would be fine but you also going to be doing actual calculations your implementing the new equations maybe something that has 360 figures and has forced the vigorous and you need to know how many out yet so there's 2 different sets of rules the rules for handling addition subtraction and most of unification division so for addition subtraction you use the lowest number of places a decimal point so you're not actually going to becoming significant figures as we just talked about previous life for addition and subtraction so for example likely will add the .period to forces of the lives of once they said had placed and something like . 3 4 5 where you have 1 up to the plate you around this to the lowest number of decimal places so case to adjust the 2 decimal places and so you around 2 . 5 9 you're not counting median figure interior ,comma decimal places so what if you don't have a introducing in the higher numbers well in that case you just round the number of places so here all the way up to the ones they here only at 100 so when you run this year round to the nearest town and so you end up with 45 500 so that's the addition subtraction not counting think just places but that decimal places or places before lot .period With multiplication and division that we're going to bring in all this the figures that the previous life so Vermont modification division you got the lowest number of 6 6 so if we look at 23 we can see that there are 2 significant figures and we look at 436 in the region of the figures so when we want around and we went around to their 2 significant figures now don't hide inside the city of calculator from formula like you'll see that went around me in the with a 1 is 0 in which you have a you may still hardware rather than just you know 10 thousand was candidate in because that would then have just 1 decimal over just 1 place 1 significant figure and you need to have to see it said it will not have to convert into scientific notation so that I can put the . 0 there soon I want with division so here we have a 453 divided by 3 . 2 so sure we have a decimal place here but that doesn't make any difference we don't have to pay any attention to the decimals we just altering how how amazing things do we have so here we have 3 and here we have to so when we get a lot done for about them and they were going to have to sing in figures and so we're left with 140 now some models of phones work with these diseases worlds of coming up with an answer that you're going turn and that's fine if you only have 1 ones that you can just say OK well I've had to numbers of most of these numbers which ended in go ahead without but if you have 5 or 6 different stops you're taking a fanciful when created and filled another region now is have to kind of keep track of this is not a good idea to round every single step that introduces a little bit error every single time and there's a good chance we'll start getting answers wrong expecially on use sort of online systematic ,comma so what you want to do is you won't hold out of deference .period also known users I just might populated that interval if if you want to write about that trying to just write out a couple of points half last week the the U.S. officials was to keep track of what's going on and how can I make take the answer from 1 equation Adams said stressing the current recently that had just put a little underlined the last year and then we'll just use my surgeons work but every time I didn't answer they need you someplace else and put a little underlined in the last few years I can keep track so that's the end of his her actually going about doing this and in a real problems but so most basic things that you're going to have been known you every single calculation columnist class now the next set of things that you really need to have a good background on something called dimensional analysis were conversion and these certain very much in a related to each of the idea conversion factor is you have something that says this much is equal to as much as something of so 100 cm equals 1 week after the merger factor now the way we use this as something called dimensional analysis it is 1 of the main ways anyway where you can go through and you can convert 1 item into something else using conversion factor the easiest way to do this is actually go through and do a few examples of problems and that's what we're gonna do ah so
we have the work she that you've printed off the Internet Sandinista uprising the average speed of helium at 25 degrees is tall 155 meters per 2nd and convert that miles per hour so the way you want to think about members factors is riding on what we have and many of our friends get to in seeing what you need to do in between so will stop by writing down what we have so we know we have and we know at the end of the day we need to have mph the man holding the a between them using only conversion that we know led I ask you to memorize all conversion that I don't care about the other by would give them to the metric ones adopted so if we have meters on top me need to do something to get rid of me I mean something in the numerator is multiplying so the opposite of multiplication is division so we put that on and we know that we can get from years tomorrow through using some sort of conversion factor that we need to look up word had memorized more likely look and so will put miles up here now we go we we find that conversion factors we say for every 1 miles there's 1 thousand 609 . 