Flash Bainite Process

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Flash Bainite Process
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Flash processing: APMS conference
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Cola, Gary
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A lecture given by Gary Cola, at the Adventures in the Physical Metallurgy of Steels (APMS) conference held in Cambridge University. Presents the enticing story about the very rapid processing of steel to produce bainitic microstructures in milliseconds.
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the the good of the new legislation I
got final speaker of this way Section 8 is carried headlines and attempt to cut is added to the pioneer in the development of a steel in support of a nite in the 100 milliseconds Fairland restaurant Franchione I think you have competition for your pulse deals we shall see which 1 is more exciting adventure but my name is Gary Koller and develop the flash payment process for steals and but like to acknowledge 1st off Ohio State University and analysts Sierra City professors fresh bamboo and the team of 3 different masters students and a few other doctors and hopeless along and also on Monday the Hyundai-Kia topped North American Technical Center and
against another thank you that I'd like to offer up is to too few people here in the room real quickly
on my background is actually is a machine shop owner north of Detroit on my machine CNC stamping dies for the automotive industry and what had happened is always dealing with spring back I wanted to try and develop the steel basically as a hobby that might have a little bit more ductibility and a little bit less bring back on as a start Google and I found very bodacious name and 10 years ago I started reading his works learned a lot confused myself a little and 7 years ago I contacted Matthew P. to I'm very grateful for accepting my offer to come to Detroit and review my process to make water quench Fahrenheit which sounds quite ridiculous if you think about it 7 years ago on ,comma that's rushed to Bellevue a little later and he actually assigned 1 of his master's students to me and for the last 7 years now we've had quite the adventure trying to define a process and that great
thanks to carry Matthew and Siraj because without the 3 of them inspiring and encouraging me I wouldn't be here today so little the controversial hopefully like Richard here but some unconventional
thoughts and heating quench most of us have been taught
that you need to homogenize on really want still starts out in the later work near homogeneity and then when the Steelers role we go to the concept of heterogeneity of the far-right and Carbide's just in general terms and then
what would happen next is we would go back to imaginary and continuous annealing line and the question I have is you ball why do we want to go
back and we have been taught that a larger Navy is good but there is also a lot of indications that heterogeneity complexity can actually lead to very good things as well on maximum
strength steel as I read it at least of 30 years ago work by Toledo and local by actually and also by Young and the Dacia has shown that 100 per cent mark inside like a structure is not you make still the strongest in these last
30 years we've known that about 20 per cent unite and about 80 per cent Martin site is stronger than pure Martin site roughly let's say 5 to 10 per cent but in any case stronger for a given alloy
not on flash payment processing is essentially of a method of extreme thermal cycling if you look at it ,comma
typical continuous annealing cycle there's a longer time temperature history compared to the flashback and thermal cycles of what we attempt to achieve his temper for limiting of carbon migration and provide the solution we do this for a reason we have heightened
tension high-intensity energy input because we need to control are also might grain growth size on it's
not our priority to refine our grain it's our priority to find the right brain sizes aren't we having briefly elevated base of 3 and that's due to the volume fraction of essentially 0 cent weight carbon in the fair right because the majority of our Mike rastructure starting out is actually a and we work with this whole genius Austinite and we quench it with extremely high driving forces now working with Ohio State University they have something called single sensor differential thermal analysis and what we
found is that we actually see transformations occurring in a cooling from 650 to 550 C and 462 366 and what happens is the transformation goes from and of the American Axle fairly and thoroughly acts of fermenting again at this point we're transforming 1 Austin Madonna plays at this point we're transforming into another after my daughter face what
this indicates is that you actually have although it's 1 bulk steel chemistry you have had a genius like rastructure is occurring in the process now and tomorrow document was going to go a little bit more into details on exactly how this can occur in the steel and how we can get about 20 per cent low-carbon day-and-night in Martin slightly matrix on today's applications can be there today the focus is going to be 1 applications both civil and defense ,comma for starters what were essentially self-funded on had a 17 thousand square foot machine shop north of Detroit
