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Lecture 07. Rotational Spectroscopy Pt. III.

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morning everybody so we then we've been starting our discussion of spectroscopy and how light interacts with matter and so far we talk about rotational spectroscopy we're going to continue this work talk about rotations and vibrations and were also going into a little bit more conceptual ideas about the different ways that might interact with matter so before we do that does anybody have any questions left over from last time about anything yes well so the question is if their equations in the book and they're not lecture you need to know that the answer is maybe so I think they're going to be covered on the test will be stuff that we do in class things that your covering discussion those were also important concepts and things that you need to be able to do practice problems so a lot of times and lecture and then a focus on just trying to make sure that everybody understands concepts that soaring today and we might not necessarily get a chance to examples of every particular kind of problem that you might need to do hopefully intensity that discussion the practice problems the idea of what you need to do the other things that are in the book and you know that's just there for your information the whole thing anything else all right let's say what started talking about how light interacts with matter OK so what I want to go over today is the difference between absorption and scattering so this is something that people get confused about its it's 1 of the main concepts that we need to have to understand the different kinds of spectroscopy that we use and I want to put it more in terms of things that we see every day the again it's all about photons interacting with that and there are lots of different complicated for Muslims to describe the the things that can happen in specific cases but what it boils down to conceptually is that if a photon interacts with matter it can do 1 of 2 things it can get absorbs water can be scattered so unity that gets absorbing causes some kind of a transition Indiana molecule or it can bounce off and it can scatter elastic clearing elastically will get into the that Caribbean lecture but for right now I want use some sort of familiar concepts to introduce just the idea of what's the difference between absorption and scattering and there are some things that the obvious here and there some things that are not obvious so Oregon start with the basics Why is the sky blue really scary that's right what does that mean so so let's scanners in all directions OK so we got out and if we got that far why is this guy white so if we have all overweight just scattering off particles in all directions .period have color yeah it was the yet it has a really strong wavelength dependence where we scattering off by the way in really scary but so were the particles involved yeah gas molecules so mostly nitrogen things like oxygen whatever's in the atmosphere are so what's happening here is the light is interacting with molecules or particles that are much smaller than the wavelength of light summer we know that you know we we know that the and wavelength range of of visible light is you know hundreds of many years molecules are a lot smaller than now and so really scattering is the solution to Maxwell's equations that describes what happens in that moment when the scatters are much smaller than the wavelength of light and so it has a really strong wavelength dependence and what that means essentially is that smaller than the small particles look a lot bigger to later in year red light and so we get everything scattered and we see this nice blue color so here is the functional
form just to to remind you vehement Tersina recently it has an inverse dependence on landed to the so that's why we have this extremely strong wavelength dependence and it also has an orientation olfactory so if we look at our little molecule we see that there's more light scattered forward and backward then down and so here's how we see this the blue sky OK
so related wire sunsets thread "quotation mark exactly so we have we still have really scary but now instead of having the sun overhead it's on the horizon and so it has to travel through more the the atmosphere to get to us so we still have the same wavelength dependence probably light has already been scattered out and what we last are the reds and oranges so that's part of the story there's
also me scattering which is what happens when you get particles that are margin wavelengths of light In that case much more widely scattered forward and niece scattering does not have a strong wavelength dependence so this is really responsible for thing the 4th just a scattering of of white light in effects like when it's foggy you see halos around streetlights and things like that that's because you know in order to get your idea from financier bouncing off these little particles and so you you see that you perceive the street as being in a larger than it actually is because of these problems in getting bounced off a little water droplets that are in the air so you often hear it said that pollution makes the sun sets more rapid and more beautiful but because you have more scatters so it is that 2 or not the answer is independent helping the particles are so if they're small then they're contributing to the release scattering and you see the the more brilliant red whereas if their larger so we have larger aerosols and that's just adding the scattering so like this the year the picture on the right it just makes everything kind Abdullah and in some cases it can make the colors softer you can get working and tones like that rather than bright red there's a question about this category on the no I mean that the physical size of the particles is smaller than Mean the dimension of the wavelength of light that's all so it so it matters whether we're talking about molecules so those were those are obviously much smaller these are really scary or if we're talking about larger particles so like gas 6 