Flash microstructure

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Flash microstructure
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Flash microstructures: APMS conference
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A lecture given by Sundaranam Babu, at the Adventures in the Physical Metallurgy of Steels (APMS) conference held in Cambridge University. The interpretation of bainitic microstructures that develop very rapidly during flash processing. An innovative rapid heat-treating process (flash processing) that uses rapid heating to austenite phase field and quenching has been developed to produce high strength steels. Flash processing lead to tensile strengths greater than 1600 MPa and uniform elongation greater than 7%. In order to rationalise the microstructure evolution, the microstructures before and after processing were characterised. The initial microstructure contained ferrite and spherodised cementite. The final microstructure, after processing, contained a mixture of bainite and martensite with interspersed un-dissolved cementite particles. The above microstructure evolution was evaluated with computational thermodynamic and kinetic models. Interface motion between M3C diffusion couple, subjected to linear heating, supported the above microstructure evolution. The calculations show that the rapid dissolution of M3C in Fe-C system, in contrast to sluggish dissolution in Fe-Cr-C system. Generality of flash processing for wider range of steel systems is explored.
Steel Volkswagen Golf
Hot working Cartridge (firearms) Engine Material
Photography Stationery Clothing sizes Mixing (process engineering)
Sizing Food packaging Clothing sizes
Hull (watercraft) Internal combustion engine Book design
Flight Hot working Scouting
Tin can Steel Mechanic Mechanismus <Maschinendynamik> Scouting Rapid transit Water vapor
Mechanismus <Maschinendynamik> Motorcycle Rapid transit Hose coupling Water vapor Pelzware
Typesetting Cartridge (firearms) Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Last
Scouting Gas compressor
Scouting Workshop Material Model building Hot isostatic pressing
Rapid transit Key (engineering) RRS Discovery Assault rifle
Boat Ship of the line
Steel Cartridge (firearms) Car seat
Zementation <Metallurgie> Kickstand Car seat Diamond
Roll forming Ship of the line
Zementation <Metallurgie> Arbeitszylinder Game Cartridge (firearms) Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit
Gentleman Cartridge (firearms) Ship of the line
Zementation <Metallurgie> Game Steel
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Steel Stock (firearms)
Zementation <Metallurgie> Angle of attack Steel Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit
Reference work Scouting
Stream bed Railroad car Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit
Sizing Book cover Acoustic membrane
Hot working Switcher Firearm
Reference work Cartridge (firearms) Flatcar Material
Pressure vessel Key (engineering)
Hot working Gentleman
Vehicle armour Hovercraft
Pressure vessel
Cardboard (paper product) Laserschwei├čen Laser
Ballpoint pen
Turning Pressure vessel Scouting Car seat
Transmission (mechanics)
Alcohol proof Staple (fastener)
Cartridge (firearms) Water vapor
Game Stock (firearms)
Hot working Continuous track Air compressor
Tuned mass damper Die proof (philately) Spare part
Laundry Laser Ship class Stream bed
Car dealership
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Truck Sizing Hot working
Steel Stationery
Flight Last
thank you for that and on at the top of the food there and you what and the thing and the next speaker is a professional so arrest but will probably need be offered in the U.S. thank you know during the poll about flashlight perspective this but they have no interest in golf Gary Cole and this is the continuation of
that will endure thank you remind and I it's always a pleasure to come back to Cambridge and this is where I started my adventure in steals with Harry so continues on so this adventure right now he's actually inspired by Gary so I should you all the credit Gary and most of the work in this case is done by the students
pursued on Brian Hamilton David Toms and these are
the 3 students in succession out discovered different areas widest left Microsoft awards so I'm going to kind of give you 5 nuggets of
information might 20 minutes it's or OK so traditionally
have been optimizing steel Mike researcher and properties
in different ways Quentin tampering Martin bring you for Martin said in variety a Boston bring you hold a debate on top of the mandate to form and called so
their raised many ways we can go and get a better properties on it's always been somebody comes forward and say all I've got a new way to do it the 1st thing you start out with the risk of this but that's how I started by slowly I was converted so let's see how the conversion process
so some photos splashed microcircuits Ogaden mentioned the need to have understand just going to go through 1st thing we did is to go steel and mental
extents among the characters station so what you see right away use a small Protestant grants isolated on 20
microns or so In addition to that it had somewhat :colon mixed Bennett Mike restrict shareholder Nova from optical is seeing a moment that we didn't
appear more workouts but the most important thing which he figures starting is this kind of blobby Carbide showing up in the air in the structure so this is
really wants the tipping point to sail their wives to be working and this is uniform distribution ,comma state and so that's optical
microscope should and then I am persuaded that other contracts fraction imaging