3 meters when you look at these sorts of conversion factors the partners from members is not something like the metric system may have 1 and had 100 thousand you want to keep 1 place more then were 1 change year more than what the actual number that started so if we think about how this Council's we now would have miles per 2nd if we keep track of all our older you will not and give me 1 miles per hour its 2nd from bottom and wondering about so that means we have to put 2nd summit talks to cross that and we want our is on the bottom so will do this and then we fell in this conversion factor Of course this would be 1 that you'd be expected know and if you don't remember the last opportunity enough company secondary seeking converts in New England the Maoists hours From this point now we can look and we can see that Armenia's consul we can see the seconds and we can see that we have miles per hour so that's all that was Missouri answer is going to be fine and we can do is 28 0 7 so naked that much easier to figure out how to do that she had memorized by multiplying the history effectively dividing this version images so this week industries units around but where 1 Fish held a minute the table light from the sun to reach Earth given that the distance from the sun is 93 million miles and the speed of light is 3 times needed that Her 380 meters per 2nd but so too do this 1 will hold an afternoon Europe question but it really turns out to just be a bunch of conversion factors that together if we know that we have a certain amount of models In its 93 million which means it's 93 times 10 to the 6 and not the end of this we wanna get 2 so we traced through all the conversion factors that we can find in order to get well we can start by saying we have we have miles here and we know where speed is meters per 2nd so we have to distance here and have a time that's going to be a good way that we can go through and try to get to time but it's not gonna work with miles so let's change miles and meters in the the same way that we did here no no different from those you look back to your first one then the order is supplied and that's it because converting from miles 2 meters instead of leaders Myers speaking rate in those numbers you can also hold off right and all the numbers at the very end to so now we know that we have years on top and miles cancel out and we can look at what else we can do we want to have a distance to a time so we need something that has both distance and time now From there decide Oregon a multiplied by this number or undermined so again we traced through units we've had years on top and we don't want leaders so we divide so that was the 2nd on top which is what we want because I'll end up with so now we fell on numbers the number here goes with the meters because on top and there so 3 . 0 0 times tend to be a and we've got 1 2nd here now at this point we want to look at what I had asked you for so we can do this in our seconds if we wanted but I have to ask for me and so at this point we can see well we have 2nd so we need to convert that into and we know that we have 60 seconds in 1 minute so that gets rid of this unit leaving the minutes which is what we want and regions now it's time to to take a look at things in figures here for both of these you notable from no notice on this 1 I put I left office you're not going to go back and say OK for all these calculations did reduce flight we started with 4 significant figures we divided by 5 years and we didn't threaten looked up that number that of a what we have for significant figures here I need to keep 1 action now but what about this 1 the truth is ,comma let me that we should run 28 3rd 28 . 0 0 0 1 whenever you a definition you don't run back so there is exactly 60 seconds 1 minute there is a lack of 60 Minutes in 1 hour there is exactly 30 600 seconds and 1 of it's defined that way and so you can think of it as being engineered significant figures however meaning there to be so that means that this is going to be left as for because we started not only from the we started to here could we again looked this up I can inspire basically just because I had that number handy but could about its history if you want we have this number which has 3 sinking figures and then we have just 1 which looks like a lot but remember definition and so because of the definition it actually and so the only thing that matters for significant figures is the 9th green so we have to significant figures here and so we need to significant figures but so that's
a lot through some of the young calculation that we're going to be doing any I was very general format where you don't need to have a lot of chemistry background again near you can always use dimensional analysis and looking at the units crossing of the units double-check whenever you go to do anything so every problem that you do you should write all the units all the time and then each time you go through and look at where they are hard look at how they cancel a nation at the end you have a unit that makes sense if you're measuring distances and you come up with a unit of time you did something wrong if you you're measuring your velocity at the end of the 2 halves of losses you come out with something like meters and no stepped perspective you did something wrong so this is a great way to to go through and make sure you did everything OK we'll get will be at a time of the quarter where we have a concept that has time to different types of ways radon