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Lecture 12. Electronic Spectroscopy.

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the money be so before we get started today talking about electronic spectroscopy we have only 1 residuals question talk about from the exam last time which is this thing where we had a molecule see for pointers and couple people ask me some questions about how do you know which reflection plane is the vertical plane and which 1 is right people sir remember general the guy he drove the playing and this month it biceps perpendicular seat U.S. cities but so that the definition of it in general but that doesn't make sense in this right because there's only 1 seat to access so the question was how do you know which 1 is it vertical which 1 is that people and I spent a lot of time looking at the site looked a lot of books that I talked to some of the comments and I have concluded that it's completely arbitrary and doesn't matter so it's it's interesting because almost every character table I can find those listed as similarly and segment but nobody has a good reason for which 1 you call city in which 20 people think the end if you go through the answered with with assigned the other way you get a different view orbital being involved in bondage and after reading some stuff I also concluded that there is no spectroscopic experiment that can tell you the difference between this Urals and so on it doesn't matter so if you put this the other ways on the exam that is equally correct so there's already this week that the exams have been sent to the stands somebody has to stand Walton back to I'm not sure how long it'll take them I'm glad it's not my job to mean that the ending under during interviews they get everybody's examined the sommelier exam back check it out on the media and if you lost points for doing that said the e-mail with your name and ID number you don't need this and the European American have again please wait until I definitely haven't yet because I'm going to go look at the monument uses as you get them and I will change your score if you put that so that was interesting and something so drama this in this particular point group that distinction doesn't make any sense that kind of there is any more questions about that very let's move on but this is
his 2nd to switch to my laptop people I bet look
so now we're moving on to electronic spectroscopy this Chapter 11 in your book and
remember our big picture here so we talked about the difference between rotations and vibrations and now we're getting into electronic states and all these things are on different energy scales so it doesn't agreement energy to excite the rotational states and that if we put on a little bit more energy we can excite vibrational states and the difference in energy between those 2 is really March the so rotational transitions take about there are about 1 wave number and vibrational transitions were 102 thousand times more so basically at room temperature there's all kinds of population in the occasional states here as we soccer most parts of what looks like but most molecules in the ground vibrational state and there are also mostly in ground electronic so now and look at what happens if need put a lot of energy and excite the electronic states so again here's what the structure looks like so we've got vibrational levels within each electronic state notice they're all the space because we're using the harmonic got oscillator later approximation that's not true for the region states and so again as we we saw with vibrational spectroscopy when the excite those high-energy transitions we get all the lower ones coming along with it so these things are more energetic and we'll definitely see fine structure From the report from the vibrational states senior electronic spectra but you might not necessarily see fine structure of the rotational states in fact usually Walt just because we don't have infinite resolution so if you can zoom in for every Louisiana but a lot of times you you don't have a resolution sometimes you might not even have a resolution is see vibrational states it depends on the molecule OK so before we get into I'm talking about this in more quantitative way I want to go over some conceptual things so let's talk about what happens to excited states so we get really hung up in Pekanbaru about talking about things like forests so we excited a molecule too excited electron state and then you know we think about OK there's a transition back down but if that happened most of the time then everything would fall wrestle the title you know will be like the vampires and by nightfall falling sunlight him because he is continually relation and everything is forcing all time and that doesn't happen so clearly there are a lot of other ways to get rid of energy From excited states OK so 1 important 1 is not became so that's just heat so you can get something an excited state and then the energy just goes from there into molecular translations vibrations invitations so this is something that's really important in need the crystal and proteins because the structural proteins in our islands these proteins have for trip to fans in the quarter the fold endit it seems like you wouldn't want in island's proteins right because this is a really good ,comma for for you absorbs the and it seems like that would be problematic