and then he said that the package is also very fine so that goes back to Professor monkeys group where they showed that by introducing the
package size you can go up and the strength so we said all that could be the 1 more reason why we may be getting better spent properties and this could put a glove flashlight but the question is
is it a nite or in modern site 1 the Scotland's widely seen as Carbide's switches on optical so the next step is to go into I'm looking at that much more depth in the the current microscope and that's what we
did and as so you may notice the next actually is going and looking at the more debt he is you see the snow and ice
classical like being achieves into conceded Harris book also and you receive my subunits forming and immediately saw that OK Bennett my perception there in addition to the
land ones make structure also away from this region so
it was kind of mixed also In addition to that we also sell a a lot of Carbide's and would really
increase the need is this carbonates are very huge if you look at the time of cycle without showing a moment this garbage can never formed during the term of cycle so they should have been already existing and then through the for the ride to the Tamil cycle so they should be undersold Carbide so that's
what we put that in addition to that these garbage enriched and grown so he could never occurred during the flight processing also and also we had
we elected to go and do some of work in process on group and we saw a lot of carbon distribution but I will review also gave that there
is no way we can do at improving each and every regions because it's completely different characters now let's go back to began this month section told Garrett told me about it think the
steel sheet go to heat of
the quickly and then quenched in the water the 1st impression you'd have thought is not should given
100 per cent Martin said should be so that's where my name is usually reaction was but I would assured convinced me that this appreciable amount abducted present the too so what is the
mechanism the publicity went through quite a lot of hope analysts is that unlike restrictions
and came up with this hypothesis so the initial like a section of this but it was the
lowest it's 6 . 2 0 that was awarded in unskilled Gary
worked on it was Microsoft that's 1 that schematically shown this is actually our experiment in Mashhad the motorcycle building graft
processing of go this wasn't easy to get it so we had to use a Jew but I'm a needs so that it doesn't waters immediately hit with them a couple that so we got the stomach cycle so you can see a gentle preheat because there those those sample is reaching the .period right-click it up
they shot over time and then has
really very fast Quinn said initially you have the
kind of spirits ,comma rights and as it gets he out you get DOS endorsement formation and not much time for these car-based in this this is not a new people have are seeing that in the case of green monochrome rich 136 them the solemn announcement you 1 hour so that
quench down toward because of that what happens is the wouldn't last minute before pointing is not only genius income conservation
that's a hypothesis and that's how they explained what microsurgery getting I wish we have an institute follow this we only follow this only temperature we can't do this right now union synchrotron from experiments but that's 1 thing which is thinking how to do
but the most important thing is this a new with this pressure like a section so this is not data and putting it in collection of all the good available on this so-called
banana and you can see that these are the data which showed that produced in his cell phone shop and different samples different materials that some of my and you start wondering why you did this in time
to stand more than the models Mike section and also not new Preservation Press published this already you can see what reflection of Maynard increasing you go
to a little with instant increase of cold beer kind of
transcending the and affect the tensile strength here also but all of this makes my perception is the main reason why we did this in its properties now
the question which we have to understand that it good can we actually designed this April acknowledged that stumbled
onto this discovery can we actually designed said
became manager for this use and assault ,comma so we need to make sure the car-based going to solve any good to have this rapid thermal cycling shot and pulling down that's the key and again this is not a new this is being addressed by many researchers in literature so he said OK let's take that and then see
how we can understand there's also so what we this is really can be done in the intake of iron and the Carbide spherical coordinates would've been out front and heat up and cool down and then you say
that about around this interface you can former Austinite and can grow into boats and so that's what we are doing so we wanted to compare up U.S. cemented with Nordling and with the line edition so that's what we did in assimilation I'll go to the use of vast and explain what the fondness so it's not really a venue for you already can know that he's and what's happening senate
seats and so this is a system had definite while the conditions are using so you can see that I'm not more specific I would like to discuss is that what is this amended concentration of chromium which would used in the case of an Allied Steel
and these carbon concentrations and growing
concentration in the fight all of them were taken from the
political temperature if do an equilibrium like a spirited what would be the concentration that's what are using and then we hit out at 110 100 you know that about 100 using the minimum