in all the differences are immune from that which would be used you can memorize it you could say Well when I use this equation ironies in this 1st phase this equation and use the surgeon or you can just look at the units and say OK I know I have in years an atmosphere so I is this version are ah I know jewels some use this version of all things about but so now into the structure of our readiness and really basic level right now and Chapter 1 will get into it in much much greater detail and in some ways all tell you that title here so this is a war In a letter sometimes called the High School of this is only the 1st of each you it has very good uses some of which were going to take advantage of here starting this fast enough but it also is 100 per cent accurate but it's a good starting point so what kind of start from there to here you can think it is being a new the in the middle of the has to different parts of it has protons has an interest in in the property and have a positive charge the neutrons have no charge at all and then of Brown's business but right now I think there is going and later on will expand out that that we have look and those who want to undergo negatively charged so there's something you look at a periodic table and functionally pretty quickly without having to do with the huge amount of Scotland so if you don't have do this is fine but you want to understand what the so if you have the number of protons you have and you subtract the amount of electronic your presidency I haven't plus 1 charge your have a minus 1 charge so that's the beginning of the charge of the eye now In any sort of unusual come home this is the stared at that 0 because you're going to have the same number of contact the law but you can also search and subtracting from the lot and this time because of and added that it was talking about and what were tell so keep this in mind that you charge is always going to be able to your protons minus 0 4 no if you look at your Periodic table there's a bunch of numbers that you can you can deal with 1 of them is your atomic number that's remember approach and there is also an atomic bomb until now is you never faced plus your number of and so you can take those and you can add them up and that is your retirement because they always have a periodic table you'll always know your number of retirements will always know you're atomic mass exonerating like that and what you see is a lot of time looking at how culturally and figure out how many the neutrons we have been taken masses attractive Proton and will do that a lot of talent seems certain in New York now you you really have to remember these charges which ones are positive and which ones are negative
in order to help remember that we have a little joke lots of great and simultaneously horrible chemistry jokes out there this is 1 of them so you have to they walk into a bar at the end of the border a couple of drinks as the 1 about is about to leave the waiter says how much does it cost and the new trials that in there and start over with a new genre into a about orders a couple of drinks as she is about to leave she asked later how much in the way to revised universal that's joke sort of remember when New China we have another 1 here and this was 1 of the most famous only gets repeated over and over and over again end up you have these 2 different Adams they're talking to each other and once again hit and had lost an election in other words of in the 1st of the unplugged he lost an election and so the problem area so its nice horrible jokes for you to remember the fact on lot according other than that I was sort of time for his general definition so 1st of all we have something called isotopes 1 Sony any time you have the same number of protocol but you have a different molecular that's what I set out in the reason world why and get this is because you different numbers of mutual and so you're with any 1 particular item can change and without really changing too much of a problem will see again and once you that some of the properties definitely changed the map definitely changes because you're adding neutrons which has has enough about 1 but most of its properties are very similar now while molecular masses of the people dust similarly you should probably only a in this class just kind of sitting out of the starting next last homework that there is no there there so whenever you look at this you'll
see that you molecular masses the therefrom and why is that while the reason for that is that they're actually going to be an average they're going to be an average of both His words wall isotopes of that that has so something like silver has 2 isotopes that make it up and so sometimes get silver while 7 you were wearing masks that 1 has come out with a unit of 107 sometimes 109 soul under the table what they do is they do something called the weighted average and a weighted average of the good things in how do you don't know how to do that we need a new math class also agreed that about you so you have feared graded as a figure weighted average that that's what I'm talking about and that's how insisted that constitute a year so In this case we would have won all 7 Silver making up 51 per cent 1 0 9 silver making up the rest we will do this or not ,comma in just a minute you'll notice some of these are even more complicated summit is 1 that with 2 or 3 different ways not only a weighted average as opposed to just average you may say Why can't I just take this and they will 107 plus 109 divided by 2 while we know that this is where you are in the world and takes somewhere out of the use of solar plants leader given all the work in any purifier How much Is that soldier with the molecular mass silver and not all the soldiers 50 50 1 0 7 1 0 and this is where the avian weeded out but so what do this without the document camera so