because you're observing all this energy from like condemned but it turns out that this is really efficiently clenched it's coupled to back vibrations so UV light comes in and then they took offense coupled to these motions of the back the protein just moves around and maybe heats up a little bit and nothing happens that prevents it from undergoing any sort of morbid damaging transitions that that would damage I another thing that's interesting about that is that some of aquatic species like the the box jellyfish that were we're looking at my I don't have any trip defense in the island's crystals some do some fish stew but in the end somebody's proteins have evolved differently for the pontiff environment where protected from you like so that's when we can get rid of us extra energy another 1 is just Association you kick that molecule opportunites cited by recent state by region by region it gets over the the rim that and harmonic potential and despise apart so here's a here's a picture that a molecule dissociating as green Adams artists flying apart so that is totally an option you can you can zap a molecule with with light and have it had some bonds get broken for chemistry does happen OK so then let's talk about the ones that more familiar in this context but less so in in in life so if we get fluorescence that's what happens when we're really the sample with light of some wavelengths and then we get mission L light along the like so a lot of things that we typically see will be reading something will you be and then we observe visible light coming back out so this this example is cells that stained with green fluorescent protein and of different variants of it that that to colors will talk about that all the world leaders in it's really need but the thing about fluorescence is that it happens on a nanosecond timescale it's really fast so if you take out your faucet sample out of the light source you're not conceding more concentrated on if anybody has a black white access to you know you the light box for visualizing tolls a lot of food dyes are really intensely fluorescent so what a bowl of fruit groups under UV light is kind of terrified if I can find a UV light I can bring an annual all have to see if I can do that but there's also phosphorescence this is radiation of longer wavelength being admitted after electronic state is excited but it takes longer so things like glow-in-the-dark stars were you have to have observing that you have to expose it light and absorbs and then over time it's emitting light so long dark starts work by this mechanism but not most expects community OK so that's a little bit of a general idea of both what happens to you energy after stuff gets excited and of course in the spectroscopy context the 1st 2 cases aren't all that exciting so just dissipating energy to heat is you want more common things that happens by chemically it's not all that interesting measures so we're going to spend a lot of time talking about fluorescence and phosphorescence
OK so let's talk about the you know what's actually going on in some of these transitions and why you know why we're able to observe things like colors so if we look at hydrated copper sulfate in its entirety just because the waters present in crystal structure it has this really nice intense blue collar and that's because of its electronic properties so if we look at best it absorbs indivisible region because of DVD transitions in the complex and so here's its absorption spectrum and so if you look at this he noticed that you know the specter of visible light is plodding down here you notice that it has essentially no absorption in the region and then as we get into the yellow and red it absorbs relatively strongly across its main absorption is out and longer wavelength but it's so so IRA we can see that right so remember the color
wheel from you know elementary school art class we see the complementary color to what's absorbed so in this case it absorbs a bunch on the serve yellow red orange kind the spectrum and so we see this nice intense blue collar and this is something that I'm going to come back to you because what were what we observed and the answer is that we come up with in these key scientific context really depend on the instruments so for looking at something with our our eyes we get kind of backwards representation of what the thing is really about so we're seeing blue but really what's happening is that it's absorbing more orange and so it might make sense to choose to talk about this in terms of its absorption spectrum instead of in terms of the color that we observed and that might sound really trivial except that sometimes it can really affect our observations on our perception kind what's really going on and so we always have to keep in mind that were not directly observing reality were observing whatever are experimental apparatus which could include arms sensors are could include an instrument that we felt were observing what that apparatus is set up to tell us and we always have to remember that sometimes we have be later measurement back to the question that we actually want to answer and I will talk about this all the more OK so let's keep talking about the coffers the copper sulfate case so what we mean by the the transitions so in a free Adams all the d orbitals have the same energy so these are the the blue ones in the 3rd row right so we