Merken

# Lecture 15. Getting to know the Gibbs Energy.

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Sprachtranskript

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Bulgaria guys doing in

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the ghettos mid-quarter the doldrums an article OK

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this is a Chapter 16 topic were really cranking away on Chapter 16 years edging their way toward the end of thermodynamics which I hope

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will come probably in the middle of next week now we we

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host the quiz scorers this morning this is the hardest quits went into hard 1st question is pretty easy and so

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these guys carries these guys get these there's a few scenes here we usually have hardly any

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CDs OK quiz fighters

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Friday the 1st 2 were

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supposed to be easy the 1st to prosper in this case the 2nd 1 was actually not so it it was the body temperature ones OK I'll suppose the key

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conditions "quotation mark there so we won and was even sweeter is we

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beat St very very sweet

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I'm always amused by the fighting the Adidas the most domiciled in animal that we know of in the animal kingdom but to dress them up for the athletic department security is of fierce there's no such thing as a

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fierce and even nature the not known to be fears but the focus

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so we're going to review a little from Friday when that same Wednesday we're going to talk about how the Gibbs free energy varies with temperature and pressure will do a couple of examples just sort of easy ones to ease into this subject OK we'll do a bunch more examples on Wednesday all right so on Friday nite Wednesday we said Look there's there's 3 types of systems OK and uniquely for this guy right here it's an isolated system there's no energy or matter exchanged with the environment the surroundings we don't have to consider anything except the system when we think about the spontaneity of processes that occur within it OK it's blocked after the surroundings it doesn't even know about and so we can say any process that has an entropy positive entropy change is going to be a spontaneous process for an isolated systems we even have to

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think about the surroundings they're not part of our but process but we don't have isolated systems in chemistry too often but there are almost always in communication with the environment and so we have

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to consider open systems and closed systems as well and in most cases because the risk communication with the surroundings it's that whole line to be surroundings plus system that matters

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OK in terms of figuring out of this

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process a spontaneous noticed that the focus is totally on entropy where were not

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saying anything about the energy the energy to do anything it wants but were only focusing attention on the entropy To understand where these processes are spontaneous or not OK so

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we gotta have this term in here for the surroundings we didn't need it for the isolated system OK so now just dual algebra were going to move the surroundings over the right-hand side put a negative sign in front of it and then we're going to remember that DS is miners DQ oversee and so we can make that substitution for the surroundings right here and then we discover remember that she was a conserved quantity in other words if plus this he entering the system that he'd had to come from the surroundings and so the surroundings has to be mine is the key this conservation of Q

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but and then we have to think back

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remember that DU is DWP was DQ and so we can just offered the expression of do you might as the W and if applied that guy in 4 D 2 we get this guy right but at and if we consider all the pressure volume workers devalues PTV OK and so then we a multiplied by T. surroundings and moved over to the left hand side so we get rid of this the surroundings now now it's over here and we just have to you PDB we're going to drop that since subscript you don't see a

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subscript just assume we're talking about the system OK so this

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is the pink equation finally took a for steps to get there from conservation of entropy were not conservation of

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entropy from entropy dictating which processes spontaneous not but we kept coming back to this speak equation on Friday In deriving different from an

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anemic state functions from but the fact we showed that if the process occurs under conditions of constant volume and constant entropy then it's the internal energy but that tells us for the process spontaneous or not and if instead the process occurs under conditions of constant pressure and entropy why it's the and help me that's going to tell us

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whether the process spontaneous enough but unfortunately we don't encounter these

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2 sets of conditions very often it's virtually never the case that the entropy is constant if you're chemist can ask you know how do you do that How do you do an

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experiment with constant entropy I don't know the answer so when you're doing an experiment anyone understand whether it's spontaneous or not the chemistry that you're looking at it's unlikely that you're going to be paying

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attention to these 2 variables to figure that out they're not going to help guide your

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decision-making process and figuring out whether you're chemistry the spontaneous or not that's what we care about here so we need some other

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state functions and we talk about 1 right the Helmholtz energy all right in chemistry temperature is frequently constant but not the entropy by constant temperature lots of constant temperature chemical processes that we can think about so let's consider the case were indeed T is 0 and the volume is 0 we're going to need

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for 2 things to be 0 otherwise we're not going to end up with the state function and so will also

