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Lecture 04. Entropy.

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there have been at the weekend so
long with 1 of the great book
by by 138 you typically 98 some flavor of a meat was 4 . 5 out of 5 so that you know what you want what we
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what's on and on Wednesday to succeed with 1 of the people of the world where I want to do that he said wants write the here is the grand thing really OK so what would you do and you know what I'm going on when I was going to call the same name the 1st thing that we learned right at the beginning of last week was isolated systems and molecules with discrete state the time vibrational rotational thing about 1 of the worst volatility you're all these molecules and Michael states that the group would into be configurations that defines number of states of their delegates for a time in my State of the Union regional relations among the regional states that the content of the on that over a long period of time future my state of assistance equally probable the reason 4 out
of the car and something anything the configuration is both probable he is the was probable that there are a lot like stays in the region because each time they use
the withdrawal of the army an increase in the number of of people that redundant configuration TCU murder the reality of the all the other configurations the predominance configuration as long as they don't all agree we talk about the molecules we really want to and we found immediately result theory we talked about 4 .period can we found predominantly configuration the analysis and really tired and the original the point is the number of all of the reasons becomes more and more that's not always the degree to which the predominant configuration reality because greater variety 2 .period the man How shot this distribution will be when the number of 123 is about the history of smaller there is little of configuration they were going to have set up a year and that's all distribution on described the properties of this region and the duration of the trial probably the fall regime are only historic properties the United the Irish particularly specifies the energy levels the ground the original run by the book irritable distribution lines simplest form OK In particularly useful "quotation mark
distribution of involves the definition of something called on you In years
that virtually all the the lots of different versions of the Ford administration talk about some additional work on the he the of states before the beginning of the war the acceleration energy level instead of states rights and that we have the ball wide the generously explicitly price of these 2 equations are identical to the end of whatever kind about baseball and the on his way to work the news that another of finally research 1st Oregon Petition function as the number of states that are accessible to the system and particularly the plan but that realize what it because what it
really is is it's the analogs of all units to the wave function right away from in all of relations of EU operators to extract information from the station and so on are on an assist from low-income families of contains all the information system In the
partition function does this morning and all information on where the function is profound concept going way this is the same a lot status because of him so you know the true price although formation in bed opposition parties were involved in the media this something well we showed on Friday that for example you can calculate the average internal energy system using the partition function we arrived in Britain for doing this is average internal energy system is tolerated by the number of molecules you can do a algebra we can make a substitution for a fans from the Boltzmann distribution along but will we do that we get this expression here that we recognize that this guy just rest pockets of effective data while we get these really simple expressions for the total energy were multiplying by begins in the anguished parents were not that Britain is just a part of the workers involved in the research in the world where function of the partition function that the provision the
young all of the information that we know how to ask whether this is your and what was the only 1 of the more so the learn well we extract the University of Geneva .period also so we derive this equation on Friday now
let me just point of view this month least into wooden equation all right by no means should you look at this equation and all yet that's obviously the after a few months on 1 of the partition function In the case of a lot of 1 over all in the reliance and on the right to to the heart of year partition functions like the 1 can hear I
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don't want see management which about tradition 5 and on the region it's not really going to be all now we can finish this example on Friday we we we did they we evaluated the term popularly right but we can calculate the electronic contribution to the volatility communities :colon around like the that at because it faces concept event so we said care electronic states in Europe in 121 . 1 way over the ball down the hill at a Seoul in principle this is the equation that we should be able to use to calculate the electronic contribution to the mall attorney Leonard G. In 1 thing again on Friday calculated purposes the partition function as a function of character we drive to there was just moment and why had to partition function that in your recall and analysts foresee the the function as act 4 a lot of them but they can't smaller too because you always data he this amazing who would it starts at 2 asked intelligent looks like it's not 100 per cent where used for the asymptotic leading approach for very the quality of life part of the world
