Solubility of carbon in non-cubic ferrite

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Solubility of carbon in non-cubic ferrite
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Non-cubic ferrite: APMS conference
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A lecture given by Dong-Woo Suh, at the Adventures in the Physical Metallurgy of Steels (APMS) conference held in Cambridge University. Explains how the fact that the bainitic ferrite unit cell does not have cubic symmetry explains the reluctance of the carbon to partition into austenite. Some remarkable discoveries have been made recently regarding the thermodynamic stability of carbon in ferrite, whose unit cell does not have cubic symmetry, but rather, is tetragonal. A combination of ab initio and phase stability calculations indicate that the change in symmetry leads to a dramatically modified phase diagram for the Fe-C system. The implications of this to both academic phenomena such as the reluctance of carbon to partition from ferrite into austenite, and to products of technological importance (such as the quench and partitioning process) are described.
Keywords Bhadeshia, Harshad Kumar Dharamshi Hansraj
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look that it you the top of the group through the thank the it was the 1st of the day the around the next president of the EU is professor I don't if you from merger hefty profit other the topic it is not cubic so my
presentation title is this a little carbon
Montjuic far-right and most of most of the work
was done by my former PhD students chairman John who is now working in
post-Cold and also the Harry in here and most of you that no 1 know that that that the crystal structure of the varieties borders into the QB but in some of a condition the crystal of the structure of the far-right can have none should be city creatures coming from the intrinsic nature all the displaced transformation toward the idealistic stretching all the letters I
to Cadillac talk about them quite interesting consequences all of nucleus to in the far right that he's still the changing of the ability of the carbon in the right starting from starting with all our basic understanding all the behavior of copper in iron and I'd
like to show to an example where the tenant to still the fair effective ArcelorMittal salute of the carbon in their right which
include real we the Austinite decent type get all things are starting from Wheaties short man from Harry he said
that the cement around 1 years ago Was he asked me why I got best meet that why I keep all the e-mail that I received at that time I did not say anything to him but now I think he can
understand the reason I hate he wrote to me dead there was excessive carbon in the independent of far-right reach these militant to be partitioned into the exist polls tonight and he suggest seeing what happens we beat the far-right has been introduced
I'm saying something about the and interest of the far right it will be good to start with the the the the behavior of the
carbon and I and all of you may know Christos patrolled the far right in most
tonight in this life I drooled at 2 I minister in the same scared but in real life having actually the the
far-rightist is smaller than the Austin and you know that carbon usually occupied of pages cited in bull's-eye that and the size of a society is smaller than the 1 that continent of the problems in both cases and when you put the carbon into the far right or Austinite you will not
distort lettuce and more work the size of the of the head deciding fell right is much smaller in compared to that in the Austinite sold but the leader of a smaller solidity ability solely to cover new far right then the
Austinite this kind of difference of the salute of Koblenz between the right and most tonight will cost the movement of carbon when the
their white forms from the US tonight when the far-right forms in the request of 2 men during the transformation the concentration of carbon and far-right is given by the
solubility so it's a little In Paris diagram but when the far-right forms in this
place and during the transformation at 1st the ,comma supersaturated play them of their right platforms forms and
then added a transformation that cover start partition into the others but this most
and without any like element which prevent them the Symantec precipitation then so intent with prospective wrong and that this tonight In 1981 Harry and his co-worker reported quite interesting rigid on the distribution of
carbon in the lawyers and this loss was he tweeted for
10 hours at 300 feet to the
researchers and this indicate the distribution of carbon and this a red line is nominal completion of the lawyer so when you look at there the :colon completion Lord in this moment out of competition that you can see that
you can consider them the reasonable which common concentration lower than this nominal
concentration is being the right and the region of each color concentration is higher
than the situation is the US tonight when you look at it the carbon concentration in Vanity Fair writer is quite interesting to see that there concentration in Vanity Fair writer is quite large compared to the sole ability to
limit of carbon in the far right
when you look at it when we calculate monthly the diffusion distance of the carbon at these temperatures at 10 hours the division distance of covenants which to 18 micrometres amused at 4 carbon impact carbon has sufficient time to if you shot from the of their right into the wisest Austinite so it is
clear that the carbon excessive carbon in the it fell right is reluctant to be partitioned into the just Austinite Even Though it had this weird
