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Superbainite - Laboratory Concept to Commercial Product

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Superbainite - Laboratory Concept to Commercial Product
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Mass production of fine bainite: APMS conference
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A lecture given by Andrew Rose at the Adventures in the Physical Metallurgy of Steels (APMS) conference held in Cambridge University. The talk describes the pioneering technology for the mass production of the world's first bulk nanostructured metal, the so-called superbainite that consists of slender platelets of bainitic ferrite separated by thinner films of retained austenite. Tata Steel have undertaken work to demonstrate the feasibility of superbainite for application as armour steel. The challenge was to adapt the composition to the demands of a tonnage production route, while still attaining the property advantages of superbainite. The Tata production route involves oxygen steelmaking, continuous casting and hot strip rolling, followed by downstream processing to a final form as armour plate. Each of these stages presents challenges to the production of high-strength steels. Tata Steel Research have reviewed the requirements for production of superbainite, and undertaken experimental work, including optical and electron metallography, studies of transformation behaviour, and mechanical testing, to justify the final choice of production parameters. As a result a composition and process route have been formulated which enable production of commercial casts of superbainite without danger to the process. Further development work has supported the downstream processing steps culminating in heat treatment of the material, and enabled the optimisation of the parameters involved. Metallurgical examination and testing have confirmed that this processing gives the superbainite microstructure with the expected properties. Ballistic testing has shown that superbainite armour is comparable with other armour steels competing in the same area.
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you could you know a the fact thing that year you do you go to In the end the the end of the year Our next they go of and rose from a path it's going about but the Bobina yes
I thank you must begin by thanking Harry and the organizing committee for of all are accepting what proposal
for a paper here and allowing me to prevent this paper which is on tosses steals work to move soon by nite from laboratory concepts to commercial products and so there will there also will therefore be some obvious comparisons between what I'm going to say and the presentation
by gift given by Dr. Garcia Mascio yesterday on the same buying propped on the planet projects I'm going to begin with
why on a quick note on some definitions because I'm going to be using the word suburbanites into distinct sense is 1st of all 1 that many of us are familiar with sued nite is a
steel structure which can be developed under certain circumstances having very high strength and hardness and secondly and it's also also the term we
use to refer to the toss a grade of strip steel which has
been developed over the last few years which is able to be treated to get this structure however we sometimes refer to it as simply by noisy when it doesn't have that but as we all know it was originally developed at Cambridge University in the
1990's in Harry's so the beginning with the basics of
suburbanites metallurgy this is I II acidity diagram which
is a diagrams how it is used to 2 describes the effective calling rates only transformation behavior of different types of steel and this and for the Super by nite treatment will we is a treatment
profile like this where the steel is cooled quickly from Austin temperature To low temperature and then given alone or thermal transformation treatment during which the Superbike
United structure is formed and it's a very light has a high silicon level from which gives the thermodynamic effects of suppressing goblets suppression in the suit by not structure 2 other things that we can we can note from this but diagram before
we move on all that there is a hard ability requirements if you want to produce the seed a nite structure it in a thick sections but there has to be sufficient hard ability to get the whole of the sect that knows before but before
collect begins to fall and the the last thing that can be noted from this diagram is that's you also have the option of applying a slow
cooling right to the steel and so would you can still end up with a 40 politics structure which will be relatively soft informal subsequently that can then be that that structure can
then be created to produce the super bailout so what is the 2nd bailout structure looked like well domestically it looks like this a very fine Carbide free fair laughs with pockets and films of retained Austin lights in the in between them which have increased carbon level the carbon having been rejected from the from the far-right lost the forms and that's not formed Carbide's because of the effect of silicon the well-known electron
micrograph showing the structure
shows these features In the
structure of right lofts with retained oscillation between says with it is a type of
steel which has very high carbon content plus other rattling elements present and a very fine structure which leads us to expect that it will have a very high strength and hardness and the claims made for the
surveillance structure is that it can give about 2 points to Budapest schools or more UCS and in a
3 D structure that is it's not capable of being
formed in a piece of steel which is both whites and 6 such a feat of the 3 structure it was all very well having wonder material but you've got have a use for it and you got to be able to make it the properties Cave simple banalise that led to the proposal that they could be used as as alarmist steel bonds this this also coincided at the same time with a desire by Tartus Port Portal works to move into higher-value steals which would certainly include almost steals and also by a desire by the UK Ministry of Defence to develop an onshore supply from a steals Tata Steel in coming surveillance is therefore was therefore considered to be suitable for all