we can see it all worked out but excellent 51 . 8 3 9 per cent of silver is 107 so we need to figure out how much and how much there is a beach so we now and then because the problem says so nobody you know what I'm saying is 109 well this year estimates so we just take 100 subtract that so this is 100 -minus the Silver 107 per cent which gives us 48 . 1 6 1 now we do what we call weighted average Sunderland without in 2 steps you can do Allen won it you find their way so if we know that we have 107 grams of this we can sailing 107 grams per mile In 109 of them what will do will go through and will multiply that by the person then the same thing here so we've taken 107 multiplied by the fact that adopted in nature this is multiplied by the fact that mixed up in nature and we had those 2 numbers and yet and back now with everything in chemistry you wanna be thinking does this make any sense now In this case we have a weighted average between 2 things 107 109 and it's about 50 50 right once 51 48 it's about 50 50 so we would expect the answer to be close to what the normal average year with the real activity which is 108 so since we have this and this being added together almost work we wanted to be close to 1 0 8 With a little bit laughs because the 107 the lower number a little bit higher percentage and that's exactly what we see we see that as close to my only just a little bit less than 1 so that makes sense based on the average is and what we know about how averages work and now this was the case for a only had to license hopes that we were averaging you can do this for more something like Harbin has 1 main 1 into smaller ones you could do that for each other and you would just do this 3 times and then add all but but but as soon as we we'll
all these things about we know that protons and the elections with neutrons the mass media way of looking at all the data in figuring things out very quickly and this is 1 of periodically Wilkinson we have all the elements arranged in order of increasing atomic number so atomic number remember that's the number printed on them now there are arranged in is repeating patterns and molded into more detail about exactly how that is both right now and you can know is that they have the same number of we call valence electron outside Shell's if you think about the modeling in trying to think about the remuneration and whether the Felder was how many they have those outside rings and so what happened there is that it's certain columns are grouped similar properties so everything that's going to be in Group 1 is that have a relatively similar property to each other no cost there's going to be differences because the atomic mass here is much much bigger than here the number of protons number of documentary bigger Anderson trends that will be able to pull out of incredible later on but for the most part this group would have the same sort of trends in the air seems sort of properties as struck each other this group seems sort of to all across the predicate said he would down a column you very similar properties now this happens to to be nicer favorite periodic table that I made I carry around and you have all my books I actually replaced a lot of my book .period people's lives when you find your favorite periodic tables the Internet ran out and keep it with you all the time In classes landed in chemistry here really expected going to buyers of such things but give them around whenever you although he did not think with you because I refer to them a lot but not all of them the little With me and this is probably all of the the freshman chemistry seems the least favorite part of this class you know there's a lot of memories which in general I think institutions the memorizing hardly anything if you're memorizing things you on in general are not learning all and ancient history that it's dangerous to be memorized headed to a problem you're probably going to have problems and then because I'm going to give you 1 of those little different and if you don't really know what you're doing you're not reveal solid because not exact same miserable problems this is certainly section you have to do a lot a lot of memorization for the time being it's a pain just do it all over India for when the year getting for 1 seeing you just needed to be around chemistry in general which includes the biology that can be you you want to have a good idea of what's happening you want to look at a compound containing quickly without having to think about it too much I contestants in the 1st midterm just by saying Here's the name you give me the militaries the formula name at Indianapolis 2nd term by saying drawn this compound and if you don't know how to name a 100 pull the formula :colon imagine you you won't be able to do it so make sure you could you just go through into all of so before we get into naming too much we have to figure out how do we know what type of we were going do so up here and have a molecular acid in her again now we're going to to get very much into ionic molecular absence those on 1 of the year's possible on this course for organic you have a homework