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define a new state function 8 which is going be called the Hamilton energy it's going to be defined as the internal energy minus 2 yes and so if we take a derivative now to get DEA on the left-hand side were going to get DU and would have DTS and so we can split-that into 2 terms Due -minus STT and then we can just Salford you this expression DU is going to be equal to DEA class TVs class as the the and of the next thing that we do is we

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plug this thing into the pink equation but this expression for

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do you into the pink equation and then look for the terms that are going to cancel rights that TVs as the team and art expression for pressure volume works

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on the peak equation became the

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1st thing that we notice is that we get TDS here we get TDS here now these 2 teams are different in principle this is the chief of the surrounding facility the system but as these as we converge

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on equilibrium these 2 temperatures will become very very close and under those conditions we can

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expect these 2 terms to cancel for and then under conditions where we said Didi is 0 devious 0 there's we can cancel that term indeed the can consulate that term and were just left with DEA there's nothing else left and so it's going be DAD is less than 0 and so this Hamilton energy is going to be

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a state function that we can use to tell whether whether the chemistry that we care about His spontaneous or not when temperature and

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volume are held constant and in the laboratory we can enforce that limits we we could do an

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experiment a constant temperature maintaining the volume constant let the pressure do whatever it wants OK we need 1 of these things right it's

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got defined volume is built like a tank in so even if the pressure changes a lot we're going to enforce constant pressure in principle it's the

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Helmholtz energy that will tell us whether reaction in this car bomb is going to be spontaneous enough but we would want to know if we do an experiment

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in here we would want to use the Hamilton a to figure out whether spontaneous no if you do wonder

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if you do undergraduate research ,comma people done undergraduate research

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How many people see apart

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right few who you guys were free

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all work the same person he's got a problem in his left OK it's not completely it's impossible that you would use 1 of these things right they opt in rather common use but I would say probably 99 . 9 per cent of all the chemistry that were likely to do is not going to be in a part but 99 . 9 per cent so we need a different

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from anemic function Hamilton is fine but constant volume is inconvenient for us to use because

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we needed part about do it in many cases you can fit even more

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useful to make petitions but prediction of processes occurring constant pressure and temperature because that is dead easy but we live in an

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environment of clause constant OK and so we can do chemistry that's all open to the environment and make predictions about whether spontaneous and To that would

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use something called the gives energy right we're going to define it as age minus 2 yes OK wouldn't do the same kind of algebra we did for DG's DH miners DTS and so we've got to terms here now and then we're gonna think back to Friday when we wrote an expression for DH percentages do you plus part of the debate OK something just for that and for DH here now we get this long saying here that's equal to the OK and so once again we're just gonna are put all this other stuff on the hand side and then once we got the you just plug in the pink equation there it is put all of this stuff in 4 D you get this long thing here OK and some of these terms are going to start canceling for us as usual previously these pleading right remember these 2 pressures are not in principle identical that's the system pressure that's the surroundings pressure spot but in the limit of

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equilibrium they will be the

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right STDs same idea there and then because we're talking about GE were going to make key constant so really is that and so really is that guy so everything cancels out here except the gene which is going to be less than or equal to 0 and so that's going

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to be the state function that we're going to Wunnicke on most of the time as chemists right now physicist some other

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kind of scientist these other state functions might be more important to you under other sets of conditions but for

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Khamis it's all about the Gibbs free energy the Gibbs energy we not supposed to call at the Gibbs free energy anymore it's just the Gibbs energy OK now I know it's tedious but this is important right this is actually 1 of the more important things in thermodynamics that we need to be able understand

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right here's where we're doing chemistry and this guy right here were opened to the atmosphere and the gets function is going to tell us whether this blue stuff here is the react spontaneously but we don't need the

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car so today last Friday we've

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taken a consideration we've taken the condition for spontaneous change for not isolated systems we consider the total entropy change system plus surrounding that's going be greater than equal to 0 and from that we do arise all of these different conditions that apply for these different constraints volume and entropy temperature in volume pressure entropy temperature and pressure reviews for different and what I told you today is like these 2 are not super useful to us as Khamis these 2 are more useful and this 1 is way more useful than that but we drive these all

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we didn't have to assume anything proprietor that it's hard but now

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these conditions here also serve to tell us whether the system is proceeding toward equilibrium it not only

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tells us for where the chemistry spontaneous it'll tell us whether there systems proceeding towards equilibrium were not for example 1