know in our and understand space minding its own business all these things have the same energies said transitions between them would really be relevant but in metal complex for we have something where the durables were involved in binding the 2 generously is broken and this is something that you know from looking at the character table so if we have an Arctic he droll complex here yeah just take this example you can go look at the character table for the act of evil .period group and you'll see that not all the the orbitals belong to the same sedentary species they don't all have the same energy and so that means that we can get transitions between them and it happens that in the case monotony droll molecule that transition energy happens to be visible range and so that causes the the compound to absorb and so were able to see a color a lot of compounds with a lot of common organic molecules absorb in other places in the spectrum like saying you here and so we can't see them but of course it doesn't mean they don't absorb radiation and if we go a measure that would ,comma we'll see it let's talk about an organic removed for that does absorb light and that is strongly colored a lot of plant pigments House strong absorption visible region so here Sunday the specter of some pigments from from plants a couple different kinds of Oracle and also some carotenoids so these things have some common properties along you'll see a lot of organic from forests are a highly unsaturated they have and made a lot of times they have conjugated double bonds that's because having conjugated double 1 structures shifts the absorption into the visible so that we can see so will see that a lot of chrome force that that we can see another feature of them they'll notice is a lot of times the molecules are very flat they have a very rigid structure so like this often structure that year has magnesium in the middle of flattering you see that in a lot of plant pigments and there things like that in other crime forced the reason why it has that structures because it's so flat and rejected that it can easily just dump that excess energy to Bond vibrations battalion just as many ways and so that's why we see these his electronic transitions In this case it's usually from the you know the plight of Keister molecular orbital in the double bonds and it's just invisible like see it so again you here's what I'm what I'm talking about about missing the point of these biological pavement supporter its function so we see Oracle was being green but in fact into to a plants it's it's red and blue rights absorbing the red and blue ends of the spectrum and that's what's enabling it to use the energy so if you try and green plants under green light produce a lot carotenoids on the other hand are absorbing more in the high-energy regions spectrum so they're absorbing blue we see them as orange and red in the biological context those acting as fronts sunscreen so they are just absorbing UV light and it said protecting their beliefs from sun damage OK so
that's what I want to say about those let's quickly talk about absorption spectroscopy in a little bit more quantitative way and this is something that I know everybody has seen in general chemistry lab and probably other places to reuse a specter of automata too measure the absorption of some compound and this is done using their memory loss or locked and there's a relates transmitted intensity at some frequency it's only defined for a particular frequency it's related to the path length and the concentration of the sample and so obviously this is a really useful in spectroscopic context because you know the pathway to set up the instrument and you can use this to determine the concentration of samples if you know their absorption or conversely can use it to find out their absorption characteristics if you know How much a molecule you have In my have expressed proteins and so we use whole time we use it to find pretty concentration OK so far I hear is the transmitted intensity in strands that and that means that we're looking through the samples we have something it's transparent were shining light through written looking at what comes out the other side I'm not is the include intensity of the light coming from the start ,comma and then it has this functional form epsilon here is your more absorption coefficient for the the molecule of interest sometimes you can you can calculate this uncertainly certainly for proteins there some estimates that continues depending on its amino acid composition it's been measured for many molecules if you have a brand new molecules react measured yourself and I also don't confuse it with the quantum number that's a lot for electronic transitions and this sort this thing the absorption coefficient is it cm squared per mole basically so no area her where am wall of the compound and then here Is your concentration of whatever species and also so this is pretty straightforward I know that you buy the ball probably used it before In general chemistry were is going to go into a little bit more detail about the mechanisms behind it and how it actually works but I should also point out that you can you can put this in terms of absorption and if you want to look at the absorption band spread over a whole bunch of different frequencies so like in the case of those plant pigments that I showed you don't just have 1 really sharp well-defined peace they have a big loss spread or a bunch of frequencies and in that case you have to integrate frequency range too together a realistic measurable absorption band I think OK so again this is this is review but it is useful something that comes up a lot experimentally OK so getting back to the idea of of how what we see depends on a instrumentation I want to point out again here we're talking about transmitted light were looking at transparent samples and seeing that the color through it there are other ways to to get colors
