Energetic TWIP

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Energetic TWIP
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Energetic TWIP: APMS conference
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A lecture given by David Dye, at the Adventures in the Physical Metallurgy of Steels (APMS) conference held in Cambridge University. Twinning induced plasticity steels as armour. Twinning Induced PLasticity steels have recently been popular topics of research owing to their potential for high energy adsorbtion during deformation. This is a consequence of both their propensity to twin due a an optimised stacking fault energy and also the thinness of the twins, which results in continuous work hardening and hence the avoidance of necking until very high strains are reached. However, not all of this deformation is useable in many applications; for example the hull intrusion in an armoured vehicle may not be manageable beyond a certain point. Therefore there is a desire for TWIP steels with higher initial yield strengths. Here we describe a two options to add strengthening mechanisms to austenitic TWIP steels to provide this strength without damaging the underlying twinning mechanism, and progress we have been making in implementing these in an industrially exploitable steel.
Finger protocol Cartridge (firearms)
Finger protocol Barque Gentleman Material Firearm Surfboard
Vehicle armour Gentleman Material Hose coupling
Steel Gentleman Firearm Keramik Van
Flight Gentleman Vehicle
Gentleman Vehicle Flatcar Tool bit
Gentleman Monorail Material Material
Volumetric flow rate Gentleman Remotely operated underwater vehicle
Gentleman Remotely operated underwater vehicle
Volumetric flow rate Steel Gentleman Graves, Michael
Ship of the line Aufnäher Feather
Cartridge (firearms) Spare part Aufnäher
Tracing paper Key (engineering) Stationery Train Aufnäher
Rep (fabric) Aufnäher
Sheet metal Steel Vehicle
Vehicle armour Flight Steel Forging
Material Presspassung Mail (armour)
Hot working Gentleman Ford Transit Material Hose coupling
Sizing Vehicle Clothing sizes
Fulling Sizing Clothing sizes
Fiat 500 (2007) Clothing sizes Texturizing
Sizing Clothing sizes
Bending (metalworking)
Ford Transit Wright Flyer
Volumetric flow rate Cartridge (firearms) Gentleman
Volumetric flow rate Gentleman
Volumetric flow rate Gentleman
Volumetric flow rate Gentleman Van
Volumetric flow rate Steel Gentleman Engine Material
Volumetric flow rate Steel Gentleman Commodore MAX Machine Striking clock
Volumetric flow rate Gentleman Commodore MAX Machine
Gentleman Ship of the line Gas compressor Surfboard
Tin can Gentleman Steel Mechanic Gentleman Kette <Zugmittel>
Tin can Sizing Hot working Gentleman Blow torch Kette <Zugmittel>
Sizing Gentleman Clothing sizes Presspassung
Fiat 500 (2007) Sizing Mechanic Stagecoach Gentleman Wärmebehandlung Clothing sizes
Depth sounding Cartridge (firearms) Binoculars
Hull (watercraft) Gentleman Vehicle
Cartridge (firearms) Gentleman Engine
Gentleman Van
Finger protocol Gentleman
Gentleman Grinding (abrasive cutting)
Sizing Gentleman Singing
Volumetric flow rate Gentleman Pickup truck
Gentleman Train Hot isostatic pressing
Fiat 500 (2007) Gentleman Musical ensemble Material
Finger protocol Gentleman Spare part
Gentleman Cartridge (firearms) Gentleman Vehicle
you can do to the new to you here good you of can you alone next Tuesday and David Nifong dynasty of imperial court thank you at Imperial College so I did not feel that colleges with the rights of ethical codes which is so imperialism but beautiful aware of there in lovely
London with these lovely green spaces that wonderful running around and I will after all might like everyone talks shown and the energetic with and this is most summary of a conductor case the
lessons of the renewed that I and others some help on the tedium but responsive when an anti-tank rounds but for measles come to work on the project when and this is about Amish
feels this is Pete Brown can you do something crazy for me project and the Independent followed closely initially naively thing you have
this problem which is that you have something along well penetrated here impacting on your protective armor and and is going to
locally impulse Summit Energy composed way through employers he really does and you have to bear with a the Holodomor facts things like fragments coming
up the back and so even if the defeat of the projectile with the armor that might still not be so great if few inside but and the other
problem is that you made both free remake she applied here that sounds like a very difficult problem to deal with now that's true up to a point if you're dealing with these guys but actually all the systems are much more complex and interesting topic and typically think having a couple of components we have a disturbed the front
side and that might be all ceramic about 1 of the ceramics guys that might be of very very halted by nite something like that and the
purpose of that to twist the projectile over it might actually be a mixture of air and steel fuck at that is Peretz's twist that Oliver splatter Heights area and get it to a point where it called
anymore where you can absorb the energy without melting behind the projectile because he has so much energy conservation such a small area in front of HBO's "quotation mark wait for you then you have
