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Bearings and Steels

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tell that morning and welcome to cambridge uh Cambridge university is this interesting mix of history and high I was trying to show you a flavor of both of those this morning will mainly focus on the high signs of a softening we mainly on history University being here for just a little over a hundred years and yet it's still 1 of the world's premiere University in in in all we tables of seen in the top 10 and usually in the top 5 of them with stanford men like in the American but it's got a hundred years of history from the person is quite nostalgic moment because almost exactly 40 years ago I was sitting you on my very 1st lecture an undergraduate in this great university was in this very lecture theater so as it's said there is a nostalgic moment for me personally but what I'd like to do over the next few minutes is to is to give you some some background to SKF and technology but I felt I couldn't start here in Cambridge without saying about will call the problem of I felt I could start here without
just saying telling you about a few of the great things but it happened more or less right here within a few hundred meters of this lecture the cost and a little bit of time on some of the some of the greats of history amount we want we style ourselves and SKF as the knowledge engineering company and I like just explain a little bit about what that means then I wanna focus on our research and development that we do in SKOS then some of the real old skills core competences we have on 1 of those is very definitely on steel and the way that you get the best thing to steal and not really leads to a lot of our new product development and has led us to establishing the 1st of our university technology centers here we are we're supporting across the world far even larger university technology centers but this 1 Cambridge is our is our first one still are most important so I'd like to cover the context of what would be so
let me start with some with some sort of established and history of science I guess if you ask anybody the think of a scientist he probably I come up with Einstein on you the story the just scientist like with the makeup of the federal court maxwell but but most people would break those 3 probably as was the greatest of the last place in use and so on well I submit was here Isaac Newton was the was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics he assigns the existing Newton's they uh he was Professor of Mathematics here and in many ways the social invented science that some of us from thing that's school invented the laws of motion and came up with most fundamental laws of motion In doing so invented calculus or invented particle in the but he developed the Universal Law of Gravity this this thing that causes the movement to retreat right the value of the estate writing the on it was new and they came up with this with this equation but that explains why it should be not of how would should do that in order to try to construct a new kind telescope invented and made them the the the reflecting telescope and need a lot of things of light and color so so really 1 of the absolute rates all of science I would have been estimated to John's College Isaac Newton was master of Trinity College which college right next to the past that on the pumps later on today when I talked about Maxwell those of you
who did Science University unsure learned Maxwell's equations again you either love them or hate about and the history 100 US what about examines confessed weren't my favorite subject but this guy during the day to unite the whole field of electricity and magnetism electromagnetic field again really 1 of the absolutely great final he did his work in like Cavendish Laboratory which lists and we all are of what could and today we will I believe we're going to see the Maxwell lecture theater where this man elected to students you wouldn't want it to have been there they they deliberately designed the lecture theater to be as uncomfortable as possible so the students in fall asleep and we've been we've behind hope will fall asleep to it I hope that we the electricity is a little more of then they have made my own my own when you JJ thompson ways in my new ways it's got uh like myself like told became the came from Scotland and this was the guy who discovered the 1st subatomic particles I guess people heard of electrons even those of you that are not scientists 1 other kind a real based subatomic particles uh told in the very early stages of science across the world this was the 1st man ever to prove that the worst such things as subatomic particles and to prove that every element of the same subatomic particles on that really was quite a major break and he was 1 of the world's first-ever Nobel prizes and may wonder why the when you know part Madeleine when there were Nobel prizes where they were before well so they don't have the opportunity to live in a world right but this guy at 1 1 of the 1st Nobel Prize and indeed this university I believe is 1 more Nobel prizes than any other organization in the world the Nobel Prizes been around for a little over 100 years and this university 188 noble prize was 88 the world price not admission is more than 1 noble prize each year and there's something given to more than 1 person in each area but it's still a density of Nobel Prizes on unrivaled and then all the name that I'm but I'm sure you may have heard of relevant