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planting here is the gives energy for some chemical process in on this accident on this axis the reaction quarter so this represents reactants right here in this represents products this is 100 per cent products this is 100 percent reactants but as you move along the axis in this direction were converting reactants into products but that's what I mean by a reaction coordinate sometimes will call this reaction coordinate X or color OK reactants getting converted the

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products very generic what does DG that should be clean and team on of the lessons 0 orders by so 1st of all this difference here between the reaction products product gives functions and that's the delta G reaction makes sense now

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let's consider a process and starts right here in ends right here but we can ask is such a process committees spontaneous or not what we have a criterion here if we just change that the Dougherty

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we know DG should be less than 0 OK so we

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can say Gee finally -minus G. initial is that djp final minus initially that could be less than 0 or greater than 0 we then yeah it's a

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small number of mine is a bigger number and Seoul that difference is going to be negative isn't it fighting and so we would predict that the spontaneous process yes DG at constant UP is less than 0 what about this guy the same conclusion what about this guy no the final by

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initial is going to be a positive number now quite so that's not going to be a spontaneous process going from here to here no all right but what about the girl yes final minus initial is going to be negative again so that should be spontaneous right so basically what we're concluding is that if you're over here where adult spontaneously downhill in this direction and if you over here you go spontaneously downhill in this direction and that this minimum here In the gives

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energy going to they indicate the equilibrium position of this reaction but it's supply were

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DG already acts for X is now my reaction poured is equal to 0 but at that point there is no more driving force for spontaneous change work at

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equilibrium OK now his 4th

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America potentials you aged 8 and Gigi will be formed by far the most important to us yes yes yes Howard G. depend on temperature the

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White House as a whole as the Gibbs energy depend on temperature well that's a rather important thing for us to understand because as chemists if you want accelerator reactions g is going to tell us where the reaction spontaneous or not or I want understand how temperature will influence that spontaneity

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jeez equal the age minus yes we know that and so we can take the derivative immediately DGT-GTD even I can take this derivative I get mine disaster became so what this tells us is to thanks 1st of all since we know it s is always a positive quantity there's no such thing as negative entropy S is always a positive quantities right that tells us that GE has to decrease with increasing temperature because that derivative is always going to be negative but that's kind surprisingly Gibbs energy is going to go down as the temperature goes up that's

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counterintuitive don't all energies go up when you increase the temperature not this 1 but the gives energy goes

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down as you increase the temperature not only that but the rate of change of GE with temperatures greatest persistence having higher entropy but the

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higher the entropy the greater the change in G is going to be with temperature but what kind of systems of high interpol gasses when laser pointers

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going gasses at the highest

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interest and so the rate of

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change of the free energy with temperature is going to be the highest then liquids and solids it's also the lowest interview OK so this plot His right your Chapter 16 gasses the biggest slope right here's the gives energy on this axis Hughes temperature it's going down for every single 1 of these guys it's going down or it's going down at a rate that depends on the state gasses show the largest decrease in Gibbs energy with temperature liquids next solids show the least OK

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so couple things there's surprise me 1 thing that's surprising for sure

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is that the gives energy goes down with temperatures right it's an

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unusual energy business that goes down with but OK so

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we can evaluate his derivative and then we can go back to this equation right here and we can just say we can solve reminders that by myself my Cesya unmitigated United States over tea just solving for minor says in an equation right there OK so that DG over tea at constantly G minor state of but and then we can rearrange that just put this in the 2 terms moved your party to the left hand side but I don't know why we actually did that the fastest don't think we need this result here right maybe we'll come back to this in the 2nd but let's just look at this for a 2nd this is a derivative of geometry I know that has anything to do with this just driven during if I use them "quotation mark should rule to evaluate this derivative I've got 1 over tea times during the Beijing with respect to tear that GE times derivative tea with respect to the right 2 terms of my cultural expansion but OK now the derivative of 1 over tea is just minus 1 of T square right OK so that's the derivative right there In this guy we factor out 1 over tea unipolar 1 over tea edible these 2 terms and put it right there all right now I've got this expression here and that is just the entropy by the derivative of the gives energy with with respect to T constantly that's the entry OK like implied that end to this expression right here I stood edgy over tea and then I can move maybe that's why I did it but no the data there all right is just plugging in for GE from that equation to slide to go but that OK and so this is s over tea this is as over cheese or going to get rid of the ass over tea were just beloved H over E squared all right and this is your equation 15 . 6 2 be this is the game gives Helmholtz equation which is

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important because it allows us To Measure H by looking at the temperature dependence and the temperature