plates and we need "quotation mark prove it's a quote from more
Drayson on the Moody's need for onshore manufacturing capability from deals the sort of
application that walls
it was envisaged for suburbanites was asked me as a people which debuted described earlier this morning that is additional sheets of all on the bolted onto the outside all vehicle giving additional protection to the to the sooner the vehicle and which can be replaced quickly in the event of battle damage so the venture for Tata Steel the just to find out whether a civil basic steel could be made In the relatively thin sheet form throw a ball steelmaking root ball steelmaking and hot script rolling routes to give it to you to give Sheikh Salameh of sufficient flatness to be proved to be used in this sort of the development activities undertaken in In Tata Steel can be described like this 1 as early stage there
was a there there was a pilot scale plant made in Normanton heavy .period planted County technology center that say that's a cost that was about 6 tons size which was cast as as an ingots and and that's always it's large enough for processing from commercial mail through commercial
mills you can't put a very small experimental steals through a commercial mill they drop between gaps a roller tables and get lost in other ways and so you have to have happened have to have a full size cost him do that this costs enable that to be done and it demonstrated that commercial-scale production was feasible the could be rolled to narrow slab and into narrow strips
and this case gave confidence that such a steel could be processed through a commercial and that's it he would
have the properties required of enormous it was also a considerable amount of work done at Tulsa Swindon technology Center where where
I work investigating the effects of possible variations in the in the composition of the suit by nights welcomes the reasons for those shortly but but that's that looked at the those possible variations to it's
and and validated that's the that's the suburbanites structural properties could still be obtained under those conditions variations in compositions and also characterizing the property to
make sure those could still be achieved and finally there
was a considerable amount of meddling work done within the torture only only
different steps of the year a process through which we're expecting to follow to validate that that still could indeed be successfully processed through that route so that was the process
but we were envisaging walls on oxygen steelmaking roots and this
is where Oscar would have had considerable about advantage over
Port Talbot in the amount of their ability to put a large amount following elements In in both steelmaking yellowing editions are only made off to steel making the additions of a logic of a large amount large amounts of rolling elements and have a big effect on temperature control in the steel next it will be
cost as wide slab on this brings in considerations of the risks of breakout segregation and cracking
up the Israelite boasts of the amounts bellowing element present in present in the steel and the condition of the costs of breakout obviously undesirable but segregation segregation would damage the unity the material metallurgical and cracking on a large scale would also make it make it unusable so we had to be confident that we could continuously cast it in this former government without without incurring these problems next hot strip rolling but when you put a
strain steel threw a rock through the rolling mill even tho it's hoped that the mill still has to be strong enough to handle it but both
to approach runways and to coil it's so we needed to be confident that this too could be done that would lead to production is white coating and then for
downstream processing to armor plates we would have to be Coyle a material cut its
length and giving further problems in dealing with strong materials laser
profiling cussing cussing the
steel into into smaller pieces of fall further for further processing and armor which was expected to be down borrowing by by laser cussing perforation and heat treatment which in the final
steps in informing the other products which I will talk about at the end of the and of
course when we had to consider the overall cost and feasibility of this route that's knows about the the
hot strip rolling roots but in hot strip rolling steel is rolled through through a
sequential rolling mill like this cool on the run out stable and then corralled
this and according step therefore gives a very slow condemning
step at the end and so on and so we naturally have within the hot strip routes the ability the
ability to cool steel cooked slowly slowly slowly from the US nite temperature and to give the steel in the political but which would be relatively amenable to fill performing before he treatment to form the surveillance meddling of the of the hot strip rolling route can govern was
done in tosses on amount Technology Center but they have a rolling model called Tyson and this could be used to predict the temperature profile that would be followed by different parts of the slab of moving through the rolling mill but a very surprising
profile I suppose some but you can see from the points where they steal loses the temperature when it's actually within the strandings and to the Roman foresees requires
Minnesota be predicted by this model of the model has to be
calibrated by using hot workability data gained from
cable testing and that then when applying the model they validated that the host the portal told was hot
strip mill would be capable of rolling suburbanites to 2 minutes into the required gages so the commercial compositions that were eventually made were made to the
