Steel Technology, Ingenuity and the Future

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Steel Technology, Ingenuity and the Future
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A elegant lecture on the creativity and thought processes needed to nurture the already vibrant steels research and development. A lecture by Professor Hae-Geon Lee of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, South Korea.
Bhadeshia, Harshad Kumar Dharamshi Hansraj
Computer animation Spare part Steel Chemical substance
Screwdriver Computer animation Steering Cartridge (firearms) Photographic processing Joint Steel
Typesetting Photocopier Hot working Catadioptric system Ford Focus Switcher Pattern (sewing) Pattern (sewing) Sizing Computer animation Automobile Photographic processing Photographic processing Book design Material Material
Blast furnace Sizing Computer animation Volumetric flow rate Rutschung Caliber Steel Engine Steel Rail transport operations Material Movement (clockwork)
Blast furnace Outsourcing Computer animation Cartridge (firearms) Steel Steel Blast furnace Scrap Defecation Tire
Blast furnace Train Coal Roll forming Casting Computer animation Cartridge (firearms) Moving walkway Tool Caliber Steel Hose coupling Bleisatz Material
Computer animation Caliber Ship of the line
Tin can Computer animation Finger protocol Submarine Tool Caliber Coal Steel Steel Flatcar
Fulling Computer animation Rolling (metalworking) Diaphragm (optics) Rolling (metalworking) Rolling (metalworking) Steel Pickup truck Gun
Turning Computer animation Spare part Rolling (metalworking) Steel Hose coupling Steel Scrap International Space Station
Nut (hardware) Computer animation Mechanic Spare part Rolling (metalworking) Steel Molding (process) Steel
Computer animation Alcohol proof Cartridge (firearms) Food packaging Steel Steel
Tin can Hot working Computer animation Cluster munition Submarine Automobile Pen Book cover Gun
Computer animation Cartridge (firearms) Submarine Automobile Gun
Computer animation Steel Steel Cylinder block
Hot working Computer animation Cartridge (firearms) Ship class Steel
Mat Chemical substance Sizing Computer animation Stagecoach Cartridge (firearms) Spare part Remotely operated underwater vehicle Steel Enlarger Engine Metallurgy
Hot working Computer animation Cartridge (firearms) Key (engineering) Book cover Printing press Steel Material Material Printing Engine control unit
Ship breaking Computer animation Cartridge (firearms) Casting Photographic processing Buick Century Scouting Book design Kupferbarren
Game Computer animation Photographic processing Casting Linkage (mechanical) Kupferbarren Semi-trailer truck
Cylinder head Nut (hardware) Hot working Hybrid rocket Computer animation Submarine Paper Cruise ship
Typesetting Mechanical engineering Photography Submarine Stationery Spaceflight Roll forming Computer animation Caliber Spare part Giant (mythology) Steel Holzfaserplatte Progressive lens
Game Caliber Steel
good thank you very much for very kind introduction to be for the I'm very glad to be ever to stand here to see all of these are very enthusiastic again and the future promising students also the faculty here what happens in so the theory and Professor society asked me to give us 7 today just about a month ago and I said yes the like to talk whatever I like to talk about solid today I'm not going to talk anything technology In fact I don't know any getting technology in the in that but you have like to talk something I think it's useful for him some of the things I very briefly problem some talk technology group issues because as you know the hybrid involving the upper part of the whole spectrum of still business and so the quality the chemical matrilineage only they can still making that area so probably you might call you by because of the the primary interest but I tried to to the general as possible to you will eat this
say technology developed probably due to we can get on many ways to classify the technologies developed but this is a 1 of the way but facility Ltd which means of if you have a better facility you can't when use moral the product and get a plot and the rule of so for instance if I could 5 you see that call racing for instance you can use which can't believe running faster than the other because the facility the this must be running faster than the other the other 2 but in this case the solution to the problem with that sort of thing this is the following you have to use a probably if you have money so if you have money you
can solve the problem get the better facilities and then you can produce more in high quality higher quality the general the but many of the but then develop countries and some developing countries the applied respond to steer thickness steel industry very usually use of to so that when I was 1st Joint Steering the stream Korea and 19 seventies the technology is all of the technology already embedded in in In the facility manager that that of facilities the footage Pacific it comes with its own technology so we just run it and then we get the product so that's that's how to read and how to maintain the equipment sets best technology you would you could say but but there is another another 1 knowledge of the meeting to of the technologies that means everybody has the best equipment the best it's a similar kind of people who drives faster it doesn't it it it doesn't depend on the color of the so it depends on the driver which in this case the solution is the facility is the human resources how would you how good driving driving OK this is 1 of the 2 the ways of classifying the technology developed so the curriculum is now in this area so get most of the steel companies in Korea has the he's the best equipment so that but it doesn't mean that they can produce the best quality so they they have to work college to get the most of to make the most of all of the facility so