and what we've done is we've built our own steel heat treating line we have about 1 megawatt induction unit at 2004 180 both electrical service that took a 6 months to get installed in the building we have 250 kilowatt tampering on induction where the tampering its we built ourselves and we actually want to 110 ,comma 200 times cooling tower on the on as we did but there are among megawatt induction unit we bought for 20 thousand dollars and it may even was brand new but
we've built a 60 foot long processing line to do our pledge processing on currently were pilot production were running at 22 to 24 kilograms permanent and were making pieces of steel from L. a 41 40 kroner Molly better 6 . 6 mm thick 61 cm wide and 3 meters long and their CMM certified flat within 1 . 2 mm right out of the process we don't see a quench distortion and if we do things wrong I should say that if we do things right we can see many many health centimeters curvature when we do things right which is about 99 per cent of of the time we're seeing panels that are this flat right out of the machine no longer question why consider Flash might process there's a lot of
technology over many years from many great metallurgists that have worked with homogeneous Austin Austinite on when the 1st reason is because we've got this method he 300 genius still to achieve 20 per cent Vandyke 80 per cent Martin side aren't
we have a pilot production line has been proven and many many hundreds of pieces of sheet and plate and tubing and use the term maximum strength of micro structure because if you look back at the idea that we're making steel a little bit stronger than Martin site this isn't high this is an advanced high-strength not alter faith according to the data it appears to be maximum strength of if I'm wrong and have please correct me on but what we
have is an inexpensive rapid process to improve the mechanical performance of sheet plate and to bring our actually talking to customers right now but I've been sea channel our anger iron and the process is very simple been using this since I went to Kyoto and my parents Siraj over 6 years ago but we started out with a
coil of steel refuted through rollers we use a high-intensity flame initially and now induction
heating to take the steel to unconventionally high temperatures and a few seconds later we quenching water and that really
is the heart of flesh payment processing 1 of the other interesting things is very proud to say after 9 years of working with the U.S. Patent Office we now have a novelty we were just issued the 1st foundational head on July 9 and I'll remember that number forever no 1 of the concept of flesh payment processing is that we hit a little bit higher temperatures than most people
and on what we found is that we actually getting better along the nation's might heating into these higher temperatures on the Ehrlich 1010 to around 10 10 we end up with some 720 mega pastels and yield the 900 UTS What if we keep the higher temperatures we can find that we increase the yield strength and the ultimate stress now and what we found is
that there is a new "quotation mark just right peak heating temperature to achieve unity and longer nation on because here we are at 1100 Pascal's at 8 a half per cent totaling 1 Asian just from 10 and steel vault where that leaves the stand what we can do about the ,comma steals
and we've worked with things like 10 0 8 steel at . 0 4 carbon 10 10 10 20 41 38 41 40 and what we've been able to achieve with 41 40 is almost 20 109 of Pascal's but still maintaining 10 % 850 elongate Shain and this is a 97 . 2 per cent higher so this isn't a heavily Allied Steel we gain our strength and artillery purely from the micro structure not milder alloys that we put into it now
I through the sliding because I'm more application oriented as opposed to model for managing oriented and I worked a lot on armor or I spend a lot of time hearing about how aluminum is lightweight Titaniums lightweight what the truth is you have to look at your specific strengths and I'm sure most all of you know this but power per pound basis HSL a really is not high-strength aluminum is not lightweight it's low density and independent testing of flashed and has found those with higher specific strengths are and more about building taking 6 for year a bar so take
a on 25 dollars a pound could easily be replaced for many applications with steel which is something people are much more familiar with working with especially in from now on the working with the US Army a little bit and other then a lens Picatinny Arsenal a study guided by the U.S. Army icon the chief metallurgist that's not his official title with their
conclusions after a six-month study was that the novel flash Great Bay process for steals has the potential to reduce product cost and weight while also enhancing mechanical performance that we currently have a contract to develop what's called Ultra hard armor 600 Ronaldo with him I'm from ballistics they