behavior of carbon has been thought to be attributed to the presence of the dislocation which is introduced to the beam fell right by the accommodation of the
ship information which is made up intriguing nature of the displaced transformation is you know the cover not only are likely to into the dislocation
so a high density of the dislocation may be good reasons for their right to have excessive carbon which is larger than the soul of gloomy
but recently on the better analysis tool allows us to analyze the :colon concentration in the Benedict
Ferro right out which has not contained any dislocation or defector structures this all data was
adapted from the report of paper of the Francesca here and his whole co-workers and if you see the common concentration on invaded the writing using the exotic technique which means that the being at the right ever receiving fair was concentration :colon concentration and bring it to the right and this lines indicate a black doctor indicated the common concentration in the brain region
which does not contain the dislocation what the defect structures when you compare this to
single and blessing you can see there it says cut down there the reason for cover and to stay in the Benedict right is the
major reason maybe the presence of the dislocation but when you compare this Arkansas
covering concentration which is
coming concentration in Benedict right free from the dislocation window come on consent of the soul but have ability limit of the carbon it it's still higher then there's a limit to limit the cup so even tho we can I say that the presence of this location may be the major reason for the being far-right to have excessive
carbon but there was too another reason so To understand why
there is excessive carbon in Vanity Fair writer where which is
free from the dislocation we would like to focus on the nun Cubist here here I the
new cell of the far-right and Austinite in this case I I put the position of the carbon in
al-Qaida site as you know there is a 1 of the hideous site for 1 I am not Tony and Austinite but there was 3 of the into site for when I am at home in the in is that even the we
fully you of them but had decided last nite in which
carbon than when it transformed into the right one-third of all the old the site will be filled with the cop and 1 of the interesting thing is when we put the carbon in the other side the site of the Austinite it will stretch fell apart
directories as a tropical but when you look at it the come on in site in fell right the Altai
oversight in far-right can be classified into 3 some said which is depending on the the stretch and direction of the Cup which are due to the presence of copper was ample when you put the carbon in these position it we stretch the lettuce along extradition
and when you consider the inheritance of carbon from
Austinite into the far right there you will have to consider that all of the problems in the Austinite is inherited into 1 of 3 Somerset popped up the excitement and far-right depending on the direction of the famed information it is
clear when you look at these 3 cases of debatable nations which converts excesses structure into the PCC structure
into the prestigious structure of the main construction version is due here and X here and why here and here the pollution acts is the addition of the carbon and the other had recited in the Austin so you can see that the presence of the carbon and up to the site in any case make the contraction difficult which convert that a structure
into the process's structure so the presence of the carbon
Wu make the fate of a native of the city lettuce which means that after 1 of there then the Truby so it is clear from
the previous slide at the this transformation will necessarily lead to the bodies center tattoo on her right and recently Assamese and his co-workers
experimented confirmed that there is a pattern when nobody in
the Benedict right with the presence of the crop then
how the total 1 of the far right I have an influence on
the partitioning of the column from the need their writing to tonight can guests and
structural change in the the right with changes the size of interstitial sites and that change in that changed but the change of the interstices site which changed the
dissolution energy of the carbon into the far right which also affect the sole so
on the possibility of the structure change effected the structure change on the salute the couple we did some calculations using
the 1st Prince particularly up press this book approaches here we
used to buy to suppressor of the far-right and we put
1 carbon atom in the other decide what head-to-head recite I in this case the concentration of carbon is around 1 . 3 of a per cent and for the 1st with
calculation we used
FLA POW Missing which is 1 of the standout software for the 1st principle calculations this
the and have a change which is
associated with the formation of the iron covers only solution which is Leffler
as dissolute of solution energy of the crop here this is the case about either side is this is the case of the head-to-head aside when you just put the carbon in the upper hand the site toward to the site in unrest the condition the solution energy of the text the site is lower than the old had the side this is because the initial size all are interstitial in
typewriters aside is larger than that in the of the
site but way the progress of the legislation the common in al-Qaida's will push but I had to go into 2 main
factions but the carbon atoms in the pattern the site
should push the covenant in in 4 directions so we this difference eventually in
relax the conditions that dissolution and those of carbon and up behind the site is lower than that in the head-to-head the site which means that of high the society's preferred interstitial site for carbon as the lies we