now the theory of pattern that you get also the number of ways of the in classifying the patterns of technology developed at this is the 1 way suppose that this this is the size of the the experimental suppose you have at this size of which kilos all the specimens for research suppose that the outcome of your research is a very promising and then you can just call for further develop you make moral the problems and then eventually if fully successful you can go into the production of commercial production so in the commercial production in the research size size the amount of the work you do In the with material amount of material you you deal with is about the same but here you dealing only 1 piece of the of the the the material but you have many of but there is another 1 this is the the physical size when you do research but into promising and then you go from 1 step further for instance of pilot plant title but development of the scale is much bigger but the for the commercial production too much much bigger so this these are 2 different types of time patterns for this technology developed still falls on this cat still so that's the what you would want to think you you've developed a very nice technologies but this still company is not very much interested noted because there are theories of very wide gap between so the focus on 1 when we say the when you can't trust science advanced technology and for pattern 1 of many kinds of science and technology that with just so that you can sometimes you cannot distinguish with 2 sides of technical before that terms so science and technology sometimes widely separated so we said if ECOLEAD you'll what is very nice promises but technology could use you have to to a long way to go on filtered into
this is my view that the social economic point of view of this field is the on material society so when you go out there and then you can look at whatever you like to look just imagine if there is if there were no value what should the society would so it has to be the home would you divorce sealed spawning but and then technological point of view this as what evolving which is and I returned 12 years old copy my at 12 years old and then I don't know who events of to the newcomer suppose our you you you you you and you can't but the if you look at the code itself you may say that all of this is called body but if you you paint there must be and 12 years old car and the brand new car stainless-steel but it's a very different if you will produce scale to have years old technology and they try to sell it to the common because they wouldn't so it's gradually you don't see very much but it's evolving and the global environment for environment point of view this I am still is most of abundant compatible available material nature and also the most recyclable of material so it in this way in this book in this regard it still is very environmentally friendly with you like analysis some
consideration of this field of future future of it's not just the product of the steel production process OK if you look back at maybe 20
30 40 years from now the a blast food is used to be quite small if blast furnaces about 400 years old technologies for 400 years old technology it's gradually develop become bigger and bigger but the figure in the past for this operation very important of technologies how blue moves because at the bottom it's about sensing and the patent can pouring the raw material used in the body through the use of thinking but not very uniformly thinking it's a sliding and gliding all of the things happening inside so it's control those movement double burden in the is in difficult so because of that he the size of the blast furnace was until you people have adapted some technology from civil engineering is centered engineering they already had a very well developed technology for landslide so they are adopted the metrological engineer adopted the that the civil engineering technology events sliding technology and then applied into the blast furnace so that they can increase the size of the blood flow the other 1 the
united given opened in 1958 due to most of the still would process the was produced by result of open house for is applied nice but very small but the difference in the more than 100 years of all the they already knew that the when we will when people when they are pure oxygen could be used for still images then this thing here can be produced much faster where but the the auction was very expensive but in the 19 fifties someone developed a how to reduce some of the options much cheaper price is all of the policy options so this planet oxygen was employed in this making combined with this the making technology so that the 4 basic oxygen furnace has given that this is a
triangle metaphase I but anyway the phase diagram of the tries to so suppose this is a remote peripherals open-hearth for old-fashioned and and basic oxygen furnace here and then the electric arc for so you need all of you know all you have to read this this is how the still making technology is moving along the time for is a long time of all this is the main still making technologies but in if you look at this 1 in the 19 fifties the be all and basic oxygen policy-making technologies was the major the technology but in 1950 of being in 2 thousand is gradually moving to would let you of so because the bias Scripps describes it has become more and more available and the idea is to make the scrap that this this still making technology we describe has been developed in the middle of the food so that they are working in this way so the someone has predicted that in 2013 In most of this you would be produced through lectures on phonemes With because more and more on this year's scraps will be available before if I take the Japan is an example of 1 of my friends in Japan told me that the 2013 the crap to be collected in Japan it's enough truth to cover the still demand in Japan if you will process this fused graph using the confidence if you don't the bone if you don't worry about the soup quality but the problem is 1 if you use this this graph inevitably on you will have some impurities which is very difficult to move so that the apology quality of steel is not comparable with still coming from but the technology has to be developed so that they're very recently in the new technologies has already been available in the market some and the some Indians to companies have already adopted this so this isn't a basic which influences this is the negative of that combine them together so that the 1 single furnace has 2 sources of bias by putting this option as it becomes our people and then take and in this swing the direction of the electrical the lecture electrode and then it becomes a of food so we 1 phonemes functions through Tuesday and making practice so so in this case you can call you can use the the Morton metal and then this scrap depending on the the economic point of view of all the so this is a very simplified