a 2nd toss and then you have to observe all about energy imparted in such a way that you only inside of the structure gets survive carried and that's you absorber and
then you might might not have a school all means sought to catch fact that come on the back and say how the system works like this :colon effort you'll have a vehicle Hall which is
providing a load of fuel observed but here the house born only sort of "quotation mark becomes it and he would have on the flight that you would mail monopoly a subtle actor Cary I wish she would vary
depending on the nature of the threat but you might of transport vehicles and
mobile and then transport your application ,comma separately varies of from the ideas you can do your rapid deployment with your
vehicle and any disorder whether what effects of flats medicinal plight which off and on the outside I need you e-mail may not have bits
and bobs a in so that I feel standing on the surface in this comes up for you again but by lack of now this amazing the blockade that that the talks
with the United Nations trips deals is absorbing the energy is not the best of motor-vehicle haul out of hand these are this is the
Stankevich which do you have a yield down here and they have a very linear this is true 1st restrained by linear we're coming right
and mostly these materials fell by enacting I'm so they failed by classic considers poetry wielded as undergrads local
instability but we stop having enough hobbling to defeat as small
change in geometries the seeming
imperfection whatever it is and but people typically don't think about the franc about this that call the tensile strength by was the mean ETS as the young
nation on the dreaded Bernama diagrams of and then he said Well OK if I take my strength and my elongate most parties together that's approximately area under the curve I and so I thought the 1 indirect these equivalent that's the that's the way the
on going now the area under the curve is in that number times that number because it's actually completely wrong that this is not the right picture to
think about optimizing state In
and Out which deals are typically potted up here the still on talking about Mosley's starts out here of the Solheim
manganese steals the 2nd volunteer about 30 also reduced rate is glad that the
supports calculations on the perspective on the respective productivity is low enough that you get lots of must be widely spaced stacking faults but not so nobody
gets low marks on defamation and but Adams but within that constraint the UN
"quotation mark manganese concept contents within that constraint he wants to avoid things like cracking on forming off the forming of you want to have a reason the cheap steel even now so how they were now the remarkable thing is with this is a deferred and trip still 20 of Michael Graves always fairly random tested Busby strange about
22 per cent and you have lots of fine you can see and hear the little white lines very
feathery very fine it and ignore the new with that's not what we're
looking very fine them and the way they were that you put in lots and lots of these I find 20 conceived nicely he can see his must-win has enhanced lens that he felt that didn't have a whole world of staff felt that and it when it comes to the whole idea of what you're doing is what's called dynamic
Kolpak packed so that he put it to an end but that subdivide
degrading effect if you something a bit like a nor very great his analysis of the free boundary that have great strengthening then you have a bit more defamation those parts this case coalesce into another 20 lifeline but then
you get it's a bit more haunting than subdivide again you get a bit more
hot and so on and so on and so on and so yeah harming all
stress flanker classical training you have a heartening like that would start out very largely have been
published stations that you come up with you had twinning 2010 give
you much sense traces saturates is about 20 per cent that the humming might together that's not pitch which
would hit here which went all the way through the 1st strength although I hadn't noticed how and that's the key the key to these is that
the profit dislocations are not sufficiently spread out and sufficiently
confused about where they're going which and tableau of forces etc. that you can condense into a whole series of different 20 at-bats the match so now the question is people have shown that this works nicely in things like high-speed tensile tests in hopes of all tests showing that they work for
full on things like the vehicle crashes leveraging while they're really aimed at now do they work in Boston lost is actually a similar strain rate hundreds of and the
answer is yes it does because he is a hoax about that died here is a blast this are you hang your sheets of steel overflying you put
explosive above it some standoff distance of some match he exploded the explosive and you cracked fuel 10 mm 6
of politics flight that sort of World War Two armor and you take your much thinner steel and it's right and it you don't much metal forming process and and this is it before we around the edges of the of the fight and the question is do we see similar sold of things going on
here this is headed back to test them again so this fight that is not the same even if it is a similarly this is the on it if the flag NEC some very fine twins in their