so that seats cement that just a few OK so let me
explain is that this is the temperature was this diamond Labrador make scale new heating up quickly This is 1 that is sending a piece of evidence not slow heating but still lets talk about what happens in the stands and this is a cement that year and this is afraid that's the interface so but he never
really embraced slowly as
expected you would not this that cemented with this identified with is well-known if you look at the Paraguana money you can see that it is actually takes a lot more carbon into it so that
cemented actually dissolves in heat of various laws and then asked forms and then growth and
nothing new as expected in a simple line carbon system what
is slow heating that's that's suburban high heating because high heating rates at pending a new
system that cemented the cells and then Austinite starts
from my interfaces noted that a new period until they got a high temperature but winning the 100 meters in the a again I can see the kinetics that's playing a role so the cylinders file slowly but before it can completely dissolve it in the Austin entered the interface and arsenic
starts consuming Watson didn't pass tonight and then you get this guy complete dissolution of cemented and complete asked Everything said that not that big this is what I expected in the case of a simple if 53 C now let's think about what happens in the cemented wages and reached in Crimea which you see up spirit decision tree OK so this is the data the game interface location unilaterally
made here I just really wanted to show that summoned information so it's a lovely and lovingly retirements and this is temperature now you instead not the salad
topped 1 thing is Austinite completely by grows old variety and at the end of this 180 sending a again when you reach this point thousand which is the peak temperature together users said you want really have Boston against and now you can see that what is so this is a well known in the field but allows students that you have a whole lot more than 2 hours before 6 6 missiles in
this case a man died because the chromium diffusion is very sluggish that's why this is this
all but there are some theoretical questions you can ask that will cement their gold massively DOS denied with that conservation justify that with the current theoretical data which we have you believe that cemented with stay as it is
views from enriched at the height now you can go much more debt but it does say this is that we do not line and you can see that Ireland keeps moving as
you're going through the simulation and that's the end of the simulation really considers a more fractional covenants is distance and then that was in the room temperature just saw very little human and won
the use needed 2nd and you also notice that
interestingly is there's a chromium and rich just to this gives and the fundamental problem for us you talk about that in a moment
so this I'm going may actually transform probably from its main nuclear preferentially also there but there's I carbon to so what's going to happen with this and nobody is Austinite
in front of the cement that so what can we do said there is
no way way we have our calculation of the city diagram but this in no Maginnis Austinite so we said OK what can we do we can take a composition of steel at different locations and see calculate the CCT this is a game you can do it again download
this program ,comma amusingly foreign states from Mac review do this calculation so they can see that this is temperature a
time and this is a calculated CCG diagram for this nearly low-carbon Austin for the highway From the cement you cannot do anything that I use that there
is a Benedict temperature this is valid for this calculation we don't have a CCD diagonal of this low-carbon experiment measured because Europe would be
that you will get fair because it quickly transforms its locally so you can see this is
Opalina according to that you should have a mixture of
1 minute in modern said forming even in this town of gamma for because assuming that haven't been completed also but what happens in this highly enriched Austinite sitting right close to the summit that
this is composition and if you we don't have any to template because of the city calculations are valid for
this highly alike conditions so we can only calculate what would be the key 0 temperature and that some 730 that
means that should Prasong readily to a modern side with from so this is the 1 you lose I don't have an experiment to prove
that we had been trying to do a film analysis across this still find the news and reached it's been a pretty hard when
they get there so that's a good thing said what's now you can ask OK so I this theory can be proven stock from the scratch and come up with the new steel using flash so that's what I'm going to
talk with incoming 8 minutes OK so said so the challenge was close
to Gary saying that included those 8 6 veto can can you now that the flash process to get a steel which has quality so we already
have angles number 1 we
need spirit that's do it we understood that and then the standard should be criminally surplus testing would move as the initial Microsoft Redmond again we will check to make sure it is scrutinized among the cement that is androgen growing up that's pretty good too and then we need a
laughter mistake so those are the 3 things that we also need a reference point so used commercially available I can't keep up with what is important you know this is the ,comma levels of similar the 1 differences the
chromium levels of changing so you can see compositions moralists similar to what you get from up now let's see the initial