outside EPA droplets of the liquid droplets that are there are suspended in gas like a cloud were or far those are larger scatters and there are some pollution particles of aerosols that that fit into that category as well OK it's also important to remember that both of these things are not different phenomenon it's the same thing it's just very different very different assumptions being made there different regimes were just solving Maxwell's equations and we're making a distinction between like OK if when in the regime where the molecules are much smaller than the wavelength of light and then we can make a certain set of assumptions and if there are larger than we can make another set of assumptions if they're about the same size than weird things happen it's it's pretty interesting but remember that these people didn't have computers when these things were discovered so it was really isn't getting any sort of mathematical form to anything was really hard won and so that's why we have all these things that are treated as other different phenomenon well you actually at this point we can distinction in mathematics and sold so if it does it a lot of times pot knows as the same way that it came out historically were we have these different regimes and that's fine as a continued approximations that you can use but I do remember that it's all the same phenomena and I'm not giving you a nice pretty functional form over the scattering and that's because there really isn't 1 if you want to do that there are programs that that you can use to to do it the computational methods on way to go there yes not only was it the only Harrison running lights were so that's on the ionized particles are emitting radiation and you will talk about that when we get into electronics the cost people save it for later OK so we have covered the some were obvious what's get into less
obvious why is the sky blue twilight so remember we have heard myself really scattering explanation for why the sky is blue over our sons appear latest scattering down to us we see the blue light then it's on the horizon Augusta along the path length there were particles in the way and now it's red but this guy is still blue the sun there anymore what's that about the so the answer is a lot of it is due to the color of ozone so here's the absorption
spectrum of of ozone and then you can see this the yard anything's have historical names the hotly bans are in the UV and there's a really big but then there's this little a smaller band the Chappuis band there are kind of more indivisible region so ozone is actually absorbing it has a color and it's blue so you know again remember when only say something Jordan has a color it's absorbing everything but little so that's that's what we see that's something that we're going to talk about again when we get into electronic spectroscopy the details of how we perceive color and how we talk about it are natural to our perceptual system but when we go to think about spectroscopy we can measure with instruments it's not necessarily the best way to describe things OK so that's why the twilight sky isn't employer and we saw 1st example of the difference between scattering and absorption and notice that we get similar facts what we perceive can be the same whether it's based on scattering absorption the sky looks blue to us either way and you know what have never thought about whites at twilight when another mechanism looks like it might be different these are different from us and again these are the only means of basically the only thing that photons are going to do with the interactive matter OK
so why is Waterloo and particularly if I have my a bottle of water it looks transparent here except for it's going through the like through Blue Label but if we look at the ocean or a large amount of water looks blue ways that so really scattering again that on it's part of the answer so it turns out that water itself is actually Blue Fairy between its weekly absorbing and I will show you it's a spectrum so here is just the year the overall absorption spectra of water with the visible regions brought in there and you know notice it has Giant absorption bands that both longer insurer wavelengths there's just this really narrow region where doesn't absorb very much and if you look at where the water stocks does start to absorb invisible region it's absorbing out most of the rest so it is very weakly Boyle and the reason that looks transparent when you have a small amount of it is that you stop where is when you get it in a more the ball that quantity you can actually start to see a color now we need to get back to the issue of scattering because if that was the whole story if we just had that the week from then water wouldn't look gloomy look down on it right if we went scuba diving and looked up we would see blue water but if it was just absorbing what we look down and it would always look black when we look down and see the blue water a photon has to go in there bounce around and then come back out to arise so scattering definitely does have to be part of the answer so so the answer there is both another thing that's pretty interesting to think about is a couple of issues involving the the this spectrum so 1 is if you look at this absorption spectrum of water you we've got strong absorption you know both above and below the visible region so you know it's kind of an interesting coincidence that there is any region where Water is transparent and no so visual systems and in humans and all kinds of other animals were able to evolve if the spectrum of water look like that we wouldn't be able to see because it would be opaque so that's 1 interesting thing another thing that I'm not going to get into right now but I want pointed out it why is water transparent it said you know or glass or other media like that it's not that they're photons just bombing through without interacting with anything and if that doesn't confuse you it it may be should so this is this is something to think about if you want to know more detailed version of the answer on there is little book by Richard firemen called to the