assignment and this was talking about it a little bit don't worry about it too much in general that Albany covered really great detail next year but you should have a general idea how it works because I'm going to talk about it and say things like that .period and you know ethanol in probing all and you should have some idea of what I'm talking about also always have the structure there but you don't want something like that that I wrote you all incidents of a general idea of how it works beautifully answered questions on if you have a book in front of you we're just not going to get you into this war there this that'll be more for next year these the ones Oregon focus now all these are going to be named very different you have an answer from Heisman Lelie differently than like the company of buildings like the molecular wants for the meeting purposes here and after the amenities are based on the nomenclature but it's still very different and so before we can actually get into the roles remaining we have to get into it How do we know which 1 is which takes so To do this we have to to have a little bit about finding and how things work so when whenever something is trying to bond with another is trying to do what we call completed now you will see some
Arabs don't actually do them exactly but they're trying to trying of pollock which means that they would have to out the electrons and their outside shots so if you have someone out added that has 6 in outside Shell another 1 has 6 is outside shall it can go into conformity now in this case it's an unwanted shares was selected because you have 6 6 year so there's 1 can just give it to avert away or it's going to have some problems this 1 can just get 2 of them away it's going to have some problems there are times when you can do that and you can just trail at this time have to share and that's a difference between your 2 different take of achieving tight supply so far I am a compound that once their interest rates 1 1 pattern is going to give away its electrons together 1 so something like sodium fluoride so if you take a new look at your favorite table linen and you look at sodium 3 years if you look at chloride right here you can see Lesotho hasn't won a lot of knowledge and apparently was really nice looking at this quickly because you can look here and say OK this is 1 valence electrons this has to be able watch 3 4 5 6 7 and 8 it so we can use this to look and see how many electronically and have very quickly so sodium hasn't won in chlorine has said so they can just the Sonia mostly while want this 1 trendsetting there by itself you did it gives its requirement for a rate this gives me a surmountable In covalent bonding the Sharia law so this would be something like carbon and oxygen in order to oxygen in the 2 forms of where they don't they can't just give them away they they still managed to shore of electric engines instead will share the carbonyl gives it let me actually take some of them are oxygen generally use on them and newcomers we will get to mention the type but is warranted popular have about them now and that's how requirement you have these big networks in these big networks of electrons that can move back and forth between all of us here is here you certainly have the electrons that they're relatively associated with 1 or 2 groups here they're completely the localized which means you can kind of move them from 1 side to the other side do the right sort of thing to it and we call this the only way we can table wiring and stretched out atomic power plants which play electricity and the fact that you have this deal applies elections that are going across its entire truth is what will it allows that to happen and those from attack but these are the 2 will be focusing on for the sake of meaning but and 1 last thing we need to talk about here is something called incurable verses molecular formula the now this was something of a lot of money not deny so keep that in mind you may be wondering whether this is just for covalent dishes when I home were always gonna listen as well as the issue so we would never say to 0 0 at any age to Yeltsin we always want to reduce the number lowest amount With covalent bonding that's not necessarily how things work something like a dizzying if you look at this as we head into wage for a new several characters that down to any 2 when can't because it changes the whole ,comma to wage for is not the same thing as an age 2 so we have to have some nomenclature for this that we're going to refer to from time so we have an empirical formula which is the lowest form of Eritrea doesn't actually tells a lot about molecule itself but it does tell us how many each added in the substance and then with the molecular formula is going to tell us it is going to go through and say Wow this is how this is what the molecule actually has 1 molecule hydrazine actually has 2 Nigerians and foreigners were linked to problems in 6 place now we will do some examples using that's where you can see that we can find the empirical formula fairly easily experimentally In divine molecular back fairly easily experimentally which is why 1 of the reasons that this is so important to have these differences here so that wasn't a little bit more covalent binding definition now spend some time and then we