except do and were interested your internal energy at
300 degrees Kelvin sold by local 300 on plot just so To the curve we derived the partition function at 303 . 1 1 amid the numbers OK so well on the way out of the humvees natural right there or I can do that right under minute the day a few years the partition function that we arrive Friday that the term on hundreds staged 1 of the energy level of part of the 1st to the general the ground stated that energy rather they didn't it the the energy of the excited the of this of our wouldn't take a directive that the ongoing miles from here so this tournament is going to go away for us right we're all senator from right here Friday sold 121 . 1 and the removal of and that minus signs the development well OK so this directive debate is is to stick with the minus 2 times that energy and the environment .period there was no 1 now we want to know what
that is jewels and so we have to your usual unit conversions and so this is my unit which I find always works from their Olson's happened there's a temperature that we're talking about that's so we plug these numbers this is what we get for DQ debated for years and here you know which you hold the line OK and a minus sign here that it is scandalous that binds them right
there so we're going to end up with 519 Jules for the following but not that's 6 1 0 2 20 3rd because we're calculating per mole here
OK now this is 1 of the problems were due to hold a hearing was 1 mole on the Net In Britain the goal
of the tournament "quotation mark now it doesn't make sense all have to all right does number makes cents while in this particular case we can figure this out In a rather detailed Lakers on Friday we worked out what the term populations Armstead 36 per cent of the molecules have excited state are the excited states that 121 . 1 the rest belong not on the grounds that all these ground state molecules that contribute directly to the ground states that are can only
found the use of OK so what it
is .period rosette and I'm not quite sure of all molecules and multiply that by the energy excited stated converted to I think it is a man of letters from regional energy and I get darn close the difference between this and 519 is just running so yes 590 jewels formal is probably correct because I can't do this back calculations the quantity that follow the you
want it will be on the side of the year of was fractured foreign and inside the 1 of the the hero this would be exactly 5 it was the right OK so we use
partition function as a functional right away it will help us with our internal energy use the calculated at Imola molecules along all the time OK now that there is confusing some of this the more 29 of them all the point is that this is what you know but the concerns the classification of molecular and my friend and I were granted an article about constantly considers such different canonical rights of ensembles and what's the partition function and why does have these different but you're not you fight this is a very good so let's talk about this in a little more detail of what we've been discussing so far in last week is that they hear Micro cannot on From my canonical ensemble was entitled applies to the individual long 1 member of the along we not about 1 of its for partition function asks how many stages each molecule are formerly accessible tequila right so might not ensemble of my performance the is the answer of the law but didn't have a certain number of monitors it is is in some ways just that the time going on what used to think that modular by was possibly the research universities have fallen I this reform alive said they did not to 3 and 4
right now there the young enlargement thermally accessible stages the government will formula or if that's not the way we just talked about 1
won't hold on to the ball and distribution lines to form a bloc of but notice you don't want these to partition functions as the number of molecules emitted the entire world there is the independent of him don't OK so end but this is by now a part of me just as it was the probability that the there are a lot of what the problem was one-sided fight and it was to Apple's probably who like workers from the government but so but
the final version of for an ensemble of all more than 1 where :colon
here instead of little you don't have use to them In spite of the interests of confusion can ability to confuse us notice that this is the energy of a single molecule with the the energy of all the molecules baby not little initiative will for the assembly of molecules these summations right here parts of the question is how we express you in terms of little use prior felonies process based not on some parts of the United
Nations and international relations function for the Micro canonical
where is the because we want to make sense development of equipment used here but incentive to not feel that frightens Britons molecules that right this this summation the thinking energy over ball molecules that it's only right that terms the multilayered volatility the the supplier this year it was believed to be that all the DNA and all the Oh yes but not the tumult of the what is astonishingly virtual reversed too foreigners should be on the president of the Beijing people on this whole thing here for the all right it's easier OK so we want to consider all of the state's modulated profits of all the people area from the volume uses the site also excited states like lies molecule late in the 1st sentence state lotteries in France's and so on and consider all these different combinations that information about now turns out that if I look at this a right at the end of the day all annually in the mall on these 2 months canonical correlation functions together right here the Michael canonical partition function for creating Michael on partition function from the planet will want to get there Little you wait times will you be that will be to the OK so that is molecules system I've got to partition functions if I got any molecules I'm going to take my mind canonical partition function to the nth power you're taking you to the 2nd power write these 2 models are identical just little things where bright in general like that molecules and have been the following year but this is the appropriate expression we got into this thing with little lot In a statement of what the