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dependence of GE is something we're going to be able to measure experimentally all right so we can get H directly

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from that during this conceptual gives Helmholtz equation now if this is a Delta age methodology this equation still this so let's ask

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some questions about the gives function we already asked a question about the temperature dependence was begins punching goes down with increasing temperatures surprising the rate at which it goes down depends on the entropy the higher the entropy the faster the temperature rate of change the gives function what

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about fractures right we've got this expression here for danger at and if we want to look at this at constant temperature we can say DTD 0 right and so that terrorist is going to go away with that DG is the deep insult to find out what the free energy free and the Gibbs energy change there's the gives energy at the final minus the gives energy at the initial I just integrate this BTP right from initial final pressure if I know what that is if he's Imola quantities of course is going to be in and Mary down there and then and there might all more quantities and so this equations that super useful to us unless we now how this volume changes with pressure but the 1 thing that's obvious as 4 phases like solids and liquids that are essentially in compressible the end virtually constant independent approaches but there's not much compressibility of a solid phase or liquid phase right and so there isn't much pressure dependence of the and so we can ride a simpler expression if we can pull the out into the front of the cerebral signed by because of constant then the animal just turned into and we've got an extremely simple expression that allows us to evaluate the pressure dependence on that gives energy it's just the molar

27:30

volume trends and change in pressure

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but so if you love once again this is the gives energy on this vertical axis and the the pressure on the horizontal axis by and for liquids and solids you get virtually all horizontal lines but because the increase in

27:55

compressible but the volume doesn't depend on pressure very strongly but

28:05

interestingly as the pressure gets higher the gives function goes out a little bit right with gasses there's a much stronger effect gives energies against depend strongly on the pressure and you might expect them to because gasses are far from being compressible are highly compressible I saw the

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molar volume is highly dependent on pressure consequently the Gibbs

28:31

energy is highly dependent on pressure in fact gives energy goes out with increasing pressures now we can actually figure out what this is for for ideal gasses is very readily right we can to substitute for VM from the ideal gas equation move the RTL front right so that's been a move front we've got 1 over please swordsman locked final over P. initial that is the equation that describes the

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change the Gibbs energy for an ideal gas as a function of pressure change the pressure we have very simple equation polish going equations page for quiz 5 with this project this

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was my laser pointer too cheap to buy new batteries for please please but so this is what the volume is doing as a function of pressure for an ideal gas right it's following this purple lining here OK so we want to evaluate this integral we're going to be integrating from some initial pressure to some final pressure this is the area underneath this curve so this is this Gibbs energy right and it's obvious that as we make Pierre higher and higher and higher this integral is going to get bigger

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right and so it's obvious that the

30:11

gives energy is going to go up just based on that but now we can define a standard Muller Gibbs free energy artwork constantly

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that should be toward freeing here were trying to get rid of the word free should

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be the standard Muller gives energy right that's defined at a defined pressure which is 1 ball yeah that's how we define the standard Gibbs energy or the standard the standard anything

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of it says standard it's 1

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bar OK so in this case we can write this expression it just follows directly from this guy right here except that we've now defines a particular gives energy that applies to the pressures 1 boy OK so this initial it is now that guy OK so all this plot shows here's the molar gives energy and here's the pressure and what we said earlier Is that as I increased P after this I'm going to make a cynical larger so that tells

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us the gives energies gotta go up with increasing pressure right what

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I on the slide right here is that we're going to we're going to make according to define as special Gibbs energy at 1 bar and so that's what this becomes like this becomes 1 Bob mentioned this is 1 bar integrating the higher pressure from that right so the same

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intuitive picture applies right if we move this higher pressure the

31:55

intervals going to go up and that's why this plot is going up up up up up you can see that it's it's got downward curvature said downward curvature because here there is a big change in the Gibbs energy smaller smaller smaller This has got upward curvature so if we can integrate this guy increases in pressure going have a smaller progressively smaller and smaller effect on the Gibbs energy and that's what we're seeing here that's why there's downward curvature of this guide parts of the Gibbs

32:30

energy goes down as we increase the pressure end up as we increase so it goes down as we increase the temperature an opposition increased the pressure is all this confusing absolutely amazing if you don't

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think so they're just not paying attention focus Judaism examples but

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the change in the gives energy at 25 grams of methanol mass density 0 . 7 9 1 grams per cubic centimeter when the pressure is increased Eisele thermally from 112 pastels 200 mega pastels what should say calculate the change Gibbs energies Noel Nova but