know and then we calculated the dissolution energy as we changes this year were a racial which means the pedal when melody and this graph indicate the change although
other solution energy and a function of the CEO a a Schaeuble lesion at 1st when increase the seal where ratio which music had a 1 of the the dissolution image of carbon is gradually decreased and which it's minimum value with the optimum Schaeuble racial 1 . 4
7 and went before the increased Catalan it will the dissolution image of the couple will
increase again and for the
optimum seal where racial all the while .period all 7
the dissolution image of the carbon into the far right is decreased by 1 Georgia home or and the
optimum value still racial 1 up 1 . 0 7 matches well with the reported value of the 1 . 0 6 in the 1 .period rebate Percent of carbon the next thing we would like to do is always
the calculated the dissolution energy we would like to calculate the solubility limit of the variety in the tactic of some of the limit of carbon in the pattern of for doing this at 1st we have to
check the Howden solution
images is described in the customer's dynamic database and share this black and red and green rind indicated that a Imola and copies of the solely solution BCC iron and crop hide which is took described in the past 2 ship with the balance a database with this we can
calculate the dissolution image of the carbon and we found that the dissolution and those of carbon
is quite insensitive to the temperature so we do this we modified the description of solar solution of the problem and iron 2 decrees that solution energy of the carbon
I want to support more and
with this under the 5 database we recalculated the His
diagram which is you give up which described equilibrium between the
far right and the US tonight and this indicates that when you look at the solubility limit of the cover then when the far-right has an interesting mission is detectable melodies that the sole ability although carbon
into the far right greatly increased it means that it will we admit that there is the presence of dislocation and played a major war in in excess carbon invented the right but we Ken think there is some contribution from the structural change of the
of their right on the solidity limit of the common when the I'd like to mention at this point is that the influence the common concentration on the
suitable areas that had tonality this it is reported that of these is
reported by Honda In his
on the effect of the color concentration on the on the silvery variation they reported that there are still areas show it is close to 1 when the column concentration is less than 0 . 2 weight per cent this is because I'll win weekenders that look steer the general ordering
temperature is lower than the NS temperatures so as soon as the Martin site form than the carbon in origin equation will hope to them another interstitial side which destroyed the tactile military so but I think that similar it's very similar to the beneath the right and I think that it may be difficult to measure the effect of
the Catalan Benedict right in low-carbon steel that's why
most of the report which indicate the sluggish
partitioning with carbon into the offices 9 I was handed the high-carbon steel which common concentration is close to
1 Percent I'd like to briefly mention about the title another team which is coming from but the defamation defamation you may know that
the tale Club is 1 of the strongest in much Stone instrument strongest a that currently the stress level all the Pericles is increased to 6 year passed at this condition and elastic
strain which at 2 3 3 per cent which is quite higher compared to the Commissioner States 1 interesting thing is that took to obtain the highest ranks of people who used to use that will come with the city of plastic the
formation and during the US depressed declamation the
cement pipe initially used
in the Microsoft and gradually gradually Europe into and out of this the far-right and eventually the concentration of rights is far larger than the Sullivan Ltd we can consider the similar
situation and when we do when you default the letters letters licked last year I lost history left sorry the similarity those come on the US so retail ,comma real increase similar to the previous case so in this case
a weekend we calculate phase diagram which is that
which described the equilibrium of the far-right Anderson and tight and you can see that in even in this case the sole little carbon and variety is increased and when you look
at that the case alluded to need of a carbon in the far right in
low-temperature region he conceded that soul filament carbon increased by 100 times compared to the actually fell right Of course even in this case a week
we have to say that the major world of excessive covenant that right is coming from the presence of dislocation but we I have to say that there is some of contributions from the structure change of the right recently not to lie and his
co-workers doing similar work using the 1st press the calculation and reported very similar rigid to us and this is a summary of my work and I would like to my world with Swanson thank you for
your attention few
the German professor of notes of question minister of little things and I just want 1 gave the questions that you talking vote that these figures are attractive enough this objective and