learned that actually mean so this is the day filled with bad jokes so we have another so do we the works it is by the fact that these actions will trade electrons in the trailer translators have a negative charge and so there's going to be a charge development you trade or like so we have a teacher appearing you have these last year all these positive ions says perhaps gentlemen wouldn't mind telling me to what it is outside his window that you find so attractive so remember positives and negatives are always going to attract top right so if you take an electron take away from 1 Adams you may get another charge we're taking a negative charge away you're making a pop you're giving it to another which means that I was going to be a negative so you have a policy on unknown in making those 2 organizations like a magnet and that's the formula and a so how do we actually rented out quickly while we do this if we can do it this way where we have a binding here we music something like this and if you look at your table you see that Thompson has won a lot it's in their 1st group and so has 1 available you look either so you're looking at that table your finding it on the UCI in the 7th over something that has 7 so how can we get this big bold colorful well will take the electoral reforms have you will get it right when we do that but have seen their charge you give away 1 of its electric I has developed a negative charge because you've given it to either and so you get this structure reform the positive in the minus the attract and they formed a task made the exact same thing can happen where it now instead of acting in 1 electron 2 different acts so they're trying to mind something like magnesium along with something like story now you have an issue where you have to let many outside shot and flooring only can take 1 well you just seeing double the amount of sorry so not only is used as a continent give you 1 electron and give you 1 electric bolster the flooring develop a negative 1 charge the magnesium get the plus 2 charge and they all attract each other and they form the structure which means that they you would have Angier too 1 entry into flooring now that I want to know what was going on how he the trading whether they just trade 1 in become K plus I in this case 1st sodium chloride did the same thing work or whether you have energy at 2 it's all about the forgers and making sure that the charges back now there's quicker ways of doing this note and trying to right now it's time to think about exactly where the letter moving around each time so here's a helpful trip to remember it so that you can kind of take charge a new person now you may be saying how do I know what the charges basically through memorization we'll get into that just a moment so if you write down the charges here In the charges here you know that you're on these charges you can crisscross them that you can say well under Chris designed the accident I mean in this down to the aluminum now what happened and doing is it gives you a compound where your charges balance you can say OK the Plus Three charge and multiplied by 2 now that have plastered oxygen has the mind to charge and that this about Solaris 2 times 3 that Simitis said so now you added her flustered as numerous charges and the need equals 0 and his case is it that they did so this is sort of a helpful tricks for getting you to this neutral compounds you want here at a conference to be neutral there is 1 major caveat to this so that you have to watch out for if you're going to use this little picture and that that goes back to the stadium empirical formula molecular formula and how that only true and being the only deal that will ban it's always need to be the lowest liberation what if there something that had the same charge it isn't 1 3rd place the same magnitude heritage and it is not something like magnesium has plus 2 accident has minister he crisscrossed the narrow you form and G 2 0 2 that's on account what you have to have the lowest form a ratio so this isn't OK see you need then reduced down to the lowest Corp so when you reduce said that it becomes energy so at this time using whatever you want situation in Europe you can probably just say OK we'll be there seemed charged Sunday said the Justice and yelled
but if you didn't catch that right away did do that crisscross straps any solid this is energy 202 you have to reduce that no it's something that we aren't going to just sort of show you in violence is that these form these big crystal lattice In 1 do you when you 1st start would be this is what you're going to start with Uriel all of these different shapes and these different forms and you'll put means today and all that and for this class and just want you know there's exists that when you get these you don't have 1 sodium chloride it just stuck together and have this 1 sodium fire by itself where you actually have to have these crystals you go to your pantry New Paltz salts you actually have all these little crystallizes inside of it and that's what's for me so just keep that in the back of the head and this is what the compounds OK now How do you know what they are not so said and memorization of nearly 100 per cent for so long you look at the periodic table and you can find out what the charges are for the most part there is some exceptions here but for the most part so if you look at this 1st round number 1 valence electrons and you want to find a way to get rid of them so you can go through any you can just take that 1 electron all giving it a possible in charge or you can take to electron got from this group giving a pass to charge this group you have 3 valence electrons to take 3 or