use I understand making Prof suppose we don't want to make up a different movies this direction is oxidation movies with reduction so I order is a fully oxidized form and 2 3 so we have to make an audience using different tools for it and then we have to remove this option from and also usually use carbon carbon options so that the carbon takes options of the iron peak and then I we can produced by idea if this is very argued above all technology current technology is not good enough to hit this point so usually call overshoot this weekend remained produce science but contains too much come so this is called island the mostly from blast furnace and then the contagion too much problem we have to move to remove fluctuations we supplement supplied Common to remove problem we gave supply options we the options but again we could remove the common but it contains too much oxygen now that we with can't use common because if you use carbon that involves for ever so we have to use some different things usually on the menu for silicon and then some of them are metals which is very good for the reacting with oxygen can result in many cases we use of and then it comes to produce this is called the final prime this is a general approaches and then the what we are you are happy with the idea we could steal the cost the casting to make a not the a couple weeks ago
the professor travel time of the day the lecture very intensively so we define reiterated and as opposed to find the problem the 100 per cent in terms of a production process and then the Continental To make a hot metal you have to spend 75 % of the portal and then the further processing to of the steelmaking find once you got this year because it's already use up to 90 % of its portal costs for the precision of processing about 10 % policy 1 is that previously this would stop the train but then if you look at the the raw material products about 10 years ago in 2 thousand the price of iron ore was 18 dollars ton but now it is 160 dollars for whole there is a whole In 2000 it was a 40 to top but now it's a very close to 3 thousand 300 or 300 dollars so in 10 years time this is then followed you don't normally fuel prices have changed that's why the I am making process is so important these so did some people say that polar still companies wanted it goes to companies use of our which can develop what kind of a technology which we took except role horribly wrong with you because of quality wrong with the should so the
thereof several on total of the several processes has been developed ontology to blasphemous to look for instance fast method and the cops and we like to come to which you can then produce this the of hard but you're on about and then you at
runtime whose for this this has been developed that not only Japanese the people and and this is also the 1 of the promising technologies of to like but that produces the idea not that there's nothing they can talk that the solid lines and then this is finest
itself possible is putting lots of effort into it to develop tools to complete the beautiful presents this is just the a the 2 places the the last In the professor Tom Collins has already explained some the kids and then the force
due production not on the production of steel production but the current technology is that you at all the lecture about functions as a told in the future this true for audiences would be combined together so that you can take on 1 of the public are you coming from I am also the economy souls coming for use graph then you can produce any kind of so selection long product effect products with OK and this
is another fuel the whole process of all all this through the action processor molecule here comes at the room temperature I can always hold limestone all comes the wrong the room temperature temperature is raised quite high and then even further was maintain this is the 1 thousand 600 utilization and then you could down to make a solid and then comes to the room temperature and engage other full full hot rolling this may be about 110 or sorry 1010 1 about 1100 were 1200 researchers level and then cooling down again for full rolling and then for the processing so he did not and including in the meaning of so is there anyway to produce is still not going get high temperature so this is a because what we do at this year's Prussian ferrite so
when you look at the phase diagram impression fair so this is the phase diagram at the 1300 researchers OK so here we can see the very wide the could area so the regret area if you control the oxygen potential of right direction then you can produce the quality of life and then the further
reducing the processing temperature so you really want know the also of for so oxysulfide when you look at the face value valuable analysis to of the
reforms science I sort of side and oxygen so there is a two-phase reuse reasons so if there's competition is brought to this area you can have a metallic bonding and boxes of methods to get another was boxes of my then maybe to precipitate out the public by so we are particularly interested in this process part the because in the future this theory that's you should use moral followed by the steel scrap steel script inevitably contains copper and copper highlights aside from more to this then options so can't do when you have a good enough amount of sort of still the company can easily combined so but to become a couple so far so we moved a couple of using this way and then the the still may contains excessive amount of sulfur in it and then you may have already developed a good technology for the use of 3 the sulphurization so that we can move alpha so it's a quite future oriented 1 so we are also working on this is love for for continuous