so there also the structural pigments so this is like what you see here lots of places in nature actually severe is really pretty Eurydice and beetle you also see it again a lot of birds so like hummingbird feathers are really strongly lessons on various fish lots of things have struck colors and what these things are usually doing is using something called for intact or abraded and not just makes use of the properties of the light when it hits such changes in refractive index so if it's going through interfaces were you were you got high to low refractive index and the stacks in between the young layers in between are arrange increments of a quarter the wavelength of light then it gets reflected right back out so this this quarter ecstatic makes a really high quality reflector that specific for a fairly narrow range of wavelengths so in this case of the bomb it's green that's not because it has green pigment it's because it has these little stacks of Aaron Heiden In the characters of the insect that is acting as a kind of right stack and so I could tell that you're looking at interference colors is if the color changes in your perception as you change the angle so if you're you're holding defending the color change depending on how you look at it that tells you that you're probably looking at interference colors and in that case if you took the other bronze characters and looked at the transmitted light through it you would see very much in order to get an idea of the color properties of it you have to stick to reflect spectrum instead I put this picture even when oil droplets and with constructive and destructive interference here point out that that's essentially the same effect were just looking at constructive and destructive interference of whites on this and surface
OK so let's talk about our measurement device when we're thinking about just just looking at at these things and observing the colors basically everything that comes in and out of ourselves including information is carried by remembering the so all of our arts centers says were going through life involve particular detectors that are usually g protein coupled receptors and we have all kinds of different ones so there photoreceptors we've been talking about vision there also McCain receptors there actually different McConnell receptors for just touching general feeling of feeling light pressure and feeling pain and damage was recalled sectors on we have thermal receptors other animals have some sense is that we don't have so for for instance a lot of fish including sharks have electric field receptors another thing that has those as the the platypus so the snout of the plot actually contains a bunch of electric field receptors and the field by going around and snuffling through the mud on on the bottom of the hour reversal in and eating small recitations there that they find these like field centers so here's how these things work but we have while they're usually this bundle of 7 trends membrane helices if it's view partly coupled receptors and something on the outside of the cell impacts it innocently the finding in a chemical sense or In the case of the visual system observing a photon and then wanted that induces some conformational change in the protein hysteria the red things and that conformational change activates some kind of a signal on the other side of the membrane and the signal goes on and all sorts of information is transmitted and this is a good thing to be aware of so I don't expect you know any details about this right now but it's it's so interesting talk about because this is our instrumentation that were using were observing things around us and also it's really relevant in scientific contexts won the the Nobel prizes that was given last year was for solving the structure of G protein coupled receptors of course this is still a major frontier and there are a great many of them solved and in a lot of cases it's quite mysterious how they actually work a case of getting back to the specific case of the eyes and how we perceive light and color we have 2 different kinds of receptors in our eye there where :colon broadened cone cells and the rods containing rhodopsins which is a G protein coupled receptor that it is not color sensitive so it doesn't have any In particular wavelengths sensitivity it just way it but it just enables us to see so that's what we're using 4 baht vision and that's why we don't see culinary will ignite in the wrong cells those are the ones that do have a color receptors so there are 3 kinds of these receptors in most humans some people have mutations in 1 or the other of them and that causes of the colorblind but most people have 3 and your eyes integrates what you're seeing in terms of color by measuring the ratio of how many photons he absorbed by each kind of receptor and that's