that is relevant uh credited with splitting the atom has been it's not actually quite true that but the other match to this to associates who also worked here a cultural Cockcroft-Walton actually splitting the atom but relevance the 1 that we always remember he was the head of the department you that when the goal friend but the real kind of follow of nuclear physics are monophonic profit-taking Susan Jones College rivals but rather fits the nativity room uh and and Rutherford and they be changed the world in the understanding again of subatomic particles that led to the fall of nuclear science and and nuclear engineer and again rather further I mean did his work Cockcroft-Walton did their work within a few hundred meters of you sitting in in the Cavendish Laboratory and then the final 1 let's talk about Crick and Watson and Crick and Watson discover the structure DNA um more recent 1 way and not long actually for university I don't know if many of you spotted just before you turned up the steps to come up to this lecture theater there was a saying that in my day when I was here in Cambridge with the cycle periods of funny little sort a wooden shed it's no the Rolls-Royce University Technology Center hearing materials department but but in mind it was the bicycle shared never twice as much and it actually was only about 5 years ago the somebody told me it was bicycle sheds light on the rule released which university technologies and that was what Crick and Watson discover the structure in the end and I find it by giving to this day there is still no notice on the side of the uh to explain this this is what we inputs into this work because this is the whole basis of modern genetics and without DNA without understanding how DNA reproduces itself and you really don't get into too did you know the reason genetics and so as I was only to the point of all quite have have great this this little area has been in the past but it's really quite quite dramatically has set the framework of of world some of them see similar of women with look of the cycle scheduling at the university technology center the way Boston and unseen natural features of the only possible it will look this morning when we wandered around a lot to a better look at a very interesting I hope makes of real high-tech see some of the world's most advanced electron microscope and and and some of the real history of of window and something we'll look at some of the some history as something fitting but more of the 100 years throughout history of what's happened here in the past so let me move on then and talk about a scale
SKF the knowledge engineering what is what is the knowledge engineering company what is that means well our our group vision is to equip the world with less clear knowledge and I remember when I joined as gift 5 years ago I'm thinking I don't understand what that means is something we give away all our knowledge that means there's something about how how and after we do we maintain our position of all what time we're teaching of the what we did and I find that really quite confusing and and and I found as I got into SKOS and as I got on the the skin that's here I I I really discovered what it means and I am not enough translated it from me you know for that for the technical people that work for me of what is this vision we need for in terms of technology and what it really means there is we've got to provide our customers with him and we'll volume through our technical knowledge would probably not the lowest-cost producer you probably combined lower cost during the course of commodity sorry to be the main it's our aim to to build volume into that product through the use of our knowledge and for me and for the technical people work for me that means that maintaining our technology leadership is absolutely critical I remember when I joined the company can I joined a just a few weeks after our 100 times versus and I remember told saying to me I we've created every major breakthrough in various parts 100 year you job to make sure we do that 100 years and a half thanks to that but what a challenging 1 opportunity and and and and won an exciting job with the guy in charge of technology so assured that with over the next half hour so good this see get very much known as a as a bearings company the world's leading manufacturer bearing but we see ourselves very much as having a fight technology platform the role very related to the old really support our activity in there the bearings guys will tell you the interval whereas the wheel true bearings people will tell you a bearing of fails iteratively lubrication in a in a rolling element bearing the the the ball the rule the rule for and against the steel rings and it is working properly it should try out the thin film of oil between the ball and the rings and the 2 two-step steel surfaces should never touch that very very thin layer of oil agreed should separate the steel little time and providing it with 2 steel surfaces never touch they can never where I will quite true but it's almost from the do transmit loads all things can happen but it's it's almost true so the true bearing expert will tell you things about feel this guy from the lubricant fails if you lose that lubrication filaments steel touches the linear you start doing damage so through that STF has become really pretty explosive and as a result of that we both developed and acquired companies that manufacture implications the put the right to my degrees in the right place at the right time when the world leaders in but very much in support of our activity in now the lubricant guys will tell you to know the lubrication of fails portrayals of this thing the seal failed Lincoln trips again an oversimplification but there is some truth behind it as well so the result of that we've we've made ourselves experts we make a lot of our own cells use other people we make a lot of our the mechatronics that's what so what that means different things to different people so for us what it really I think means is combining on knowledge of mechanics undeveloped running we're seeing as 1 of the world's foremost precision mechanical engineering company we machine very hard to steal the very high tolerances faster and better than 1 not so widely known world from exponent iw it's only 1 I during this year to discover that xk made 5 per cent of the world's fly-by-wire systems fly-by-wire systems of the systems that control the world's largest aircraft and other military aircraft along lines similar to a very very complicated electrolysis we make and mechatronics for means taking Optronics knowledge on adding it to our mechanical engineering and you'll see from some examples I give later how were beginning to put together in some really clever and some really pretty sophisticated way but in ways that really could change the way we think about the bearings and how they operate and then finally services we provide this clever mechatronics often in the form of condition monitoring of telling you what's happening within the bearing all within the mechanical system I want you to measure that well it makes a of sense will fall out of the service that best the customer often doesn't wanna do that themselves they often just wanna know when things are going wrong don't bother the telling me when everything's perfect just give me a call when it starts going wrong so I can do something about we provide that so S. is active and developing technology not just in bearings but all of those areas it's really all about managing and reducing friction will adjust so a few