Microsoft so this is initial like section before the match processing speed and I would like you
do kind of big in little bit you will see this banning nature and the
car beds non-uniform but spirit eyes and this is a hardness Mabry nowadays we do indeed still your working on redundant hand as we actually do on this map see especially in imaginative starting that and you can see there is already
some intelligently in the origin of and this is not 1 Nunavut post is in
conceded I'm not going to talk about this in this lecture we'll feeling OK so decisions vision that's the
good original faction known as the fact that so we know the black processing consistently you see this guy writes there will be
financed membranes size makes my constituent sign at 1608 was like a really interesting investigated 2 different scales the Mike sexual similar and then we did I miss map and then we see that the cover distributions and
friend but of course this is mainly comes because of inherent
segregation which we had originally and that also leads to an honest and I would like to
point out that you the pilots the different the minimum harness here is fine when the company's 6 in
the previous 1 was very soft OK we just proved
that flash my perceptual works we can get the flat the question
is do they get good mechanical with ballistic so this is considered this data arm that Brown had all
these reasons for going out he went to the crew of critical
analysis of everything we did the same the testing conditions similar geometry high Hodson damage fall flat references so the damaging effect of completely eliminated and then we also did quite a lot of
on mapping and then everything
this show that that the properties of the flash was a little better than I have material that's encouraging so let he or will the cases we have to take its hands so I want you to keep that in
your mind when you see the ballistic tests what happened the ballistic testing I cannot give you the details of the rounds used in everything I think you're interested propaganda about the that and this is the original plate you can see the
90 segregation there and this is from the flash process and then the high mismatch so there you can see that this hard year Wilbert stopped there and that's what before impact and then operating badly considers that the bullet
stopped and he can see a crack prominent bifurcation here and then it is a new and interesting we still don't understand that there's a new Montezemolo hardening going on across the whole
sample the state but the key point agenda members within the crime how deflected and stopped the bullets and this
very good the sense of feeling that adventuresome works it can you a ballistic property but just going through the flesh pressing so he could engineer
the properties by going through step by step by step so I was good now Of course challenge adventure
continues on so he said all that flat this 1 than this said would indeed structure that means they
will demand the key question that is asked again is open to black blasting is possible to make construction like the and you man madam listings
all over this craft process you show that it can you other than it may be a good idea to do that so that led to Bryant's old masters and then he
actually did a lot of other energy analysis on that said and did you see in results of that kind
let's talk about what happened West minute UBS Medlock and this is definitely not rolling
process repeatedly used the word you can actually do not that this is a standard practice given for any armor plates this is a standard of overwhelming wanted continuity in use and then use that particular filler metal memory but fundamental
this is the heat of the bids on here and you can see it is not very hard soft and also creates a huge hit the
exact and then if you a team and should and that interview heat dead on knowing 1 the
bullet was right so that means hid evidence on is the most weeks .period but yes it is
22 mm then that challenged balancing that
why you reduce the amount of heat affected can you do that so
that's the time around 2010 or so we were getting this fiber-optics lasers fiber lasers coming on board at our next door neighbor NEW ISO he said wouldn't be good for the laser welding process and see whether
continues so that's what we did by
doing this evolving what we have done eased minimized they hid evidence on thickness of close again what's interesting is that you don't get real hard like research environmental and also in the
basement demand of softening is also minimize also and fortunately there is no cracking unit also so that's good news that there was not set aside that said I want to make
sure that if I hit the ball led at the heat of a bids on Willard has been Snelson because soft it was right that this is
the table underneath the table underneath the place vacancy and that's just as bad .period deals that he dependence on thickness so we'll
know in that 108 but still
you can't cheat Mother Nature in the balloting process because there is going to be the temperature you are going to take them into solution the Carbide said that the temperature so there is no way you can get the flat like section in the heat of the sun Peter a great
sigh this is where I would like to point out a little bit more in that they enhance my interest in the seat and that is the hottest
mapped out in the face samples we looked at it ran what better offers in the search this is interesting what happened as the bullet hits and then the croc actually goes to the middle of that you had soften Mike