also interesting when we think about when different animals do because some animals have a lot more reason we do and they're able to see a larger range of colors so long insects can see wading into the EU the Latin words can also but the greatest number of these ever in the mantis shrimp it has something like 16 different I think receptor did different color receptors so its vision must be a pretty interesting it's got a lot of gradations in colors and of course the warranties you have the larger the spectrum ranging from cover but also that the finer distinctions In color you can see all I hear is what we absorption spectra of our visual pigments looks like so we have 3 the 2nd these receptors for color the essentially in the red green and blue on parts of the spectrum but again you actually perceive the color because your brain takes information about how many photons are being absorbed by the shape of pigment and then integrates that gives you back here perceptions and the color and if we look at rhodopsins which is the nonspecific 1 that's right in the middle of the spectrum OK so
here's what rhodopsins looks like secures our reveals solution in yellow and the blue and and red thing that it stuck in as the memory of the membrane of Iraq's cell and in the middle of rhodopsins it has the scramble for called right now that is mostly 1 of these conjugated it's it is 1 of these conjugated systems and the bonds are mostly France so we have this long straight molecule but there is 1 of the 1 that this configuration and what happens is when when that rhodopsins molecule absorbs a photon the double 1 some it goes to transfer and so if you look at this molecule you can imagine that causes a really big conformational change was an event like this and now it's straight and it's jammed into the middle of protein so when it times that the whole protein has to move around all those helices shift around and that positive signal on the other side of the membrane
and so I'm not going to get into all the details here but if you look at the structures of the ,comma for as it extended that gives you an idea of how that moves the protein around them and causes the signals
OK so you is an interesting to talk about this so as scientists we really have to be concerned about making sure that we know what we're looking at and that what we measure with their instruments as this example or eyes is really relevant to the natural phenomenon that were studied and that can be easy to mess up even for people who are trained doing science so here's an example where that happen so these little birds are called blue tits and they all look the same right there just fizzle blue and yellow birds that can you there were some biologists who were studying these guys and trying to figure out how they choose their mates and what their behavior is based on and they had drawn conclusions based on what the birds look like to us in the blue and yellow and a lot of them look pretty similar but there they were thinking OK well somebody's these differences and markings are not unimportant to us that there really selling into the birds so that other choosing mates and there were various papers on us and then somebody thought to look at the reflect inspector of these things outside the human visual range and it turns out that on their heads particularly in the male birds they have these bright markings in the UT region spectrum and so that's what the birds were actually looking at when they're responding to different individuals of the species so the biologists did some experiments there where they put sunscreen on the birds heads so that blocks the you need and the female birds couldn't see the markings on the males hats and that totally changed their behavior as far as how they were choosing mates so it turns out that the birds look completely different to each other than they do to the humans observing them because the relevant thing is markings in a region of the spectrum that we have with the instruments .period and so the people who were studying this year figured out that this is what's going on and came up with on 1 of my favorite paper titles of all time so so the moral of the story is we have to remember what our experiments or measuring even if we're just making observations with our eyes you know we can get really hung up on Everything must be the way we see it but in fact what we're talking about things like vision and perception there are a lot of different things going on and that's true of all kinds his physical chemistry phenomena everyone always make sure that remember what we're really measuring versus what is we want to see OK so that's the sort of conceptual big-picture introduction to widen care about electronic spectroscopy this anybody have any questions about that you know more about random biofactory whatever before you move on to to talk about it reflectively yes so I don't know that much about that particular bug species I'm guessing probably camouflaged so instead it but just instead of having pigment it has this interference colored yeah that's how that's how it's making this color you with these structural lairs in some other species that I know more about acceptable pots taking that's how they actually change color so they have these of chromatophores that making a move differently in different amounts you up and down closer to the skin and I think there's