specification and this is the published commercial speck of tortoises they not steal some points we can pick out from bats silicon we know is necessary in single by
nightfall all force suppression of the formation of cowboys but this is a lower level than was recommended by the boy the
original work because of the downward pressure that we were under to keep the steel composition as low as lean as a brought tension to the phosphorus
level although that's definitely Nelson element that we want the number phosphorus is it is is well known as being an element which promotes segregation in steel and so we need to keep it to a minimum and chromium and molybdenum levels are on necessary to give
sufficient hard ability within the steel are originally we were we were hoping that we might be able to dispense with the late molybdenum as well but we were also hoping we're also envisaging initially you lapse that the cooling off Superbike tonight from the Austinite temperature to the on thermal treatment temperature would be done by forced air cooling and it's in the license that's the whole ability provided by molybdenum was found to be necessary molybdenum
also has the additional advantage in that is known to reduce the deleterious effects of was within the state also was a good thing for that reason commercial
cost portal was have been examined acts as swing Technology Center In the Astros formed as we expect we get a political structure and when he
treated we gets a simple basic structure shown their optically but also by
a scanning electron microscope we get of this type of structure with a very fine structure with a blocky phase in this in this way the blocky phase was initially thought to be retained noise however you can
see from this that there is a fine structure within its winning when this was examined by a the
study we found that those blocking phrases were indeed not all retained Austinite the work see this as yourself block here is largely of Austin with only some virulent within its and it's examination by the BST showed that the current wasn't was in the form of very following
packets within that within those areas the potential the
segregation during costing wasn't would also been a concern for us when we looked to be a hot rolled coil we found banded structure like this which initially causes a lot of
concern would lose white bands Martin cites
examination showed that they were not lost sight they also created regions where the chromium is sufficiently high to it to affect the etching behavior they're not actually Martin examination by
transmission electron microscope showed us on expect moved to you expected that the that's the commit
toss super not was not free of Carbide's the simple but the silicon level was not sufficiently high to to prevent that however
the very fine banal adults we believe all 3 of Carbide's but there are a couple and another possible testing the
mechanical properties of the steel gave the strength levels that were expected
even testing high-strength steels is difficult and this along with many of our holiday
soil tests failed prep failed prematurely because during tensile testing of a high-strength steel was steel is very sensitive to the surface preparation of the material however these tests have shown that they claimants tensile strength can be achieved within this material toughness was
tested by shopping testing and gave what for a plate steel is a very portion of the level of
however it can be noted that the shopping shopping toughness levels are comparable with
Holly Colvin rail steals
no I said earlier on that so we were expecting to be brains further processing the material by laser cussing and so the effect of battle material was also of interest and when we looked sets the
problem laser cutting of the material we found that as
you might expect this was a layer of Martin sites along the edge of the of the whole world is
reduced and hardness rising to very a very high
level which has some of the practical concerns for us because we were hoping that was hoping and planning that the steel would be able to be home to a limited extent to curb shapes and if the steel had been cut by by laser casting of a modern city kids would make cracking from the edge to edge very likely this is what actually happens and so laser-cut still has to
be has to be either dressed all he treated to remove them offices at liar but before it can be successfully then but it also said earlier that that we
were hoping to be able to carry out the treatment using force Did handling from the Bundy also at temperatures formally to the owners of thermal treatment temperature we tried to do that on a large sheet of steel and ended up with a piece of
steel the shape 11 so we so we have pursued that routinely further and he
treatment is being carried out using a cell wall treatments although smaller
and pieces of steel from which can be tightly clamped In into a basket in this sort of arrangements parents and he
treated in I of treatment furnace and I have to mention here the contribution of EDI treatments in Birmingham for their contribution to the to the Heat Treatment work that's being carried out solely on the Saddleback treatments of process works like this
furnished which is that shaped lost modernizations owner of 1 ends up on purge zone between found treatment chamber with a sole both within its the basket of steel what just shown in these costs initially to the boss nationalization then through the sold and then announced
that way temperature of assault boss treatment can be
changed and so you have the possibility of of all us getting a range of different properties properties within the steel and by using different treatment temperatures
the use of high temperatures lead as you would expect to forming a softer structure while the votes but
take that but that structure taking less time to form
the I think that the weather was a question yesterday about the effects of but manganese only on the on the formation of the surveillance structure our work has indeed showing that the manganese level can have a significant effect on the rate at which the Seabay nite structure is formed in this process so we can announce to the to the almost deal products