last thing that it volume was located in the last 2 years there is a lot decisions on interest 1 last is rarely faces Over the years later molecules in the track of all when understanding so what not distinguishable from the general with traffic was small with but that what well for 2 distinguishable units
intelligence check these 2 stage right here right molecule is exciting and all is not molecule is
is not excited by the volatility in this part the 2 different states when the you not want to be the site of the basic needs of the witness and this is the for the year the seat that scientists have not understand that so eager to to give the states the but these are again and assuming that I was road leading from the 1st thing the world is
easily we will be looking the man faces 2 systems are revisiting some of 1 another and that we can tell the difference that just 1 state which they won on Saturday and no 1 can say which ones where so if the states are indistinguishable because of your yesterday for example will have a smaller number of because here we have to stay with the cantilevered that's just the case of example about being here this study equal one-half of little due to the end there will be half as many states the ball over the future role of
as a distinguished in is command we have reinstated to molecules but the where there
are 3 miles the city which she became part of but they wanted on and he wants to 1 word was 1 1 energy wants to 1 the release of all the different ways that we can figure that configuration it's only matter states that the original you will 6 of them on this so that they can use the online and will last until the end of the day between
where the track was the company was sued for this is just 1 a
piece of a B and C are distinguishable there are locked in a less than there were 6 states here if they are indistinguishable that's just wanted to say 3 molecules 103 3 factorial to use break the mold life in 1 form or
another figure out how on the move where all the 1 reason OK
so that explains that nonsense of a distinguishable plots we've got cues too steep a little of the Michael canonical petition funds to the beginning of our regular articles various
feasible reduce that I want to bring that forward right now there were going to forget that you will need and using it but they have no ensembles not understandable you privately so this is critical but we now sort of understand intend to stay these terms come from France were being held when the work essential only the 1 communities drug trafficking this is a key issue about comedy whatever can the film issued by the time in the world OK were the for nails into the shoebox 100 all the the following are also in there there no
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any isolated we can't always predict the direction of spontaneous changes that we done in brief right now I have the
following but there times when we you're during his stay at various changes involved all right it's diluted increasing the determines the direction of spontaneous change with there were idea so remember any isolates system constant is the system's optimizing another parameter there's no different than energy between heads of India right this is the most exactly the same note the differences got the latter was right is very calling him the point is that OK so this has got nothing to do with it it had nothing to do with the direction of policy is changed ,comma delegates that was the turning .period but the soldiers postulated that this thing called interpreter where is the thing that really optimized in the possibility of seeking this time I'm loss of Andover states this year and the
use of this lesson OK but we call this thing the entropy things equal to carry this was the thumb on his wall of important contributions to science there is which OK so as we do
juggling standard interviewed me on gas to the degrees Kelvin in it to win 98 . 1 5 degrees Kelvin the standard bowler entropy of beyond on the whole the constant temperature the mall the these molecules as earlier however the the indistinguishable part where can address so this is what's going right to cannot hold ensemble of indistinguishable particles in the partition functions can be equal to the Micro work function the and abide by the door OK so unresolved problem blistered his expression for the interview described here will be on the phone this equation 15 . 2 it's at the end the sequel to the internal energy this is just the energy of the ground state bracelets the all interrelated provided by last fall over molecules both thousands logically Michael canonical partition function but this version applies talking about canonical ensemble indistinguishable notice that it is not because it is contained with him that's right here in terms of kids that's like this guy In terms of that guy dialog we have had originally were derived a recent applied this expression and for that but OK evidence that splits between 2 terms holders and factorial out numerator remind aside from there on the right of moved into the numerator online aside from the lack of heat she was the end the movie analyst from right landscape and Lockheed there of the sort that 2 terms from 1 side of the numerator and denominator different terms and now we can do 2 things we substitute for and we :colon Colorado Nova Nova holes will let you know bowls and we use something called Sterling's approximation for long of ensuring theirs 1 of the culture proclamation before that but also threatened that OK so now we getting there yes I would I get both but I don't remember following the return of all of us in the media and the public gardens number times Bolton's ensconced is the guest house so it can make a substitution Due to substituted and 804 and demands of the people .period I don't think it's me this guy right here I've got all announced OK so what he went through the tunnel again what's the partition function for me know what we have to think about these temperatures 203