researchers initially there seems to be some indication that we can engineer this Microsoft shares in a to deflect the cracked and that baby may be able to get better ballistic performance and that we haven't solved that issue yet but this gives some ideas how we can create in and macro segregation and flash processing to come up with me my researchers also so that's OK too Directions gallery
drives us crazy every day because we have considered this do this so you're working every day to see how we can take this flash processing to be relevant to widened publications on that comes to my 20 minutes
I like to stop here so the 3 questions would be fine
1 of the venues what's the significance and could be the consists mainly
funicular sure it's very exciting talk about it .period fairly should show you actually it played that is 6 2 8 million
people and saying that for your process to watch you
need to heat and cool .period agreed it would be pretty walked twice so that you'll results can be reproduced the respective off with Adidas Donica while staple Prince date of Cambridge University the this fall due to specify what is the sensitivity of process on the heating and cooling rates and how fast you can actually go out out and unite there that stuff because it's 1 thing to say 200 Michael micrometres sample that you can heat and cool pretty rapidly is another thing to say that you take a half each cleanliness sample and you he that the the sending of again and colleagues at the end degrees a 2nd and you get these wonderful Microsoft sprinkle some deep sand box people save you a lot of hassles
no product I think that's a great way to segue to elected talk about guys because we can't heat 1 inch we're not hitting a high heating rates really heating up according to the Center for 2nd and cooling and the water quench process so that there is a noted that on this very day going to live I'm new to lab has actually put end effectors induction heating so that he can penetrate deep but also you works with that people were really good and induction heating processes will work with him closely on that so can we do it in a higher state Cambridge are different places that is ready to provide system that you want you can actually take it and evaluation for your own self because these achievements are actually deployed in other places to for so if I
answered that question so there is actually it exploded sending 2nd heating rates are those things can be produced but not too thick the government has said yes to the questions 1 and with the unique glad we need flexible meanwhile the bank gave this properties similar the case said this this interesting said whether when I was hoping relies on this Alcott bites if I can
make sure the car-based done salt that means a company's stock index which won the chromium is the most easier for me right now that again he was talking bold and distinctive so
effective against the seasonal so then you have to worry with the peak temperature that's what game
information you remember so you so you have how many things yeah yeah OK because they can control of temperature time can control so you could if you don't have it delivered the than you had in temperature time so you can ask me a question selection you know where the temperature time would be if it is not a lot of something that I don't know right now but we could calculate and analysts and a
you instead also gave his mentioning and details mentioned that this is stronger than my prescribed them that what had he probably has the ability to fund that that is an instinct that is because the fetus divisions and offices of the great but that doesn't mean that doesn't go into my was concern agreed by transcended there
to show the cents and they did mention that it is based on newsstands but we don't know How did you stand because we need to go in-depth understanding area of modern side with a strain partitioning is occurring the modern side of the Natick far-right this is a real problem because we don't have a very beautiful nice Microsoft is completely disposed inside we talked about doing incidental from there is no way we can say just Martin said is getting strain of the bird said the question we don't know where this transportation thanks To many
because that can we look again until like number 90 shall that yeah it's working then and the firstly I would expected on the right-hand side of the tracks of the only it's time to go and so on and this 2nd question was whether the crash the associated with this most of the yes that's correct that's I don't know why the cracks started on the compressor when it is hitting there I have no idea because this is the reason that I don't have expertise and ballistic persisting hunting and you and if I can find somebody that won't work with me
on that cell on open literature so bad that you are correct the bifurcation of could be envisaged gradient across extra the harness his highness
yesterday up officially set at this contrast is big it is it in this contest you this is in our flash presence in this even in Ireland materials to there had a similar contests that also that's just because he concedes
compressing little bit if you walk backwards that is in itself that
Swedbank mean that he indicated so that our citizens through the whole
thing that's really interesting Zionist destined to thickness from the original Microsoft it but there was a man segregation in the sample that's what we have seen from the spinnakers so the question is would
that look at you as to which traditionally has been the cause of the current movie in which workers not holders of tickets in the concussion again the because assimilation that done the