quantum electrodynamics that explains all this in a pretty intuitive way that's a good thing Green OK so we've seen how combinations of absorption and scattering can produce these color effects that are pretty so familiar to us I want to talk about 1 more phenomenon that that sort of illustrates the difference which is why is it that when you put water on media it looks darker so as we talked about the water is transparent it has a really weak blue-collar we don't see that in the thin layer that would be on some object and when it evaporates if it doesn't leave doesn't leave a stain that the the pigmentation or whatever remaining goes away let's think about why that is so the demonstration can everybody see that so it's just water so it's often heard anything as far as we discussed it's going to dry and go away OK so why the look like that outweighs the burqa when it's wet and died and it gets light again when it's dry the it's it's absorbing more that's definitely true but let's talk about why OK so let's go back to certain the you know more of physics interpretation of of lighting and we've been thinking about photons of think about light rays a it's another perfectly valid interpretation that that explains some of these phenomena so if we look at the what's going on here is the difference in read refractive index between the error in the cockpit is large and so when light is is coming in with light rays are coming from the air and they're going to carpet they get scattered allotments libraries get bent over a wide range of angles because there's more bending when you have a larger changes index when the saturated with water now the difference in refractive index between the water in the cockpit is lower the these light rays get bent a smaller amount and so they bounce around more before they make it back out to arise so basically that's happening is instead of just scattering write off some of the photons are going into the nether parts of the carpet never to re-emerge and that's why it looks . 1 1 as well OK that is the difference between absorption and scattering and now wants apply that to actual spectroscopy on the question of the world sure so so when you will so if it gets scared at a wider range of angles when it's dry because the difference in refractive index is greater between Aaron Cochran them we pour water on it that has a higher refractive index into the differences last if I for benzene on and it would be even less but that would the dangerous in Indiana covered in trouble sensors on video on so you know we're making a refractive index difference smaller between the you know that the Carpenters surrounding medium so that means would that be light gets bent and a smaller angles and so it has to bounce around more and more before expected to arise and some of it gets absorbed before that happens so that's why that looks like that OK so
that's fine but on the real reason why wanna make sure everybody understands the differences between absorption and scattering and how they can give us some of the same phenomenon is that we need to talk about the difference between absorption types of spectroscopy and Roman spectroscopy so Rahman spectroscopy is what we get when there an inelastic scattering of light so when we shine light at something if it doesn't get absorbed has to scatter we know that we already know that most of its just bounces right off scatters elastically that's really scattering which which we understand but what can happen sometimes is it can either the light crude losers quantum of energy to the molecule or it could take a quantum of energy from the molecule and when that happens we get a Roman spectrum and so I'm going to put up this picture quite a few times as we go through a discussion of of different types of spectroscopy so we've talked about direct rotational spectrum we said let's say we need to have a dipole moment to see a pure microwave spectrum From the irritation of a molecule because were you were watching some part of the molecule ball round we have to be able to tell the difference with our electric field rahman spectroscopy is a different effect so instead of absorbing that photons and bumping molecule up to an excited rotational state we were having a photo bounce off but it doesn't scatter it either leaves behind a quantum of energy or it takes a quantum of energy from the molecule and in that way but sit up and down and the rotational state so this is where occasional Roman we can also have vibrational Rahman which would get to later on and I just want to give sort the the big picture version of this we're going to have you know Invitational spectroscopy and vibrational spectroscopy and there are 2 types each week neither have direct absorption or we can have the Roman spectrum which is based on scattering and they have different selection rules and they give you complementary information not identified OK system terminology the really wine this picture is actually not drawn to scale the really line is way way way bigger than than any of these Rollins spectra it also makes sense that when we're talking about vibrational Roman those after the sides quite a bit more new CDs breaks in the horizontal axis it takes a lot more energy to excite by regional states and those rotational states so for now where there's going to be talking about the rotational Roman spectroscopy but there's other this picture is going to come back again when we talk about vibrational states so terminology we have the Stokes wine and the entire Stokes line depending on whether the photons it is losing energy to to the molecule regaining energy from the molecule and you have to be careful because you will see the spectra plotted in terms of wavelength like this 1 isn't so remember that longer wavelength equals lower energy you will also see applauded sometimes in terms of frequency so it is the higher energy and so which which 1 is which depends on how it's plot and we need to pay attention these names are just historical but you'll see them right so the spacing between these lines is 4 times the the rotational constants so remember the spacing