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calculate gives energy right

33:31

when we said subjective methanol to a change in prices that the change by a factor of a thousand it's a big change but so the first year

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1st got thought process should be it's a liquidating compressible it's use the simplest equation we can but the simplest equation for any liquid or solid is just the end times dealt p the End

33:57

times dealt the by I immediately get change the Gibbs energy but this is what I did OK and so far I'm willing to give up these Moeller forget Moeller understanding calculate the difference but it is asking for the change in the law gives energy disaster for the change in the gives

34:17

energy right so here I need

34:22

the volume of my 25 grams of methanol right there is the density and so I can calculate the volume that's 10 the 5 that's attended the 8 so this my factor of a thousand and so I plug these numbers and I get 3 . 1 5 7 times 10 malign cubic centimeters per cubic centimeter pastels

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right that's the delta G that I get

34:46

and I don't like these units but I can convert them later now sides a converted right here right through below summoned his mind centimetres cube pastels No I don't like that and so I can use the definition for here's the conversion factor for Pascal stadiums there's a conversion factor from cubic centimeters a later by not that leader atmospheres right and so that I can use the ratio between the 2 different To do the unit conversion to get jewels rights tedious right but when I do that I get 3 . 1 5 7 times 10 to the 3 jewels nor roughly 3 Killer but that's what the change in the

35:36

Gibbs energy is going to be now when I

35:41

looked up the answer in the key and had something far fancier all right if you use the Isadora compressibility of methanol which you can look at the back your book that's the isothermal compressibility is 1 . 2 6 and minus 9 per Pascal well for goodness sakes we go through and do it

36:02

with the isothermal compressibility and see how different our answers will be right isothermal

36:08

compressibility is defined by equation 14 .period 5 9 is 1 over the Times the derivative with pressure constant temperature the Wikinews linear rise this differential finalized initial because we know the change in volume is going to be small pressure difference is not small actually but we're in clear eyes that also OK so make 2 approximations organization initial

36:35

volume is just the final volume also cited change much so that they become the online so I know what that is right on the final pressure is much much larger than the initial pressure and so that difference right there I can just approximated the final pressure right the initial pressure is just a rounding error on the final pressure literally OK so that the equation of menus and and so I just do a little algebra with this into 2 terms now sell for the applicant this expression right here which can be further simplified amid this expression right here and then when I gotta do sadly isn't great that some replied that informs the UN and the but

37:23

itself that's what I did here I can calculate what is VI is that's the mass that's the density OK and here the 2 derivatives I'm going to do and that actually pull this out front and I'm going to take a derivative of DPA that's pretty easy to do and then but property times and derivative of P R I and so I can run these 2 In a rose all right this is just gonna be 10 to the minus 10 of the 5 this guy is 1 half cavity he squared and when I plugged in immigration limits into these 2 and I derivatives by this guy and being almost 10 years at that surrounding they subtracted from him and these are the results of these other 2 terms OK and so I calculated 2 . 9 6 times 10 to the 3 Jewels which is also about 3 retailer jewels but if I do this carefully considering the isothermal compressibility of methanol I get a slightly different answers it's different by 1 part in 30 roughly

38:42

right that's wrong that's right but pretty darn close to being right so it depends on the

38:53

precision that you need on the quiz that might be good enough

39:00

unless this is also an answer that would be cruel wouldn't 1 part 30 difference and the answer is no I would never do that the ruins the

39:13

entity that as a former compressibility makes it a little bit more complicated OK so the last thing to say today is

39:22

that In this may be completely obvious to everybody says that if you wanna know the standard Gibbs free energy for a reaction like this reaction right here what you do is you look up on the table gives standard that free shouldn't be there again it gives the energy of the staff the gives energy this stuff in the gives energy of stuff and the standard energy difference is that mine that plus that but I can look

39:57

this up in tables now if I don't have a table of Gibbs energies wobble again tabled entropy a mantelpiece which is not terribly uncommon he got his this equation right here you can look up these and all these you can look at these entropy is and if you know the temperature at which the reaction is happening you can figure out

40:17

With the reaction is spontaneous at that temperature or not you can look at the delta G this is the delta G reactions so in

40:26

the case of a we've got this deltas of R. H. with that notation means that are is the reaction rate this is the Templeton change for the reaction this

40:44

is the Delta each formation but that's what we're going look up in the table what we want is 1 look at look at