wealth and influence of wins the see the same sort of thing a mail
to its yes we do here 20 factually I Valley but then instead of falls within each of these twins here but if you go back and look at this twin underpinned its internal structure in high rise at the
moment was being Israel's but then you have lots of very fine very fine can't even find
that we saw in the union access sites it's really really great care and then think that tonight entertaining you would say
Orwellian until I see some more 20 in grain to the highest CIA assets the orientation for the fiscal today other trade itals aggressive as you load up the font of all nite and if you go into 1 of those find twins that only a few nominees they come into this guy here that's within that St. when a man ,comma locate you can see there's
actually these a couple highlighted here that he felt there's also some down here and
there's something funny going on over there there's a whole load of that he felt law also Malta transit from
South separated and that's the point so it really does work and it really does work involves so this makes people very excited I'm an unjustified he the edge of
1 of those twins and his
look at this and wanted the Andromeda Strain a few Member may from fifties and have lots of
contrast here going into directions actually made beautiful beautiful much of this is
a good acidity and forsaken but it's so beautiful that any 1 of 1
of and so the question then what
can we do better writes he questions whether that's very nice but can you do that
because his other subcontinent at him but that's not nasty from it's not that much better than I can do with War to although in application those issues here you might look a lot better job losses but I think will that much better for you in a real vehicle so when the of about
let's have no hardly matters see if we still get 20 work but and I have a little bit of a thing about measuring grain sizes I'm sorry so this is the
is the frequency plot full of size put those into against official functions fit said the suspicions that we survival there's much to consult behind that just were used and then differentiate again and find your main grain size by 50 distribution rather than
doing some some simple so we can be better now essentially and that's what we
used to measure grain size quite nicely on and then this is paralleling flattening side of a minute-to-minute Diaz received 24 hour
96 hour meals I'm also grain size PDF look like but we come out with a series grandsons is that something like Sept Michael and Michael and 20 lots floats but for speaking and
you still you develop a bit of a texture associates recalled falling short and this is 1 the following advice after the side of this is that the closest in 84 mark this is the
relatively untested as receive cobbled Wallstreet time Markham also coincides and this is the very fine . 7 EC that little bit of a requirement for some that before we think about 20 the little blips
that power to strain gage offered a few cents out any NEC can get the strength to go from 450 old to 750 of annual hardly writers retained right so grain size even do doing that
a strengthening matters not life so that's lovely but How does the power view affected the twenties said well what we see this is
the finest misses the corpses what we see is in the finest the twins although I'm much sitting here with this guy this guy came on scalp
Bob dropped off the bottom for some reason but this guy something like 40 also nominated there yeah you go look at these guys that down
and so intifada 1 of the the things you do is you find the between so you have more but also transit
and I simply
stacking faults that left it in the big got guy they've got more condensed into trends in the fonts Gallagher but and this is just as a triumph of what These are the twins enough ongoing material on
down that's very very thin slices so the question would be
what do I want I said a lot but on a diagram what
do I really want with content the area under this and if I say Well a case linear heartening
because it is for the troops to this linear Hoffman OK I can say OK well the hardening right and is just going to be the check right so I can rearrange Fonda Silas trying and I can integrate supplement get a elastic Kennedy there is going to
jangle around when I was funny at the failure of all so even before it's failure of the last energy that Samak's and a plastic energy Arkansas and so the 2 branches that matches dressed like the hobbling right all ETS and the Ulster yeah but that there
your UTS yield on each of those in the pen thank and that
we have a two-factor problem this is the by Onassis even fine-grained material for if you've stresses writes that got little because the twins getting final on
not stratified is going down is what happens to my total energy absorbers going up and improved it by a court pretty
much a cake and this is "quotation mark well known now then people go
about yes but Dave it's defending a long life you're sitting inside the victory would be crushed by the incoming the article never backed up to 2 years useful OK
so you don't have to say what it if I pick a maxim strain on going to allow my design on older let you use it beyond then known that took to the sea