between the the lines in the direct absorption specter was to be I wouldn't talk about why that is hopefully by the end of this month OK so I want to again put up this description of energies and frequencies so be is rotational constant if it has until they then it's an wave numbers and we can also defined it in spurts and somebody somebody office us about this before I think I had the most you know inappropriately said people or something the different things that matters it has until only over it or not and so you know we can use the fact that equals HC overland to express this in In hurts and then we've also got the use of energy levels that we talked about before and we don't need to go through again OK so How do we know when something is going to have a rotational spectra so we said that for a director additional spectrum in the molecule needs have eyeful moment so Rahman is based on scattering of absorption it's different effect so it makes sense that we might have different selection rules and we do the gross selection rules for rotational Rahman is that we have to have an isotropic or ability so let's talk about what that means the polarize ability is the ability of the electron current molecule to distort when you put it in an electric field so we're talking about an induced dipole moment it doesn't have a dipole moment necessarily on its own but we play electron field the electron cloud is you know begins can move around a little bit and can get the story so polarize ability isn't is a measure of how much that can happen and it is a tenser it's not it's not just a number so it had to it's represented by a 3 by 3 matrix in three-dimensional space here's a picture kind of illustrating what I mean so far but this molecule on electric field that Electron card is just going distort a little bit and some molecules might distort a little some might distort a lot that's the the magnitude of the
plausibility but we also have to describe its spatially so we can also define the mean polarize ability which is just a number and that is a 3rd time's the trace of a matrix so of course so far from our group theory discussion during to get the trace the matrix just add the elements on the diagonal and if the divided by 3 I mean and that's mainly useful for comparing among molecules if we want to talk about in detail what that's what these things do we need to use the full tenser so just in case of In case it's hard to visualize what potential looks like here's another unrelated example but that at least study engineers have definitely seen before and hopefully a little bit easier to visualize so we're just stop you know we're just looking at you know how this property varies in the in-state so stress another example intensive there lots of women in physics is a really important concept and I recommend you looking at more about if it's if it's not clear OK so the seminar group selection role for Roman spectroscopy is there molecule has to have an isotropic plausibility so we stick a molecule in an electric field and it that has some frequency we can call it major it's Omega and it induces about so here's an expression for our induced dipole so we have an alpha in front of it which makes sense that polarize ability factor tells us something about the magnitude of the dipole that we can induce without electric field and then of course it also depends on me the amplitude of the field which is varying in time so it has this time dependent so Omega III is the frequency of the induced field the molecules also rotating at some frequency organ a call that are and so it's polarize ability is time time-dependent because remember the molecule molecules an isotropic security shaken like a football so if the if the molecule is the year has is has the football standing up with respect to the electric field explorers is different benefits lying down and it ranges come from the inside between these values so Delta alpha is the change in Flores ability from the parallel orientation to perpendicular 1 and so we can define it's time dependence In terms of the rotational frequency of the molecule and 1 thing that that's important to this is that it comes back to the same value to times transportation why because worsening that we have small electric fields and it doesn't matter whether about the football like this are like that and that's true even if the molecule isn't exactly symmetric at least for the case of small electric fields and so the specific selection rule for a linear River is that we can have either no change Invitational state or we can have things jumping up and down by 2 and that's because we get the same effect 2 times per rotation rather than 1 time so that's why the specific selection rules are different for rotational Rahman and therefore Invitational spectroscopy OK so I also want to point out that if we have this on Delta J. equals 0 condition that contributes to the rail line so what we're saying there is the photon hit the molecule and it just bounced off and it didn't change its rotational state that's really scary yes so it's so when actually so that's a good question so that the the question is do you have to do this for every wavelength of like the 1 a measure what we would do in a real experiment is just went through a whole bunch of wavelength and see power response which 1 will see some examples of the spectral later so essentially yes but we can we can learn some things about what the what the overall spectrum is gonna look like without doing that so if we want to predict what the spectrum looks like in a qualitative sense we don't need to do it every wavelength if we wanna know specifically what looks like a we OK so here's just a illustrating what I just said just in case so we have our electric field we start out with this thing In the perpendicular orientation and then if we rotated 90 degrees it's Carol always ability is different and then as it keeps going around in and out of the blue Adam and the red wonder flipped they might be different I'm saying I don't care about that it's it's a it's a good approximation that were just looking at the polarize ability this way versus the sky and so that's why we get the same thing 2 times for rotation and that means that selection role and where I can talk about this right this minute but I'm just ringing here for future reference for selected the we have the same conditions for Delta J and delta k people 0 OK so I