a mixture of pigment structural colors there and they can actually change and move it around began case to the bottom no exactly what it's doing and we just have yes at the time we have lots time yet in the also do have different problem and don't remember exactly what they are but they did they do have a different ,comma force the related they look they look similar they might just do the same all but they might be modified a little bit I know of In in some animals the knowledge definitely modified so diagonal geckos are the only thing that I know of that can actually see color nite so their rods aura adapted so that they're actually working the cited clothes are actually gotten so that the working all the time and I know that they have modified right now but I don't know that specific to the gecko if everything just yet I think the that's an interesting question I don't know how millions change color Opelika I so there there to magazines like mad so 1 is that you have that saw reflective layer that that is getting around the other 1 is if you have actual cells containing about use of pigments and that is actually getting shuffled up and down over you can't so I'm not sure which it is in that case but it's an interesting question I know I actually and work on some things related to this in my life but the have mostly in physical chemistry but it's always interesting to find out things about your house that he can concepts relate to stuff in nature OK so let's move on and start talking about electronic spectroscopy a little bit more quantitatively so we're back to I'm talking about the board Oppenheimer approximation and we looked at this before In the context of a vibrational rotational spectroscopy and I'm bringing back again because it's relevant so what we're sitting here is that the probability 2 of them electronic transitions is going depend on the positions of the nuclei but basically the motions of the election the emotions of the electrons is so fast that it takes a while for the nuclei to catch up so so what that means is if we're looking at equilibrium positions of the nuclei the electronic states might have less overlap depending on the position and then when we excite something into an excited electronic state it might take a while for young might it might take a finite amount of time for that molecule molecules start vibrating in response to the electronic transitions so basically always staying with the born Oppenheimer approximations that these things happen and very different timescales you that doesn't mean that we don't excite vibrational states when we undergo an electronic transitions we do by it's not instantaneous and definitely 1 thing that happens is that the probability Of the electronic states depends on the nuclei and we'll see what that what that looks like on the show some pictures so have no vibrational states where there could be much a perfectly good transition there except that the electronic states over library much so here's an example that secures the OMB the specter of iodine I too so this has a lot going on in and will will come back to this probably a number of times as we're talking about different aspects of electron spectroscopy but right now what I want you to pay attention to you it is we have these different states in the electronic spectrum so we've got the ground state which is called back and it has this in her money potential well and there are all kinds of vibrational states within it knows they're not evenly spaced because we are men and women potential and then if we want to jump up to that next step electronic state notice that their potentials are not exactly overlapped in the into nuclear accord that so I should point out the Y axis is energy the x-axis separation between nuclei and so what we see is that's excited state is you it's kind of fun at its lowest potential and different into nuclear distance the grounds state and so as a result of that there were potentials don't overlap as much as they might and so there is going to be some transition between the states but it's so it's not necessarily going to be very high In this particular case we do get plenty of overlap but you can easily imagine stuff or you just don't see any transitions because the integrated distance has to be so different in order to to get the molecule up there that it doesn't happen in practice OK let's talk about Samora terminology In terms this picture so we've got the electronic states in the vibrational states drawn there so again new is the vibrational quantum number just just like it was previously we talk about this new With the Chilean if vibrational frequency and has until late that means it's wave numbers yeah it's weird to have frequencies and wave numbers welcomed the spectroscopy we don't get to pick a notation it's just there indeed not in this picture Is the dissociation energies so that is the energy at which you have so much vibrational energy in there that molecules just flies apart and there we talked about this before when I should be and harmonic potentials that's OK you need to know about this so much right now now the time has come on and talk about it more details so here's our dissociation energies is the equilibrium dissociation energies and so and that's it we're here we're talking about the difference between measuring 2 the ground state of biracial wave function or the bottom of the potential wealth and different things and then we got to Prime which is the electronic energy there is also an in her mid on and harming city constant which is your correction to the potential that's how your potential is deviating from harmonic oscillator potential and noticed that that has lay over it's over it's an wave numbers and then we also have convergence lament which is now that's that's what we get into it higher energy states and I think I'm going to quit here for for today and I just wanted to introduce the terminology and want talk about it in a lot more detailed next time