shown here this is an actual piece of suburbanites hands off truly exciting metallurgy that's gone on in it's a debate on the most exciting thing that everybody seems to be able to see about sued by not along with it's got holes
in it Counterintuitively from and blocks the effects of perforation in
is to increase the ballistic efficiency of young boy deflecting bullets reducing the weight of the armor and acting as crack
stoppers there were everyday finished
this slide shows 2 pieces of silver by not to be ballistic tested
monolithic peace without perforations and it ended up in many PCs perforated with several hits units and it's still in 1 piece and so that brings me to
my conclusions sued by not developed the laboratory called
concept investigated in very are .period scale testing put into commercial
production and basics ,comma steals still under development thank you for that I think
eccentric hats have you saw the trade I thought of a trade to do the right thing past hampering treatment in you know hot strip mill while oil forms of energy know because of
surveillance in The Hague treaty condition is not deformable asshole I'm and so if you fall in secret surveillance struck from the oil you'd never build 120 so you
mention it would cost in the facility of this product so in the early part of so I have read and analysis that this is indeed competing with existing llamas or as
a yes lots of yet yes yes and that yes we believe the believe believe that it would be competitive with with existing on that account "quotation mark figures arguing not going on out of the cycle of the home of but and that but yes we do believe that there is a precedent you
know you have to have a lot of thank you wanted was a very interesting to watch are you may also comment on whether you sold into granular fracture when you tensile test no
I don't I don't think we've actually done frontal graffiti on the wall on and on the tensile specimens they did not know more about me and
I have met and began his blocking the areas and using the word according to EBS defacement thing they would not necessarily all Austinite there the size of but last year I was doing some work with with someone from the army and she had to measured the and damn account and using them to expected
their X-rays and then we were doing the same with the BSE we
found consistently was a lot less Austinite is measured using BST analyzes using X-rays your spots as I am I'm not convinced that the EDS is always have readily it's anything CBS
CBS do you always gives a lower retained Austinite fraction Van Exel because the because cannot resolve it very small areas of making use of retirement of Ronald retained Austinite so our Our extra Alex the results were up for a single Snyder off in the 20 percent area where out UBS the results of or In the sort of Philex 10 area factors Alito's
in the Minnesota of the figures yet but it's possible that the baton of light transponder mothers and doing a sense of the parishoners .period in the eye it is
possible I think you I don't the yes that some of some of those market structures of the government of the they had been there a lot of similarities in the 2 2 not on other unrealistic the problem but we that we also believe the transformation said from all over oversight Austinite takes place during ballistic testing on surprisingly and in
here he said did added to get inside the evolution of Amicus teaches that the formation temperature you just so he yeah micrograph without size built the house tonight that I believe he should be responsible of downloaded to the view that due to follow 8 in comparison to Valley now and always it difficult but then I wonder even you bought a fully dressed for duty Steel added that transformation temperatures that beat you didn't supply quite clear didn't rely quite clear 1886
Analyses or that
Ward was there he treatment temperature and time all those Michael of that yourself and those properties inside yourself most of most
most now he treatments have been done at 225 degrees hands we believe that's the transformation is largely complete with the 8 some of this is this is another area where we're under practical constraints in terms of the of the heat please showing that can be carried out by a commercial he bought by commercial creator of thoughts and we believe that's the the treatment is is largely complete within that that's the purpose of the
halt of an event is the top of the unification integrating tuning and did its constant start cult of an event the cobbles again occasion and creating all a stable clinic and costing how to prevent you have become covered the Kocaba? nominated in summer segregation in cracking down is a matter of making sure that the
costing machine is in tip-top alignment conditions of the full accosting is carried out was basically and yes it to control segregation it did during continuous casting the Of the machine has to be has to be as to be in very good condition and and also with the slabs have to be slow cooled somewhat when they're taken off the end of the year of casting machine but 2 to reduce the risk of of of thermal cracking which can In extreme cases can cause a slap to compensate so yes we have
question from the Internet of Davida Hideaki asking Is there preferring the preparation down by the more issues is more process
itself does the heat of factors on presented problem yeah the preparation number thermal probes if With wish preparations sort of preparation no no perforation we we have looked set Laser and Laser Laser cussing stamping hands punching hands of drilling the laser-cut single is a thermal processes and so on but the monograph on our show to the laser but won't Was was the edge of a perforation of the was used in that way and so it causes the sort of problems that I talked about I'm punching and and drilling all of on the protesters thank you
and have