have 2 different types of armor they have hard armor that stopped projectiles and then have soft ,comma that'll stop fragmentation what we found with our flesh they unite on this is the velocity of the per 2nd and this is the aerial density on kilograms per square meter of plate and what we've done is we've compared I'm against taking young world would Usama high-powered Iowa and aluminum and what we found
is that actually at lower aerial density is we can stop faster velocity bullets on 30 kilograms of piercing bullets not what was counterintuitive is that we have a good performing hard are you expected us to be poor performing against fragmentation and there's a
standard 20 millimeter Frentzen really penetrated the Flash player might again have higher performance than taking and the aluminum that we actually have a lot a double win on the solution not
on when you're working with ,comma 1 of the 1st things you have to find out as can you well this material
and working with thoughts Russian Ohio State medicine while Institute what we found is that typical high hard ,comma actually has a fresh Martin hard and brittle spots at the edges of diffusion line when you welded together with 6 pass GM operations the flesh being indicted on the other hand doesn't tend to have those hot spots at the edge of the fusion of the theory for that is is
that this material high is actually homogenized before its quench it's actually . 3 carbon everywhere and has all of its allies dissolved which can lead to brittleness the Flash
payment on the other hand because of the rapid thermal cycling actually has a chemistry that is probably leaner than 10 20 for the most part because we started out with fair that doesn't have time to have carbon migrated into it and what happens is we have all this low-carb like a very mean chemistry and most of our Flash player like and and maybe richer chemistry and 30 to 40 per cent of it but now you
have a more ductile Weld occurring in this process and this works not only for for
further on June 1 welding 6 passes but also for other types of welding as well now I know you have to have civilian applications as well as defense applications and what we've been able to do that work with 14
13 ,comma Molly tubing and with 25 millimeter diameter of 1 . 2 5 million wall which is relatively thin wall to bring out we can get 80 degree bend radius is on a 1 . 2 5 125 millimetres online radius now for this to be that's
about the maximum then they try and do when the building dune buggies a role model for vehicles armed with this now similarly with 3 millimeter wall were able to get 180 degree bands so essentially what we have is a method of from Mali to me that he treated 1809 Pascal's 10 per cent along essentially triple the strength of standard from 41 30 or not getting diameter wall collapsed
and demands for actually able to hold their structural these results
led us to work with Hyundai Automotive where they were working on automotive side-impact beams and what happened as they developed a test set up where they would drop and impacted on and they want to compare flashed their lights on the materials they had been working with what they had set up a
test stand with 320 kilograms impact velocity of 5 meters per 2nd and maximum displacement of 200 mm and determined that 5 millimeters of 7 mm gave about the same results I think they want with 5 ml and the drop test In what they
found is In comparison of but the impact means from 5 highly rated current production vehicles of all the impact being performed Warren Harding pardonable steals from various steel mills and they also used up a brand warrants seal of their own design and you can see what happens when these pieces are deflected 200 mm you can see the force :colon new that results and also the displacement that's occurring as the impact happens know what they did is they
took flashed and the 1st woman 1st comparison was more than 32 at 2 32 millimetres diameter of 2 . 2 millimeter wall Walston and you can see
the large variety of different diameters and of wall thicknesses that they paycheck flashed a nite out larger diameter tubing transfer entire resisting forced thicker walls stock transports higher total energy absorption or interesting thing they found out that look at this magenta line the war 32 2 To there is about the same resisting force is the flash-bang unlike 28 2 4 which is actually lighter proper length agreement life and yet we had more
total energy absorbed even aware the smaller diameter but this led to charts and on the last payment versus to bring on a permanent basis the
resisting force until a new decision can save the flesh may unite at 32 millimetres of performance of the 132 on last payment 28 reasonably close on interesting over here and total energy absorbed last May nite since the start of selling point is that because the 32 need flash versus the 28 millimeter flash versus the 32 millimetres on Warren and you can see these are all a constant wall thicknesses of
generally speaking the flashed tubing has about 15 per cent higher resisting force and about 20 per cent more energy absorbed and tubing on another notion of the flash player and I just because of the ban on it is that were able to heat