linking any on what I know how fit a be determined only if it is not having got so we can have it's quite interesting and important part questions so for the full keeping tonality essentially the presence of companies necessary but when you pull down the sample and have been tapped on have the ability far-right define Michaels Stores Europe's debt affair white wheat crop so there no detectable and I initially to the winner-take-all was coming from the presence of carbon then when the delay the structural far-right headed tonality then there I think that the problem the becomes To be reluctant to be partitioned into them but this is the most tonight so it would be better when not if we can make devoted to 1 of the items carbon and then put the company into the author right in the soldiers he's really increase but I think that will be quite challenging so
talking of the thing and I think people know among Christian it's holding
the crew Pugh persists for the Martin said it's the same situation yet when you consider the champion
most of the report on the stampede hand copper so
in decades and I think that the Catalan and he will be destroyed by the hoping that the carbon to step in the transformation because as I mentioned the MS temperature is higher than the general ordered temperature so our
unless you use the high
Court to intervene in the of says I been difficult told jurors that the kind of profitability vary so this is
very interesting when arrested two-part question where the two-part soccer-related that so I could you get the same interaction energies from internal friction data as the 1st part because it seems intuitively satisfying work here what's so it can you get the interaction energies from From internal friction the area as
well as winter schedule between which took effect internal friction and so that was the 1st question that the 2nd question is I have to do think we're getting Carbide dissolution in contact the ball bearings and as and where there are there any implications about that you might have thought about it yet stock for only the 2nd
woman and I think that it would be possible went on to explain the public dissolution
of the very high :colon barrister with this kind of thing because of when you consider the stress level which it is applied to the very severely refused so it is possible there is some analysts stylistic stretching the to future development of the apply stress during the service is the idea having to it is possible and so to the 4th question is the
1st the so the internal friction measurement in interstitial migration and there reversed the last strain said the firm interstitial atoms jump interviewed inside so can you get interactions energies from that that you would compare with her experimental results was also
experimenting reserved I was taken I was taken from the literature so this is a period that the cake creating wealth
please contact me and about the difference between the camps of
problems in I think it comes from the knowledge that that arise from Thomas found their way to calculate the
1st visit calculation still there right there is regarded fell out of the 2 that towns in the wake of the and
president direction and the rights of women England they insisted on this 1 the axis of the procedure
all well I had a lot of this political problem
to me and I had no idea of France to guidelines about the mother petitioned the the thing I have to say I have the whole thing I'd say is that we conceded
that the compartment is most of the 60 when you calculate the 1st this proposed on
understand that you basically our maker estimation of his suitability based on the change induced by the terminology right correct so
in that sense you can't go far reduced the effect or the importance of entropic effects yes deal I should
be awarded about entropic effects lilac so in terms of entropy we just used the
entropy of the the you far-right and is covered so there is a possibility that the attempt on the far right will affect Peter the next voted it's known that sort ability depend on the size of forming it is and so that there may be
a value greater than that and I agree with you you
have nanoparticles Foreman grade during this brought the total could take account the where do the
party could when I mention is that the atoll in this sector and in this research so I think that I not that I think about good a if going
through small than data may be greater than the agreed but not that greater than bye 10
times a hundred times but it is good
that we a question from yeah you say if I follow well for low-carbon Benny deep all follow low-carbon the nite that some of the deal of Koblenz is close to the northern value but even higher cupboard day-night is the 1 who promotes this means that fall high-carbon being the formation can be defused less because of the celebrate the but what about the mechanism all companies feel that this isn't this calculation is nothing has nothing to do with the formation mechanism on the panic basically we should instead this
place transformation of all the bad because that's with the disposal transformative a the the far-right can have detectable melody so the partitioning itself is nothing to do with the color the transformation we can
because it is after the event the thinks that this is really give presentation but my question is that it is your offer prime Martin site
well hopes with that at this moment that I think that it is meaningless To say that he's the mountainside 9 because this is just the ferret with Petronella today and with the company and year at
that time all but questions about it
so can an g'joob compared the elastic properties in the pubic far-right and veteran then I think that is quite interesting program so I I have asked my students who complete that and he didn't like I think we have to make a stop and the lets the final speaker and because
itself will have have food
I think we're going to have if there are fewer than fact Harry will have been