floor and I can come up with energy absorbed to 30 % trying to hear all the materials at that coarse-grained efforts even fine-grained that's what the engines sold 30 % fully at a summit of about 440 justice of 1300 Hollywood about 1500 I end up with a you 30 about . 2
I shamelessly 11 sitting in summit talks a little the hostile to GPA attempts and activities of steels and upward about point to each "quotation mark I'm
6 4 ends up with about
. 1 3 a public subsidy his it's got hardening and Our but many density normalize that wins toxic fallout is at
fault for a half hour debate of the density of the steel so winning that testing on was that makes you a
little bit better than your earmarked 440 if you got in for that money and that people would like us to do it he would let the troops still that has a much higher strike a similar sort of planting rights and therefore will trade activity but I energy-absorbing will go up will be over twice as good
at absorbing energy as on almost fourfold and that's that the
question then is cannot be done right now but we showed that we can get a good chunk of the wider
actually can double when you need another 50 cent it would be easy but we just need to take the strength from 750 1300 MPA but without losing hardening how hot cannot be an and so that action would be about 1 month since then steals a really strong but we can add more interstitial holding that at small
content won't change the perspective on you very much I would do anything to change their
full marks start of I'm not I'm just making much stronger but that would be fine except there aren't
any pressure DSL facilities in the UK and made by company in Austria and that sort of annoying given that we develop this technology but you know that's the country right now so the guy I'm not so we can probably do some things along those lines that are feasible following normal
steel prices but there will be lots of problems with much of what we have our man in the street so you know how much can we get there that's 1 option another man has
been explored in the literature is what some are calling in surprisingly adding some very fine Carbide's doesn't
kill for the 20 mechanism the 20 mechanism is just so much of fonts that on without talking about you know your
10 animated torch sort of What's up so you have to do so by tricks processing to get them to stay solution than at a the minute others go temperature this gives great size control but if you get it right you can get a few hundred and that way even a few of
them gave life to making the work of an uneasy work out then that will be good enough and I'm so
we're going through trying to do that at the moment so Mike
Western finalized hot role called role he treats them like grain size trying get what public
officials sometimes I'm having bubble 3 months and where UN that we haven't got the Martians sorted out yet the marketing is of course fairly easy
here it is in this is hot well-conditioned not grain size but we haven't gone
develop the heat treatment yet to get public distribution if I if I
hadn't been happy about freedom behind what looked to be them on but we
are getting to the stage of out do that I'll answer the question of Can we do this some conclusions between mechanism doesn't want the bosses unit looked attractive as a way of absorbing energy I'm about to
issues useful so we want to trade some for some strength
on and therefore would not have expected powers that retain the hardening like
associated with winning and I have to give me some thoughts on how I hope to go about doing and will see I think we I think Is it possible to do a sandwich on the competently and really put their advances can Lawrence so that you can think what have with the there let's elections in produce systems so you could have a sound which which you might bring together you might say Well OK can I do something for With the case hardening so 1st well have something very very very hard much trip on the inside and so on
lots of levels of possibilities for the intrusion question I was State were at the moment but
a lot of the sort of on vehicles with V-shaped hulls the crew hanging off the ceiling see high of the intrusion of bright dialects OK and so is essentially built for often through studies that is what about how to rehabilitate people very complex factors when they're not hanging off but I have the behavior of the city when bouncing around this kind of dull but you know you don't like that so that I think there's a lot of options the small wanted to be a big thick aluminum fighting for instance many can't for but there also things to think about designing this I said I was I was really exciting
apologies mentioned in the city and in its information systems operate as well as strangers the government is the kind of like unconstrained dependency on any constraints at UC losers they made Tennessee in that sort haven't put up the I'm going across the might decades of you don't lose a lot of strength and you don't lose the it's so
hobby might still seem to be there you don't lose a lot of opportunities and so that's when you don't lose a