40:53

look up the Delta each formation for all the reactants and all the products at the reactant Delta each formation subtract sort that product Delta each formations subtract the reactor Delta each formations get the Delta each for the reaction

41:11

OK this is 0 0 Top means standards what is the pressure equals 1 bar temperature equals to 98 . 1 6 K that look that

41:28

what is that Justice Documenta coefficient in front of these so that would be 1 1 and wine In this case OK we need to

41:40

do the same thing for the entropy and here is the end of the year the entropy we still get stuck metrical fishes for analog of the Standard and trapeze products minus reactions so we can do that use I've done by golly that's for this guy right here but that which is what prokaryotic gossip

42:14

and these 2 guys are for those due in no particular order OK so the delta H is just that the evaluation of that Of all of those numbers OK and you can do the same thing for the entropy some a table standard and peace do exactly the same thing and the delta G then is just the Delta age minus the Times adult Esper we put plug the Terry are we get 72 . 6 killer jewels from all of the delta G we conclude that

42:47

this reaction should be spontaneous at this temperature with the way this Oregon

43:11

105 other

43:14

questions about this stuff I know it's not riveting start I will do so hopefully it's going to get more interesting I think

00:00

Elektronische Zigarette

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Topizität

00:40

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Wachs

Wirtsspezifität

Computeranimation

01:18

Bukett <Wein>

Körpertemperatur

Wursthülle

Besprechung/Interview

Cadmiumsulfid

Krankheit

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Süßkraft

Computeranimation

01:55

Vimentin

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Setzen <Verfahrenstechnik>

Bukett <Wein>

Bildungsentropie

Druckausgleich

Computeranimation

Azokupplung

Mannose

Körpertemperatur

Gibbs-Energie

Biskalcitratum

Selbstentzündung

Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>

Chemischer Prozess

03:26

Chemische Forschung

Wursthülle

Diatomics-in-molecules-Methode

Verstümmelung

Besprechung/Interview

Bukett <Wein>

Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>

Chemischer Prozess

Computeranimation

04:04

Mineralbildung

Bodenschutz

Nitrosamine

Besprechung/Interview

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Bukett <Wein>

Gletscherzunge

Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>

Quantenchemie

Chemischer Prozess

Bodenschutz

04:51

Tamoxifen

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Selbstentzündung

Druckausgleich

Genexpression

Computeranimation

05:38

Besprechung/Interview

Chemischer Prozess

Krankheit

Selbstentzündung

Gangart <Erzlagerstätte>

Bildungsenthalpie

Selbstentzündung

Druckausgleich

Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>

Chemischer Prozess

Computeranimation

06:33

Chemische Forschung

Single electron transfer

Wursthülle

Besprechung/Interview

Chemischer Prozess

Bildungsenthalpie

Selbstentzündung

Herzfrequenzvariabilität

Pharmazie

Krankheit

Selbstentzündung

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Chemischer Prozess

07:15

Chemische Forschung

Wursthülle

Körpertemperatur

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Chemische Forschung

Selbstentzündung

Computeranimation

07:48

Verstümmelung

Vorlesung/Konferenz

RWE Dea AG

Chemische Forschung

Genexpression

08:26

Körpertemperatur

Chemischer Prozess

Krankheit

Vorlesung/Konferenz

TPD

Genexpression

Druckausgleich

Computeranimation

09:06

Chemische Forschung

Besprechung/Interview

Krankheit

Vorlesung/Konferenz

RWE Dea AG

09:41

Druckbelastung

Laichgewässer

Reaktionsführung

Körpertemperatur

Tank

Repression <Genetik>

Druckausgleich

Computeranimation

10:21

Druckbelastung

Chemische Forschung

Laichgewässer

Besprechung/Interview

Vorlesung/Konferenz

11:15

Chemische Forschung

Wursthülle

Besprechung/Interview

Chemischer Prozess

Gibbs-Energie

Chemische Forschung

Körpertemperatur

Druckausgleich

Computeranimation

Claus-Verfahren

Körpertemperatur

Vancomycin

Selbstentzündung

Funktionelle Gruppe

Chemischer Prozess

11:48

Mineralbildung

Altern

Fülle <Speise>

Baltischer Bernstein

Chemischer Prozess

Gibbs-Energie

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Genexpression