Azokupplung
Sense
Fülle <Speise>
Rückstand
Molekül
Chemische Forschung
Reflexionsspektrum
Orbital
Chemischer Prozess
Computeranimation
Aktives Zentrum
Chemische Forschung
Computeranimation
Biologisches Material
Wasser
Absorptionsspektrum
Elektrolytische Dissoziation
Computeranimation
Fluoreszenzfarbstoff
Diclofenac
Spezies <Chemie>
Lebensmittelfarbstoff
Membranproteine
Laichgewässer
Infrarotspektroskopie
Reaktionsmechanismus
Übergangsmetall
Chemische Bindung
Optische Aktivität
Phosphoreszenz
Übergangsmetall
Molekül
Radioaktiver Stoff
Zelle
Fülle <Speise>
Elektron <Legierung>
Grün fluoreszierendes Protein
Resonanz-Ionisations-Massenspektrometrie
Selenite
Toll-like-Rezeptoren
Blauschimmelkäse
Radioaktiver Stoff
Hydratisierung
Bewegung
Bukett <Wein>
Monomolekulare Reaktion
Kupfersulfat <Kupfer(II)-sulfat>
Enhancer
Sulfate
Chemische Forschung
Chemische Forschung
Explosivität
Elektrolytische Dissoziation
Vitalismus
Kristall
Chemische Struktur
Kupfer
Dachschiefer
Funktionelle Gruppe
Zunderbeständigkeit
Lösung
Strahlenschaden
Insel
Schwingungsspektroskopie
Translationsfaktor
Wasserstand
Polymorphismus
Phosphoreszenz
Trennverfahren
Fruchtmark
Ultraviolettspektrum
Chemische Eigenschaft
Übergangszustand
Farbenindustrie
Spektroskopie
Fluoreszenzfarbstoff
Molekül
Quantenchemie
Biologisches Material
Transmissivität <Hydrologie>
Molvolumen
Matrix <Biologie>
d-Orbital
Stoffwechselweg
Memory-Effekt
Biologisches Lebensmittel
Konzentrat
Magnesium
Absorptionsspektrum
Einschluss
Carotinoide
Computeranimation
Doppelbindung
Spezies <Chemie>
Membranproteine
Sense
Übergangsmetall
Reaktionsmechanismus
Chemische Bindung
Deckschicht <Geologie>
Molekül
Gletscherzunge
Gärungstechnologie
Pigment
Elektron <Legierung>
Spezies <Chemie>
Seafloor spreading
Stoffwechselweg
Vitalismus
Selenite
Lithiumfluorid
Blauschimmelkäse
Bukett <Wein>
Thermoformen
Monomolekulare Reaktion
Emissionslinie
Aminosäuren
Chemieanlage
Kupfersulfat <Kupfer(II)-sulfat>
Chemie
Sulfate
Lebensmittelfarbstoff
Seafloor spreading
Tetraederstruktur
Chemische Forschung
Orbital
Provitamin A
Chemische Verbindungen
Pigment
Orangensaft
Chemische Struktur
Kupfer
Allmende
Chemieanlage
Funktionelle Gruppe
Atom
Lösung
Strahlenschaden
Komplexbildungsreaktion
Biologisches Lebensmittel
Metall
Komplexbildungsreaktion
Querprofil
Koordinationszahl
Chromerz
Azokupplung
Ultraviolettspektrum
Chemische Eigenschaft
Ligand
Biologisches Material
Übergangszustand
Farbenindustrie
Spektroskopie
Molekül
Dictyosom
Transmissivität <Hydrologie>
Grenzfläche
Symptomatologie
Lebensmittelfarbstoff
Idiotyp
Chemische Forschung
Absorptionsspektrum
Pigment
Computeranimation
Chemische Struktur
Plasmamembran
Membranproteine
Laichgewässer
Sense
Rhodopsin
Simulation <Medizin>
Nobelium
Oberflächenchemie
Alpha-2-Rezeptor
Öl
Plasmamembran
Alpha-2-Rezeptor
Atom
Blauschimmelkäse
Strahlenschaden
Membranproteine
Zelle
Pigment
Reaktionsführung
Zelle
Selenite
Einschluss
Primärer Sektor
Helicität <Chemie>
Wassertropfen
Bronze
Biofouling
Konformationsänderung
Chemische Eigenschaft
GTP-bindende Proteine
Harnstoff
Schmerz
Farbenindustrie
Interkristalline Korrosion
Rhodopsin
Chemische Struktur
Konformationsänderung
Zelle
Membranproteine
Rhodopsin
Memory-Effekt
Chemische Bindung
Molekül
Chemische Forschung
Plasmamembran
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Helicität <Chemie>
Computeranimation
Spektroskopie
Chemische Forschung
Absorptionsspektrum
Pigment
Computeranimation
Aktionspotenzial
Chemische Struktur
Spezies <Chemie>
Übergangsmetall
Molekül
f-Element
Nucleolus
Blauschimmelkäse
Sonnenschutzmittel
Schwingungsspektroskopie
Zelle
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Lecture 12. Electronic Spectroscopy.
Serientitel Chem 131B: Molecular Structure & Statistical Mechanics
Teil 12
Anzahl der Teile 26
Autor Martin, Rachel
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Unported:
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DOI 10.5446/18920
Herausgeber University of California Irvine (UCI)
Erscheinungsjahr 2013
Sprache Englisch

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Fachgebiet Chemie
Abstract UCI Chem 131B Molecular Structure & Statistical Mechanics (Winter 2013) Lec 12. Molecular Structure & Statistical Mechanics -- Electronic Spectroscopy -- Part 1. Instructor: Rachel Martin, Ph.D. Description: Principles of quantum mechanics with application to the elements of atomic structure and energy levels, diatomic molecular spectroscopy and structure determination, and chemical bonding in simple molecules. Index of Topics: 0:04:37 Electronic Spectroscopy 0:11:12 Copper (II) Sulfate (Hydrated) 0:13:48 Atomic Orbitals 0:14:05 D-Metal Complexes 0:15:27 Organic Chromophores 0:17:45 Absorption Spectroscopy 0:35:39 Nuclear and Electronic Hamiltonians 0:37:39 l2 Energy Levels

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