at temperatures of 400 to 550 C cool to ambient and they still have significant strength remaining the Flash Player nite after hitting the 400 C has about 23 per cent along on at 500 C get 30 per cent alienation of rough laboratory experiments after cooling down at 404 reported seeing you retain 90 per cent of your prior restraint or 77 per cent your strength after cooling from 500 we've been talking to
many of auto announced that on Williams ones party tried about the concept of replacing stamp born with a warm form flashed idea like this painfully tempered reheated for secondary options just it's an alternative to the high cost of and steals now with the flesh unite and that when you write a conduit writer for exactly what you're doing and you try and expand just a little bit so that you can discuss further on changes in the future that make a panel of battle against you know what we're doing
right now is we actually think our material and a few seconds we heat up to somewhere over a thousand degrees centigrade depending on the alloy steel on substantially immediately and we start punching in water and bring steal back down to room temperature on it if you consider temperatures above 200 degrees centigrade this is about 5 five-second process what
we've done with our intellectual property is we've been able to putting the idea of an optional Preheat and then if you stopped the clock at 2 0 on whether pretty
takes 10 years at 10 seconds here allowed 5 seconds to exceed thousand C and then you have to immediately initiate your quench and what's interesting is that we don't have to quench down room temperature we just have
to start quenching as soon as we reach our peak temperature with which we Thanksgiving gives us all a lot of thought latitude going forward you know I again right now we're using water spray to get a 20 per cent by United the deepest Martin now with this because there was this lives as options for the future now ,comma
and like to think that the the flesh they might not like structure can stand on its own as a technology but also if you look at the idea of on think of the concept of what happens if you heat rapidly develop hydrogen is like a structure from 650 C 550 C you develop 20 cent day-and-night what could you do with that remaining in per cent meta transformed Boston
would you put a galvanizing quench would you put in solid man would you possibly quenching partition what's
interesting as you have all your low-carbon they and I warmed up I low-carbon Martin
formed next and then you could have on a reasonably high enriched carbon on transformed Austinite maybe . 4 . 5 carbon to work with down here petitioner on I guess what I'm
really getting at is a lot of good work is better than the land on margins marginalize Austin With the atomic interactions and localized chemistry after fluctuating is an extremely field studies because all prior patterns started out with homogenize your steel this idea of heterogenous Austinite right now makes all quenching processes novel again if you use the flattering reading from cycle so we've actually got a new field of study on basically an adventure has fewer then last picture here we've been working with Lawrence Tech essay about how the info on for 5 years now
college students and wealth having Leopold and what's most interesting is that the front of a arms I can't tell you the number of times at 35 miles an hour they could boulders and rocks and tree stumps and farmers fields but this vehicles back in my building it's kind of like Henry Ford had club cycle so I have my response go on but there's no dancing beings-no no damage on any of the flesh and material on which turned out to be
extremely robust eliminates the vehicle flip over quite often instead of bending breaking conclusions
just what I've talked about them identify the biggest conclusion thank you to hearing Matthew and Siraj because it wasn't for the 3 of them I wouldn't be a metallurgist today heirs are we I thank you
so much and against GOP on not everyone in the audience say thank you once again demonstrating that we can work on the period materials I think we all enjoyed ailing flag when someone demonstrates the superiority of stealing canine in the Banking Act and actually about life question think predicts will talk
it's amazing quirk juicy here and I think it's absolutely the right direction distributed technology should go into the next year's because it suggests that what the further toward of positive things this approach that is just a question so it could you wouldn't mention preview episode should heating grates that you use stood to reach should this temperature 1 thousand views on typically we hate to over a thousand degrees in less than 2 seconds sold 5 highlighted by 2nd serves as a reasonable so that our work is banned from about 350 too a thousand degrees C per 2nd on whether we're using induction directly into the upper end of the don't observer doing little to outside angle to temperature because if you go very fast high-temperature Jeff Kent's contended being notable sudden temperature when you removed appeared effective your Carbide searches there or what actually found on an acclaimed exemplify that with the 1010 steel is the grain