Druckausgleich

Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>

Computeranimation

13:16

Druckbelastung

Gen

Internationaler Freiname

Single electron transfer

Pharmazie

Krankheit

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Computeranimation

13:54

Druckbelastung

Chemische Forschung

Fülle <Speise>

Biskalcitratum

Gibbs-Energie

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Chemischer Prozess

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Funktionelle Gruppe

Lactitol

Körpertemperatur

Computeranimation

14:32

Gibbs-Energie

Bildungsentropie

Bildungsenthalpie

Druckausgleich

Selbstentzündung

Computeranimation

Krankheit

Synergist

Körpertemperatur

Krankheit

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Selbstentzündung

Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>

15:22

Chemische Forschung

Synergist

Besprechung/Interview

Krankheit

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Selbstentzündung

Bildungsenthalpie

Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>

15:56

Chemische Forschung

Sense

Reaktionsführung

Koordinationszahl

Farbenindustrie

Delta

Funktionelle Gruppe

Chemischer Prozess

Computeranimation

16:55

Elektronische Zigarette

Besprechung/Interview

Chemischer Prozess

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Selbstentzündung

Selbstentzündung

Chemischer Prozess

17:33

Insulin

Biskalcitratum

Besprechung/Interview

Chemischer Prozess

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Selbstentzündung

Narbe

Chemischer Prozess

18:41

Chemische Reaktion

Körpertemperatur

Reaktionsführung

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Selbstentzündung

Körpertemperatur

Aktionspotenzial

19:21

Reaktionsführung

Besprechung/Interview

Bildungsentropie

Körpertemperatur

Vulkanisation

Computeranimation

Altern

Derivatisierung

Mannose

Körpertemperatur

Elektronegativität

Pharmazie

Selbstentzündung

Quantenchemie

20:28

Mannose

Oktanzahl

Körpertemperatur

Besprechung/Interview

Sterblichkeit

Körpertemperatur

Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>

Computeranimation

Gasphase

21:00

Traubensaft

Oktanzahl

Körpertemperatur

Teer

Gibbs-Energie

Besprechung/Interview

Kaugummi

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Sterblichkeit

Körpertemperatur

Adenosylmethionin

Gasphase

21:50

Elektronische Zigarette

Derivatisierung

Körpertemperatur

Derivatisierung

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Temperaturabhängigkeit

Diamantähnlicher Kohlenstoff

Labkäse

Genexpression

Tee

Kettenlänge <Makromolekül>

Computeranimation

24:59

Altern

Mannose

Ovalbumin

Körpertemperatur

Besprechung/Interview

Chemischer Prozess

Temperaturabhängigkeit

Gibbs-Energie

Computeranimation

25:36

Molvolumen

Zugbeanspruchung

Phasengleichgewicht

Phasengleichgewicht

Oktanzahl

Besprechung/Interview

Genexpression

Druckausgleich

Sprödbruch

Druckbelastung

Elektronische Zigarette

Körpertemperatur

Molvolumen

Gletscherzunge

Initiator <Chemie>

Funktionelle Gruppe

27:29

Druckbelastung

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Druckausgleich

28:02

Druckbelastung

Gibbs-Energie

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Molvolumen

Gletscherzunge

Boyle-Mariotte-Gesetz

Funktionelle Gruppe

Druckausgleich

Gasphase

Boyle-Mariotte-Gesetz

Gasphase

29:02

Vancomycin

Querprofil

Besprechung/Interview

Funktionelle Gruppe

Druckausgleich

30:07

Molvolumen

Zuchtziel

Mannose

Gibbs-Energie

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Zuchtziel

Druckausgleich

Computeranimation

30:45

Druckbelastung

Molvolumen

Zuchtziel

Mannose

Wursthülle

Gibbs-Energie

Ale

Genexpression

Druckausgleich

Computeranimation

31:24

Molvolumen

Zuchtziel

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Druckausgleich

Gasphase

Computeranimation

Erdrutsch

Druckbelastung

Gap junction

Mannose

Gibbs-Energie

Sammler <Technik>

Boyle-Mariotte-Gesetz

32:29

Druckbelastung

Elektronische Zigarette

Methanol

Körpertemperatur

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Massendichte

Druckausgleich

33:05

Druckbelastung

Sonnenschutzmittel

Methanol

Methanol

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Massendichte

Druckausgleich

Computeranimation

Massendichte

Kubisches Gitter

33:42

Calcineurin

Druckbelastung

Zugbeanspruchung

Elektronische Zigarette

Methanol