am going to yes this is going
on with the question of the on the
bond isn't really stretching that would be vibrational spectroscopy it's just that the the polarize ability is changing little bit it's just like the electron cloud is deforming yeah it's just kind moving around it's making an induced by dipole but it's not changing was like that would be be vibrational promise will see that later on OK so if we substitute Ian let are if we succeed these expressions into our expression for the induced by Paul what we get is that it has a component oscillating at the incident frequencies so that's the electric field that were putting in and that's why we care about that frequency that's the really line and then we also see 2 components that have to do with you know that incident frequency plus or minus 2 times the rotation frequencies so that's how we get that higher we have really middle and then all those little spikes for the individual rotational transitions on either side of it and those only at if Delta Al-Thawra the difference between polarize ability when the molecules parallel versus perpendicular doesn't equals 0 and so here's that picture again showing up where these frequencies fallout so that's how we know where they are and we know what they look like we know why the selection rules on the way they are we're going to talk about the selection rules of how this relates to symmetry in more detail later after we go through vibrational but I think for now we are going to move on to vibrational spectroscopy and talk about the basics of that same body having questions about rotational Rahman and the difference between that and absorption of occasional spectroscopy but they will talk about the next level up in this diagram a basis so far we've looking at these tiny little rotational transitions that don't take very much energy and that you know honestly not all that useful for for telling us about properties of molecule that we care about is chemists let's move on to saying OK now we have more energy to put in were looking at infrared and we can excitement racial transition this tankers spectroscopy is fantastically useful people use at all time in chemistry to to characterize all kinds of things will talk about something specific applications so now we're in the IRA region of the spectrum were excited vibrational transitions and I should mention that you know we will talk about absorption spectroscopy and Roman when people just say Roman spectroscopy and they don't specify what kind it is they're talking about vibrational Rahman as we just saw the occasional Rahman exists to but irrational rumors much more commonly used OK so I want to talk about the selection rules 1st because I think it's pretty intuitive and then organ and move on to going through all the details about what you actually do with this so I vibrational mode of a molecule is active that means we conceded it's actually changing the dipole moment Malta so Water obviously has a dipole moment but what's important for being able to see these other modes In whether the motion of the molecule actually changes the problem so if we have a moral water molecule you know we have the the oxygen to hydrogen is those bonds can stretch and they can do that symmetric way like they can move together in face with each other and that obviously changes that I couldn't write like those bonds are getting longer things are spreading out they can also do it an asymmetric like this and that changes the Bible moment too and you can also have the bending and so so we can seem pretty intuitively that all of these motions are going to be IRA active and change the the Bible incidentally here's where they show up in wave numbers what we're going to learn how to do is use group theory operations to figure out which vibrational modes are infrared and Raman active because in the case of water you can do the little library vibrating water molecule dance and figure out which ones are going to change the local moment it's not always very obvious particularly if intellectuals at all complex yeah so how do we know if something producers of vibrational Rahman spectrum there the vibrational mode is going to be Roman active if it changes the electric cords ability and we just learned with Betis so C O 2 doesn't have a dipole moment but if we think about it's polarize ability the size of its electron clouds if we have a mode where the 2 oxygen is our stretching that's going to lengthen the the overall molecule so now we are getting the case where the bond length is changing right because reflecting the vibrations the overall molecules lengthening and shortening as it vibrates and that is going to change the shape of electron clouds so the plausibility changes molecules on that you can also imagine modes that are really going change the plausibility ability so for example if this thing goes in an asymmetric fashion but still look the same like so not not active so now looks so we're not going to analyze these in any great detail but let's just look at the vibrational modes of XXX so question and my objective here is to convince you that 4 molecules that are simpler than something like water and to you don't actually want to trade visualize all the possible vibrational modes and decide whether they change the dipole moment and war the polarize ability so we need a better way to do this on any user group theory so remember I said when we