growth is not a bad thing with the flash processing in chemistry if we actually find that a larger grains can be better off working with feels like 10 10 pt temperature could be somewhere in the neighborhood of 1200 degrees centigrade working with the steel at 41 40 copycat heating temperature is a thousand 50 degrees C which then has lower and lower grain sizes but for for some reason we find we get better along Asian with different grain sizes from different places steel in this I'm sure this has something to do with hemorrhaging starts tonight and localized chemistry and the various questions leadership attaches to different initial might researchers before a flesh-eating dating should be extended the pattern because its future should do Forrester the diffusion of better fuel technology victimize what happens there is a absolutely correct on the idea of 5 processing will work as long as there's very present because which enable Virginia the carbon gradient on but we do get our butts results were thought there are guys like a structures with the 41 30 41 40 because that gives us the maximum amount of far-right president on so that we can develop the sort that upper band I very low carbon doubtful region to go along with that the high carbon markets in the regions also patronage and identity say
it was a fantastic next year and if it is not a commercial secret that
what goes wrong when you use you said that you know what in the process gives you the fact that it's on the actually 2 things you have to worry about most people talk about once distortion but we actually find healing distortion to be an issue as well so what you have to do is you have to maintain the same size grains on both sides of the sheet steel and that will help you to avoid above on the heating distortion that can occur but that also the quench distortion if you have a sheet of steel rolling in that direction and your quenching at the same time top and bottom everything is wonderful if the steel starts the float up a little bit and then you start hitting the top sooner compared to the bottom and then you end up quenching the top before the bottom and then that will colleges distortion so there's all this action mechanisms we have in place to make sure that we keep the heat evenly unquenchable top and bottom at the same time and if that doesn't occur steel starts waving hits the induction of oil and hits the water spray makes a very big enough so we try not to do that on hang getting a
stuff just 1 question and give you of trade to see what is the fantasist himself in the chest and but the Fatah
distance because you're not talking about a deputy city gaining some of its strength in the past at high temperatures in the teach you could just see what is offended stints in intervening fire-resistant against on the actually we have done some very preliminary work and found some exciting results because on we have banned items like a structure of what I read sometimes is the man that doesn't temper and reduce loses strength of what we've found is that our material at 600 degrees centigrade on flesh 41 38 on still has the yield strength of 45 chaos I now we found that exciting compared 836 material which is 36 care sigh at room temperature so an initial indication is that flashed Maronite at 600 C is stronger than a 36 is at room temperature so long of course an architectural steals you're going to spray on your own insulating coatings and things like that book we think that there is some definite potential for material that has about a starting point for any resistance right away all we haven't done any studies on creep resistance but some of electricity in here now make me think that we need to flesh of some lost 9 chromium steel just to see what happens and that any questions that you have the code from the Internet to Norris asked do you have any influence estimation of the toughness of the temperatures I only would have done fracture toughness and die on the fracture toughness as armor I can't remember the results to be honest with you but I could provide them after that I know at room temperature of fracture toughness is not 66 on compared to 43 40 which is 50 so we're very confident about 43 40 years and I know there were no difficulties in the army Mahmoud testing with the local the brittle transition temperatures and then the phone question and ask about the maximum thickness the duty which evenly into brother that transfer right now the maximum thickness is essentially limited by the quenching rate and you can heat up still with high-powered deductions and that were actually working with the company Bill helical in Greece that has interests in flat-panel for 2 minutes 1 of the primary questions is whether we can do bars or if we can just be limited to make thicknesses right our about 12 and a half mm but I'm sure there's some equations that we can work through to determine just how fast you can take the heat out of the steel analyst with induction can heated up as quickly as you'd like this vacation like this with 1 thanks a lot area
questions from the audience practices because like education questions seeking sticking out of


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