thousand 280 thousand was the only at him well the Honourable regional now they the problem I don't know what it is regional state the fire against there are a lot of fun states that can access these temperatures is no you know that you know that don't you think really love the politics of the only of the greatest player in France Wallace youngsters have available
to at the end of occasional elaboration notably on states that are accessible at these low temperatures there was no possibly know all the and all that but you know what additional areas states but so for the time gas translation is the only part of the validity of system provided that went through a literally -dash accessible and principle is to you but if they don't they translation is the the only way we can by it under these conditions the Secretary should equation of past the end of the year in the car you want and the over the years of pressure on the formerly Hughes Place the deterioration of start out this equation comes in many ways in which but the multiple lines of currently I did what I trust me this equation applies to all Model atomic
gas but what we do now while the novel with the
character of I really resellers or using any other information need to know the number of calls we need to know the pressure and regional this formal always given by Equation right here which when I look at it at 1st I thought it if this is all airlines that use the missing this is company does this man have a units of distance needed well if you're not here your religion of is among other things the dimensional analysis not only tell where do you get it right to the best of times what universities right now I have an oral declaration of playing the unique of distance OK so I look at this equation right here at what age in the usual sense what is going on here that masked men single media that revenue of Delaware what a unit of Bolton's controversial for California's character Kelly OK know what their filtering of course in the reconfigured by remembering people's squared that you wear jewelry used words that squared off most of the community where the tools that were previously were that I was just remember equals mc squared and then Jules kg leaders that did you over there especially Vermont book and so when I canceled all of these units here I get leaders right so presumably if I used madam kg jewelers and tho so 1 I want to use it surprising but it again but this not put the number India's age was that guy the boldness of the yard alright Macedonian and some balls 1 by 1 over the number of animal all right so that in the Macedonian and units of kg now for remember that because that but as long as the only people OK in a I run these numbers my calculator at 2 . 7 4 attempts in the last 11 years or 27 . 5 people meters that
really sure France formally in his life thank you all and not a super temperatures here right should find a way to win so we don't really have any into which of the following question there is a lot the kind of now this is the 1st in which we have on our occasionally comply everything into this architectural equations are right in it's just want all are 8 . 3 1 4 5
1 Julie Kent from all all constant temperature what the heck is that alright and the widely right their views from what is that the number of pastels and 118 no were talking about standards more interesting than the 1 here and there and he is 1 the of New 1 of the ones that 25 Haskell where that's been covered of that amount OK family 1 and thousand 325 Haskell's and Pascal needed to use the jewel insulted by Monday's like 38 jewels from all interviewed you told her during the recall right now 2 of the all at the end article by in temperatures slightly 298 . 1 5 at room temperature at 146 tools for Calvin for more
there more examples of the in use of the I want you to think that just 13 of the New year were just because he's going around the world and Japan's 13 14 and 15 the is the only on the part of something what do you
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Lecture 04. Entropy.
Serientitel Chemistry 131C: Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics
Teil 4
Anzahl der Teile 27
Autor Penner, Reginald
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Unported:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen und nicht-kommerziellen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/18938
Herausgeber University of California Irvine (UCI)
Erscheinungsjahr 2012
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Chemie
Abstract UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012) Lec 04. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Entropy -- Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D. Description: In Chemistry 131C, students will study how to calculate macroscopic chemical properties of systems. This course will build on the microscopic understanding (Chemical Physics) to reinforce and expand your understanding of the basic thermo-chemistry concepts from General Chemistry (Physical Chemistry.) We then go on to study how chemical reaction rates are measured and calculated from molecular properties. Topics covered include: Energy, entropy, and the thermodynamic potentials; Chemical equilibrium; and Chemical kinetics. Index of Topics: 0:04:17 Boltzmann Distribution Law 0:15:37 Three Types of Ensembles 0:31:55 S = k ln W

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