talked about bonding and were were doing you know something that looks like the hottest thing in the world to get answers that we already know that was like martial arts practice so you won't be able to to do this over and over again in a situation where it doesn't matter so that when you get to the problems were it's not obvious you can do it automatically so here's what we're actually use this for work were we need to be answered our rates so when we're talking about molecular motion can we wanna use group theory to describe it Our basis is now a little x y and z coordinate system on each why so we're talking about 1 thing we set up a basis so that the objects were looking at how the symmetry of the bonds will now what we care about is how those Adams in the molecule or moving relative to each other and so work were interested in looking at the year the spatial coordinates of each other so that's how we set up this basis so we have all Little x y and z unit vectors on each item and so you can see what's coming if I set up the transformation matrices for all these things I'm going to get Huge matrices because we have 9 elements in our basis for water so I'm not actually going to do that you can do if you want it works fine but what I'm gonna do instead is used the shortcut where we look at what changes and what doesn't change so remember if we have something we we do a particular operation if we have something it doesn't change it contributes plus 1 to the character of the operation if it changes signed it contributes minus 1 and if it switches places with another element in the basis we get 0 so that's what India then again you can write down the line by 9 matrices if you want to but enjoy that OK so down here in the bottom we have where are the representation of the water and pointed to water and we're going to look at what character we get under all these operations so if we do the identity obviously nothing changes said that 9 for the character now what you see to workstation so remember the the way defined as the screen is the XT plane so X and wire changing signs Aziz stays the same so what do I mean by X to Y Tu Lindsey to those are for the oxygen atom so the red hydrogen is 1 of the oxygen is too and the blue hydrogen history so the little unit actors in the middle change science and all the arrows on 1 in 3 the hydrogen atoms it's what so they contribute 0 and so I'm going to add up all those Will actors so we get to the contributing minus 1 because they change sign 1 of them contributing 1 because it stays the same and then a bunch of zeros and that all adds up to minus 1 when you think anybody have any questions about that yes sure because were we said that if something switches into another element of the set it contributes 0 so each irritation by accident in the middle the hydrogen is on the side of the swap around so the oxygen that was here is the Ursina hydrogen it was here is now over there and so it is the view of the real well but it's not remember we have a different access system to find any Chatham because that's the basis so the XO the exits over here was the X for hydrogen 1 and exit overhears the expert hydrogen to any change places so they get 0 where is the 1 in the middle just flipped around and so change sign it stayed in the same place and change sigh as opposed to swapping places so we are going to spend some time on the screen and we're going to go over it in more detail next time I think I'm going to stop here just because I want to be a little listen time and think about this but we still have 4 minutes I have smaller something decisive don't have to run away immediately but I want to point out that I have posted a bunch of practice problems Cyprus and some problems having to do with direct rotation because some people ask for some extra practice with that there's also a tutorial that I found out you sort of explaining a little bit more about how to deal with quotations but I am going to have Thursday office hours they're going to be 33 13 so it's it's not possible to make everybody happy as far as the timing but I'm at least trying to salvage it between 2 classes so maybe you can just come for the 1st half at or last half hour office hours have been really great so you know those who who haven't made it I encourage you to show up we had good discussions on a lot of people come I think that you know it's fun for me I think people are getting something out of it I that's about it and I will see you next time
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Enhancer
Chemische Forschung
Bioverfügbarkeit
Dipol <1,3->
Chemische Forschung
Stereospezifische Reaktion
Orbital
Vitalismus
Hyperpolarisierung
Operon
Sis
Schwingungsspektroskopie
Mühle
Hydrierung
Wasserstand
Molekülbibliothek
Trennverfahren
Magma
Laminit
Chemische Eigenschaft
Pharmazie
Spektralanalyse
Quantenchemie
Hydroxybuttersäure <gamma->
Sauerstoffverbindungen
Dipol <1,3->
Krankengeschichte
Metallmatrix-Verbundwerkstoff
Hydrierung
Screening
Metallmatrix-Verbundwerkstoff
Oktanzahl
Mikrowellenspektroskopie
Computeranimation
Blauschimmelkäse
Bewegung
Vektor <Genetik>
Chemische Bindung
Siebmaschine <Verfahrenstechnik>
Operon
Molekül
Bewegung
Chemisches Element
Expressionsvektor
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Atom
Molekül
Sauerstoffverbindungen

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Lecture 07. Rotational Spectroscopy Pt. III.
Serientitel Chem 131B: Molecular Structure & Statistical Mechanics
Teil 07
Anzahl der Teile 26
Autor Martin, Rachel
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Unported:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen und nicht-kommerziellen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/18915
Herausgeber University of California Irvine (UCI)
Erscheinungsjahr 2013
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Chemie
Abstract UCI Chem 131B Molecular Structure & Statistical Mechanics (Winter 2013) Lec 07. Molecular Structure & Statistical Mechanics -- Rotational Spectroscopy -- Part 3. Instructor: Rachel Martin, Ph.D. Description: Principles of quantum mechanics with application to the elements of atomic structure and energy levels, diatomic molecular spectroscopy and structure determination, and chemical bonding in simple molecules. Index of Topics: 0:00:10 Why is the Sky Blue? 0:13:11 Why is Water Blue? 0:20:47 Raman Spectroscopy 0:25:40 Polarizability 0:28:28 Rotational Raman Spectroscopy 0:38:55 IR and Raman Active Modes 0:40:42 Molecular Motion

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