when you start getting into this group now it's not running until it has gained 2 reviews the exceeding 4 reviews for is easily so those are going to debate on forming compounds at all when you are to the right side of the periodic table we look at this year How many don't want to made 1 the what's the easier taking away several of her urges adding water all of course adding 1 would be easier and some because the value of having a lot your added negative charge and so it's going to be a negative 1 if you look at this round of sex violence the group's 62 said In an immediate prospects are added to the media added to and so you get a negative to charge the same thing here easier to pull off fiver added to read the will and worried about the negative returns this section in here year transition metals in this little girl operate here for now the agreement just have to memorize them after we start talking about electron configurations in more detail on how to go about it dealing with those seeing where a lot farther removed from more actually able to explain most of them however for brightest moment there's really no way to explain it easily so these 2 groups you just have to serve as and when the game to have the very end of Chapter 1 will learn while those odds now I do not help Member helping member as 1 of this section so the soldier of race here we're going to sort of pull out we're going to look at in more detail so there's something called the inner and don't want to go into exactly why this is Africa moments all if you have a lot of history and you want to explain that I can do that later but for now we're just going to leave it as this is how it works in the area and Chapter 1 will go back will explain it using electron configuration Sulzer right now you can notice so that the use of these groups of 1 3 2 4 3 5 so they're always offer it to you can perform this time lower and reconfirmed his bottom line and the only loss by a factor of 2 seniors to help you remember her right now and will explain why it is later the now will finally be able to get into the meaning so 1st here on lot of these listed in there's copies of all of these sorts of things online this is from a different book but we have pulled out all the I hands and put them online for you so the idea that get out of this and that list is that there's also all these Polytechnic right and that we need to talk about those for the most part are going to be memorization and but there's some hints from so everything that I'm about to say it also put into an online study guide that is available so that you can kind of go through and see when saying way the 8th and right because of the little bit hard to hear so these on list of things that you effectively need to have memorized but there's checks to memorizing it makes life a lot easier so there is reason to
believe that have seen any of these different types of everything so you have the baby and I as a writing if you have something with a hired ending that is just the compound that adamantly denied passed fighter sulfide if you have something with 8 during Eid ending we then that's going to be your oxygen so something like prostate the fast are going to have do than any other in the 8 refers to how many accidents Earth oxidation numbers so what will do here is whenever you have it you should memorize 1 voter interviews you memorize all the were you memorize all of the the you don't memorize if you have something within 8 ending and that's what happened in the side of the school all college and I memorized the entire memorized costly and carbonate in sulfate and then I knew that every time a change that tonight ending adjustable when accident so if phosphate is fuel for reminder last fight is peeled 3 3 nights but so that kind of year hints for doing that now you also see times where you have something like that you look at all there and has to be different on oxidation states to different artists sold 3 three-plus to class and we have a different nomenclature for certain components of friends and where calling their rafts of theory and the asked in a pending those referred to the charges if you hadn't ending you would have a 3 plus charge if you haven't asked ending you have two-plus charged the US always refers to the lower charge because it always refers to the higher and so keep that in mind when you're memorizing those near named ones like Iron and on Letters another 1 of standards and standing for 10 so there's these groupings of 1 that had 2 different names 1 comes from the original Latin Road the other 1 is the name that you know of any easier pretty easy to pick out the periodic table because they're the ones with the elements symbol doesn't really match up with what we know we know and that is that he will that his ass is so there's a pretty easy to pick out table and I have those pilot and say that so make sure you go if you start working and memorizing ball and start working on making sure that can avoid those ionic compounds using that I didn't have time because the Getty tested this all 3 general and you better just it's better doing now and all that .period starting now rather than waiting for him to do it although next class will get hiring African hiring prevailing compounds which are significantly easier than this just because there's a lot of memories station to at all if this indeed a huge amount of sense you make sure you go
and look at the study of language all written out with the 0 18 bytes the ending of help