Gap junction

Gibbs-Energie

Korken

Massendichte

Chemischer Prozess

Computeranimation

34:16

Sonnenschutzmittel

Krebsrisiko

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Computeranimation

Kubisches Gitter

Edelstein

Konvertierung

Druckbelastung

Calcineurin

Methanol

Methanol

Destillateur

Delta

Massendichte

Lymphangiomyomatosis

35:34

Druckbelastung

Zugbeanspruchung

Methanol

Methanol

Kaugummi

Gibbs-Energie

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Massendichte

Adsorptionsisotherme

Computeranimation

36:07

Biologisches Lebensmittel

Zugbeanspruchung

Vererzung

Gibbs-Energie

MO-Theorie

Druckausgleich

Genexpression

Computeranimation

Druckbelastung

Derivatisierung

Methanol

Anomalie <Medizin>

Körpertemperatur

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Initiator <Chemie>

Massendichte

Periodate

37:18

Druckbelastung

Zugbeanspruchung

Derivatisierung

Methanol

Methanol

Chemische Eigenschaft

Gibbs-Energie

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Massendichte

Adsorptionsisotherme

Edelstein

38:39

Druckbelastung

Methan

Methanol

Bukett <Wein>

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Massendichte

Computeranimation

39:12

Zuchtziel

Zugbeanspruchung

Tee

Chemische Reaktion

Fülle <Speise>

Reaktionsführung

Gibbs-Energie

Gibbs-Energie

Bildungsentropie

Zuchtziel

Hydrophobe Wechselwirkung

Computeranimation

39:52

Zuchtziel

Tee

Chemische Reaktion

Reaktionsführung

Körpertemperatur

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Bildungsentropie

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Delta

Computeranimation

40:26

Zuchtziel

Wursthülle

Reaktionsführung

Oktanzahl

Spezies <Chemie>

Chemischer Reaktor

Besprechung/Interview

Setzen <Verfahrenstechnik>

Gibbs-Energie

Computeranimation

Tee

Chemische Reaktion

Bildungsentropie

Delta

41:08

Erholung

Zuchtziel

Fleischersatz

Spezies <Chemie>

Wursthülle

Reaktionsführung

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Ethylen-Vinylacetat-Copolymere

Zuchtziel

Druckausgleich

Computeranimation

Elektronische Zigarette

Laichgewässer

Tee

Chemische Reaktion

Körpertemperatur

Bildungsentropie

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Gletscherzunge

Einzelmolekülspektroskopie

Lactose

42:08

Altern

Zuchtziel

Tee

Chemische Reaktion

Bildungsenthalpie

Gibbs-Energie

Bildungsentropie

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Zuchtziel

Delta

Disulfiram

Edelstein

42:46

Zuchtziel

Tee

Chemische Reaktion

Fülle <Speise>

Körpertemperatur

Reaktionsführung

Besprechung/Interview

Gibbs-Energie

Bildungsentropie

Vorlesung/Konferenz

Computeranimation

### Metadaten

#### Formale Metadaten

Titel | Lecture 15. Getting to know the Gibbs Energy. |

Alternativer Titel | Lecture 15. Getting to Know The Gibbs Energy. |

Serientitel | Chemistry 131C: Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics |

Teil | 15 |

Anzahl der Teile | 27 |

Autor | Penner, Reginald |

Lizenz |
CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Unported: Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen und nicht-kommerziellen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben. |

DOI | 10.5446/18948 |

Herausgeber | University of California Irvine (UCI) |

Erscheinungsjahr | 2012 |

Sprache | Englisch |

#### Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet | Chemie |

Abstract | UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012) Lec 15. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Getting to Know The Gibbs Energy -- Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D. Description: In Chemistry 131C, students will study how to calculate macroscopic chemical properties of systems. This course will build on the microscopic understanding (Chemical Physics) to reinforce and expand your understanding of the basic thermo-chemistry concepts from General Chemistry (Physical Chemistry.) We then go on to study how chemical reaction rates are measured and calculated from molecular properties. Topics covered include: Energy, entropy, and the thermodynamic potentials; Chemical equilibrium; and Chemical kinetics. Index of Topics: 0:02:42 Entropy in Isolated and Unisolated Systems 0:06:09 Enthalpy and Internal Energy for a Spontaneous Process 0:07:20 Helmholtz Energy 0:09:57 Parr Bomb 0:11:16 Gibbs Energy 0:24:40 Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation 0:30:19 Standard Molar Gibbs |