casting you can now do we are actually employed to gravity for free for all the the would run so part of what the we have much later molten
steel follows punish by altering the whole and then the you can request is forced to mold also the gratitude for because of what the free of the in liquid series educated very problem should that copulins creates a lot of problems to just on is there any way want to replace all the use of the free fall of mechanism themselves into in in years that we are actually when developing this technique so the temptation is not that the probably more important issues in that besides the border so that is connected like this aside from siphoned France so in this way do this kitchen floor from year to year in much gentler with so do we don't have the means called the OK to do you technology we have our
technologies we are working on the same for all future the only to you now the thing I change my called the the what what I use here for that why are you here at there are many other departments even that was why did you select 2 would get it you to this is because of a very attractive this college can you respect you use that that can you can find a job the more easily than the department or do you really have stayed in your pocket which 1 is that it is the major reason scholarship package finding a job if that is the major reason I probably the reason I will be very impressed pressed so when the fisher study developed master's degree period should you you will be branded the mark of steel In euphoria right you must be happy with OK
dispute technologies and this is that the the case of Korea the idea is that the korean is example it's steel industry in Korea he has been it follows condition in 1960 1970 is the eighties nineties it was very close to this point according to the still companies or industry 1 very faithful follow working hard and then they just a benchmark of that is the Advanced Technology they work very hard to follow catching up and and also the degree is the company very clever probably it will be a number of different technologies available in the market which 1 I should follow if you follow the wrong 1 you will be in big trouble in the future so the steel companies you invest has been very clever in children the event so that the vision of the Lord of many of success stories you can post pipeline good exam so posts on here is you have to tackle
all so thought of kind of a problem I don't know what it is it's really very difficult to solve and then it just and doesn't know what to do but I you can think of several different ways this is 1 way of that is the solution
so go and the hit the market and then solution comes along to what the user means as long as you have the answer you have OK this is 1 way you can choose from and then the when I was the junior high years to come we had lot of problems when a problem comes up nobody knows how to tackle covers all and then the all the company as the total total of office of the company find out the to form let get and then he came and then he told us all of this is the way to go it is there is no way to what we just follow very faithful but we didn't we didn't actually know why happens that way what is the reasonable work just he just as clusters which is what we did and it was will have beginning that so very quickly what about the you what if it is another problem no solution we have to find another retired for of can the is another way there is a half
but just 50 or just a the speakers at the will of didn't listen to it and then you can get a solution probably if you are not small enough even if you see it and you don't know where it so you have to have a little knowledge so this is a better than the people previous 1 still if you don't have any personal available and may not be able to solve the problem so also the EEG and create and then you probably you may not be able to solve the the the the the the problem when it comes OK
suppose there is still another way your thinking and then focusing and concentrating and then tried to you have the eventually you can put forward a solution that solution may not work and then come back and then what back and forth and then you eventually get that has this so slow and steady but if this is the case when this problem comes probably cumulative you will be able to solve it for yourself I hold although volunteer his students should where and they try to solve your problem is actually the way you
take away the you take of intuitions futures which witchcraft so the hopefully all of you take this path and then we call this kind of this man of ability you and creative so now this
the the steel industry in Korea of has developed gradually moved now we are at the Vedas isn't it may just sort usually very long all of these of aged people here sitting from block role and then 2nd row and so the role as well and and these people all the time 2 from individuals and they are generally they tried to defined person to follow but there's no need to this is the this so the welcome to the future but you don't know which way to go unless you are very nicely and they're very well prepared this you can
you know what do you know what the what was the history of the to support you are standing this is the history and then the very stupid person presented this work OK the the future going this way but there is not the case probably you can it to the class of persons with but I don't know you know what what say so so the you have to be prepared for the future so behaving I like to
see each 1 of to be a man of few just let not like this not that was like this so mean this is