points out ,comma too I forgot .period by micron if I had a different population and see distributed and then some of them into solid you may have that because I was doing 1 carbon and if you think about the whole structure slot I wish I could do that my 2nd question is yes the public
sector and the affected I moved from south the temperature during the during yesterday's victory show that so would you go guys actually pushed
us did so about in the heat of a goods on new housing the Temasek of the release of the wedding to get it so the main thing is you remember is the peak temperature the dampers good -dash goal so it doesn't matter the granting of that is going to solve you can actually be good simulation whatever 1480 because it is costly yes is
wouldn't while you have no idea to check those ,comma grew interracial profiles growing will be releasing the EDS or little proof Michael Analyses companies in the country and you know part of the land yes yes that is what we have been trying so I don't know how many have you
tried the chromium Cardoso in bed and on Friday and then doing added broke it's not easy as you know it in the use he was alone as Mike Miller said that using lasers not a good idea for this kind of composition analysis but pride that adamant about what it's probably and the main many times when you do that in the structures that itself I spent 6 months to get 1 Internet ACC 6 and Austinite laundry I know the problem but we are not giving you will know that we will but that is too In the
classes also have my group recommended that we tried during a news analysis a process that we don't have the resolution to see whether there is a growing concentration of we have had such
a the the dealer who were
and how I would like to know the he's and my core subject because 1 the 1st points out we would like to get and middle-size companies new subject and the 2nd employees you have mentioned the ultimate properties we the 20 per cent then turned 80 per cent of money site I would like to know how that soccer 100 come to that OK let
me ask you got 1 of the things about the 1 banana Carbide's so remember and I think that I you mentioned the head off the flat for assessing sometimes you do a 2nd we can bring to you may have some college and then the next question you ask the user last Sunday at to present and I had a lot that was so that was based on our back calculation understanding of about amusing as gone "quotation mark 1 no quick
correction the In strands workers both in the EU's stand and the ultimate tensile strength "quotation mark so that's page 2 years ago as I stand corrected so Harry thank you before a couple of Internet questions about others and there is a concern that called the try call .period distribution is it better if it if you're your day with the what's the weather following
a call .period "quotation mark better and also how you currently achieving his those was monster truck request for tonight but I can only regret
is that I have that kind of carbonates population size distribution is
about and that suppressed question we need to have this all current that key player we know also that I really didn't want to tell you what is the average carbon content based on our analysis that is a terrible and what should be that we don't know yet so that is something needs much more work and having fun distribution were not a good idea because of the sort the 2nd question
is how beginning that this said if we had the mercy of the steel companies geyser cracked so
well whatever do station that's what we got 1 of our limitations
with the process has done that we work with commercial off-the-shelf steals show an example 41 13 we've gone through 3 or 4 different steelmakers we've got multiple he's so there's probably burned at least 7 or 8 different from the steel makers of 41 38 and now with the 41 40 with tried for different all heats steal from 2 different makers the results seem to be very very similar but more dependent on carbon concentration for your strength than others I think I hope that answered questions yesterday OK and if there are ways to flush processes and so if we can create better properties with hundreds of that's not too difficult to do in in in a more generous processing cents In another steals the process In other way so so what would so you may not actually need to he quickly or whatever the time temperature considerations were you might apply this physical metallurgical concert and that's so since it is very generic I wouldn't take the liberty and
taking the division twice that so what does this gives us a lot so you don't need to go through the expense to doing Austin and a single welded prolonged time clients and tempering rather you do have a slow process up front did the political distribution Carbide I'm going to switch the Fed last nite and cool down and get a Microsoft did that we no tampering that if IKB can do that How the beautiful that's where that is what brings in new areas into this area but we never always as guide .period history was good for a moment and I stated willingness and then go back and forth wouldn't be cut out something that's going have solve problems we want solid 1 replace existing processes we will have a niche area where this process makes sense I don't know what that explains that may be able to be enjoy and with state we are trying to push in that crib assistance without challenges to we are trying to produce on the flight assistance to there was a question we have been playing with that too but let me definition for all the problems now I don't think so that's not the intention of this stuff it's more about explaining the solution where it can we thank you
again and again the few


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