lot of strength either but it's interesting but we think twinning as being a she process that placing 0 time but if there's 2 things I hope to persuade your actually really it's process that operates in 0 time at the dislocation process dislocations in motion actually moving quite fast and we don't understand this the case down for a while but if we're honest we can
engineer with them without brains and some insight but we in this case .period show but and out the other other
point of how to make his it there's more to life banner UTS but to ticket the president
I have to question the first one he said sir point of the conclusions as to build at that the is 1 itself so I think that we can end the mandate in Compaq to improve this distressing we already and there is out there who don't find buyer Scott and call but is In what used to be judged
on which goes through 2 innings in great detail yet this is the number of people thinking of their congratulation
and phenomenal planning novelty that that and my 2nd question is that you have cost grant trade and the fine granted I found the delegation difference and so on but I would like to know them back through the between between in interaction and also the stalking and interaction so simplistically
simplistically changing the hardly makes a little bit here but I'm changing the expect more so
what I'm doing is I'm dropping if I take those 2 things in Kapolei additives that activities of measurable difference but I might testify well aligned himself but I actually believe these more this is about suggestion considering that so if you make it funny grind and you increase the strength you do take the hobby might have been and that will give you a drop in the total said and I make use of a simple argument there is probably more of the story the show about the
1st half the stories you'll lose quite a bit about he just from enacting argument and therefore wouldn't expect did you can't beat yeah unless you can certainly add hardening liked late in life already used up a lot of subdividing candidates to a 1st approximation
of the Mai Mai view on how to help what's going on but is 1st when you
made grain size deal I see that hunting and please not that we don't but
you could have a debate that the number density was not very large OK so it's a sort of itself yeah
yeah that you you could I don't think it makes a lot different the way the 1 the that places a half in front of the end I can see the half in front of the Sigma
squared him well to a
1st approximation you have an area here on trying on
integrating Unesco's on taking that Civil War NYTimes but the utility which is what once was red perhaps are hot Our the total amount of hardening times the times that's going again so the Hartford thing comes out from the heat of the
calculation in Hannibal the elastic terms you don't the left of the comes I could not get through with the it's it's correct show it's such a simple calculation about that about 3 times including on the train through the wall it was the same also exactly brought the press myself whether Ofcom 1 of the 1
question from the Internet and employment grew asked what the composition of the trips to the users is the
answer is my useful or you know it will and publication to with insurmountable but it's a high manganese Aluminium silicon containing took to that's not amazing different to anybody else because
I can't think about on formerly not lapses no there is not much as long as um twinning is correlates to the crystallographic region crystal clear direction to get check give your um hardening rates as beautiful in None one-dimensional information a so Paxil for instance for instance became so that's
a leader subplots test is the gives you a good and you can go side wall as well and he got the band around the corner and you get a similar story 1 of the things is because we're a whole wall but because slows material we have always know starting Texas so you don't have to worry too much about text effects but we have got on what about testified to that of the disorder gripping selling Nordbanken and behind a
questions and that's um you will reach necking .period much faster than in any union action but yeah if you think about it from a metal forming if you've
also got there yes yes he will get I guess it's going to the
project is 1 this is the beginning the you want projectiles 1 I didn't want to hear about it is the intention of this month it is part of the new issues and let you know you have a lot more In making hard he couldn't
you could try to cobble cobblers in case something similar approaches and they will be quite if you want to but I think in current you UK I would go so far as to say that but the man and the genetic you probably have a lot of the recall that the of some sort of and that would probably be bold because when we get the people she these vehicles but you don't really want to bring them back to the UK to re-engineer them so he will be at take the application of a report on silly things it's easy to fill but that's about it for you can be a free tournament from some of these locations to bring it back to work on it and send it back out again so you end up a significant portion of your vehicle fleet being out of service this is in front of me
but there are things you do so that's but they what's yes absolutely we got good fun all the need and bring
say when we will be back at half 11 and if


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