a very famous all curve S intervention period developed here and in you would be solved so this is a time or effort and then to develop level to them so if you are at this stage this is the amount of effort for and and this effect but you know that a small input and enlarged if you want at this side would be very happy small input the knowledge if you apply this to research if you are at this stage part of part of a lot of effort to influence but I'll come small look at the you realize you can use along crime crimes applied as an example so in this case for a given enterprise probably you can climb up a little bit 2 . 2 quite a distance but if this is the case the same amount of effort probably you can you can progress only this is just the that's why you should very they hold like like this was kind of rough tried to be like this sphere is
5 both feel better suppose you are come call defensive offensive to in the old days in Europe that if they fought with very long they're salt and if you are a popular in the present is down here you are much better to the but if you are the boundary it is looking users can be trusted fully at least 100 the scheme is entirely up to that we should admit for instance when I was a university students department is hold Department of metrological French and then that of the change the metallurgical engineering and with use and then the wiki years has been naturalized and then they would figure size that engineering or morning and the Advanced Materials Science and Engineering so these are the 3 level of still cover to and then in some universities in North America for instance you can do this compartments and then the some of them have joined the technical ingenuity some others joined the mechanical energy In this case still falling so this is this is the real situation of the but still is
the material not to to be the better but the McCain to be reinforced as I told you the number because of the number of reasons that's why we have established morphology of the and then moreover you here which for science and
technology when we applied desires privileges these are the number of atoms of so what we do this is the number welcomes when you dealing with this number of atoms that is tangible with the amount of keys to it's 1 more of what is a half hour however you moralize anyone can say very very precise and roughly 56 graph you can you can you can you can touch and feel so this is the the 1 and then the microstructure and then the molecular level and the and the usual 1st principle lower so the if we can come from very wide the spectrum of technologies for real material here and then the solid and then the this would be very nice and they this is our whole but in many cases it's it's it's it's it's created you know something about this area this and that but we don't know much about this some of is disconnected like this because we have our own media steps of knowledge for this area and then variational biology in this particularly something but there is a general that the people are generally saying if you're knowledgeable is that there and then the application of your knowledge with the covering only that which is that with and then the incoming deeper and deeper and deeper so that we can say this is the effect of knowledge and and this is the process of application it would be a very very ideal if 1 person only 1 researcher 10 cover all of the did that and the press but unfortunately it is not the case so someone has a very good knowledge in this area some has out of the knowledge and use it someone who is a very nice most of the that introduces but not all of what so this is why we have to do some proliferation and some people working in the same some of some of of work and then you have people working in this area each of these they are all from different a different word but that they should understand each of them and then combine them to get that to put to to develop on some innovative and creative technology here it said this is our technology
breakthroughs so the this is usually ask her if this is all then that this technology will be section so now we have technology breaks with if we have a technology breakthrough and then we can make up another right this and other tasks could otherwise we we should century and then the 1 of the another 1 and another 1 so did but the technology will continue to develop for instance if I applied this kind of concept to test solidification overwatered still so this is a testing and continuous testing and there's some other casting the probably side for testing which are working on the case so this is a book when the the of testing was the case in most of the people are watching reading got is how to prevent the segregation of those things how to make up the conclusions before up to you before you for solidified so there is a high that was the high technology that ingenuity
so to do do this probably you need to have some
kind of linkages you know the who said 10 years is 1 per cent inspiration 99 per cent inspiration who said that and then what the perspiration just select 1 F 99 % have so do you think all of you because you that list you have a 1 per cent inspiration at this the main item that was an effort to you to did you every day you put effort into the world so all of these tributaries but they don't always achieve why there is 1 of the principal called the particle Princess sometimes it is also known as the 80 20 rule this principle states that the for many environments roughly 80 per cent of the facts come from 20 per cent of the cold is what does it mean for instance suppose there is a
person try energy in an effort to 100 % he puts 100 % of time and energy and in foot and then the 20 per cent of his input it into kind of what effect a soaring energy 20 per cent all is his input results in 80 per cent of the good but you 80 per cent of his time effort energy just gives a 20 % of which is so the you may go legitimate 80 per cent of your achievement comes actually from 20 per cent of you the remaining 80 % all of your input and produces only 20 per cent of why because of this when you put 22 the 20 per cent of your time you are very active and it will be very concentrated and focused but before that the president of the problem this is what you do you long falls in love with just 2 of the i have to to use a computer in the office and then I have to do some research and to read the paper all its head to the polls and then 1 coffee so you don't consider I don't know you but I know my children OK design the tree property they put 20 per cent inputs produces 80 % of comes another 20 % also in this in another 20 per cent and 80 % and then sequence here here he is 100 % this 400 when every summer says 99 per cent perspiration of posts where he actually probably these kind of things did not not this effort you will need not this went on the work that effort you please I don't say all of them but the so called you must be genius but I don't think I would say not all so the red medicines as a 99 % of relations that you probably this means that this kind of so everybody can do this this is a baby % of the people of what actually used for this is what we say could Chinese letter but we know what the is it the right English according cruise this and then the g I have to remember that that you should you should like this this is abuse from this is being true
it be sprout individually but most of them comes from the from the same thing what becomes probe and because nutrients it takes 2 different different 2 different without going through so if you choose if you really like this 1 you have to choose this point not this 1 if you choose this 1 you will become the entry that the induced problem I don't say which 1 is better than the other but you have to be determined but just to to move back and forth like this then probably will produce some kind of a hybrid so now this this may be the last 1
what the function and the role of g I have to use a very unique kind of within that in so you know that the to every compartment has its own graduate problem but he assigns Engineering Department of this university has its own graduate programme mechanical engineering has its own graduate program but there's a few some different type of graduate programs like that you the and and information technology with the program of wind energy graduate program so there are I think there are about the 10 different 10 different special programs and issues which has only a graduate program the war in the graph but I just have to it is still different from all of the above the graduate school not all of it wasn't because this graduate school all forms not only the masses but also the pieces here specializing in so this kind of of of graduate school is called I don't know how to call it the usually inquiry and we call each other amor to how how how the whole thing it's a do you have that kind of a gradual progress in when I was stationed like other medical school many go school is only graduate program law school undergraduate program the business school going to is a graph from giant T is that in the same kind of like incomes of organization so the jury of the has its own unique mission and suppose Industrial production capacity so that in the support x take a possible as an example post-cold reduces the number of different kinds of and then the 2 possible also has the form on indigenous it can have on the order of research center it provides simple prior technologies to the probably not very much interested in the fundamental research because the that is not the way the station so what they do should be you should you should find immediate applications to this stupid not the GI of the theory that that's sitting here so that it produces an embedded technology to to them and their supporting technologies to to the and and also although it produces a kind of a breakthrough technology and then also the very important to GIF used should produce high caliber well trained and and how is that master's or phd so the majority has to have a very intimate of relationships with industry like medical school and law school and the business do you have thought before his his medical school has a very close interaction with positive in fact the most so of the professors and medical school all medical doctors of law school many professors in law school has good experience in the law practice legal practice before becoming the roles to David business school as well so they are very close close interaction with industry with the theory so the G. I have should always a lot of to demand that are all all come to useful for the students good ones and you have there no way to that it cannot find it it's a photograph because also in the posted there on many departments they have to go on graduate school I'm sorry that it the report
not created in its continued to Chinese students this is trying to this is the Chinese 2 2 letters which Chinese people hold so this is the 2nd and induces a lot I don't know how did you prosperity center of prosperity of everything culture science technologies power so the China it has been the center on and then you there are many many people live Raleigh so unfortunately did call all these people up various this this is the chinese that to indicate the barbarians in the northern part of talk the western part of this is on board this is a candidate this is from Vietnam there is the southern part of China unfortunately this letter is used to indicate the Correa to and then this letter entire they used used to to say natural so when you combine these 2 together that and Korean and this is the steel made including 2 I'm not joking this is a really do that for steel in China but that's all they don't use this that these things if you look up the dictionary so you can find useful and then the to say that this is 1 of the old matters for so this Try this seems to indicate that the our ancestors Korea 40 I used to be quite good in images so we should that both for you guys should be proud of of students G and then all of those cotton the students coming who came from other countries you should be proud of our starting in the country which used to be very strong instead thank you thank you very much more
subtle much higher very appreciated rather than very moved by the euro passed on to the stage with and so on and is very good so as to mobile users of the of of the of the afterlife or anything you want to say something to the use of any crystal in commentaries quite of good


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