words about our research and development 1st of all what we spend well we're spending at an ever-increasing rate when told told me he wanted us to stay at the forefront the next hundred years I said that's great talk at your side of the bargain you got about me and given the money to spend money promised which and found that he had and I I have never worked for a chief executive before but is still committed to the future and so committed to technology wife is lives of technologies obsolete dreams when you've got a book that's willing to back your ideas it's not so much fun if he's not but Tolman I have to say by active learning at that in front of as you can see have a pretty significant increases in budget every year 1 exception of course 2009 when I guess we all have our share of problems at 1 point Descartes manufacturing was done by which 25 % of silver nearly as much and Thomas instruction to me don't get rid of a single in science I have worked for a company before they decide not to be in such a so we have a very strong commitment to technology always spending this money on well those of the supposedly this is as you slide that Tom should should our best interest when we announced our as results the the she told Mr. Thomas procedural minor with he talked to me before it Lena Tom's priorities environment we are very driven by environmental issues environmental concerns environmental opportunities we very much see the environment as an opportunity wrong we have a big contribution that we can make in order to help our customers reduce friction reduce their energy bills reduce you to we are very focused as well on doing ourselves within our own operation was focusing on core technologies of about to later focusing on some new products again about that later strengthening R&D in fostering region we are setting up watching you research laboratories at the moment in both India and China on this last on on this is tom slide remember for the investment community strengthening our links with universities I guess that's 1 of the reasons we need today so where are are major facilities around the world I could put more of the yellow dots the this product development of the even wider range these and these are the principles are major are are major research facilities in Sweden manufacturing development in holds technology development new laboratories in India and China and on and and the Technical Center in North America and then the green ones should the university technology centers and we are here today this 1 this 1 here is Cambridge 1 also in London at 1 in the heading of word 1 in mail and 1 decisive Beijing China so those are the principal places where we do technology around the world this is our Dutch facility but we've been in this facility for about 40 years and everybody always asked for his Swedish company with lots of international activities why do we have our research center in home well it was set up there before I joined the company so it's a it's it's difficult for me to know the real truth behind as the story goes around is the the the Swedes wanted to have it in Sweden and the Germans wanted out in Germany as guest France wanted out in France and give Italy wanted in Italy and so on and so on and the chief executive said we don't have anything and we didn't label anything at all so that our research center at home I don't actually lattice but it actually gives us some really big advantage it's seen as completely neutral from within the US the company it's an easy place to get to it's it's quite closest people airport announced that I it's quite easy to fly into from anywhere in the world and we have a very very international flavor about this research center we have over 25 nationalities working together in this research normally within research center is very difficult to to get the different departments to talk to each other so if you have a lot of of metals Department of Computer Department and anaplastic department of Measurement Department whatever old normally sits at lunch in their own departments and talk to themselves not here are the Italians dollar together there's a table of all French della together at the table level Germans go together so table and we get this networking happen automatically and it's a real that's a real advantage I have never seen a research center so well network as this research center in all this is our research center in China will be our research center in China but it's still a computer-generated graphic at the moment we are currently employing 70 people were renting of building while we fill this so we have the land now we started building work in September I said it's 70 right now it will with 400 people by 2050 the bond India we really have a building uh the building was opened by told in December last year again similar ambitions of 400 by 2015 will 140 there today it's a little bit ahead of the Chinese that we started is about a year earlier so those 2 big new major technology facilities in the growing and and rapidly developing regions of the world for us very strong commitment to work with customers in those areas very strong commitment to develop and expand our technology activities in those regions of the world so let me talk
about what the core technologies 1 of the things that really really really matter to us and make us the the companies we are today well every time I
list of our our our real leads or real requirements I come back to steal let's get store on its own steel company of article we sold the vocal particularly years ago it was the right thing to do strategically and it was very difficult to work with any other steel company when you when you're steel company nobody else would do development with uh so for good strategic reasons we decided to sell a lot of uh it's it's in a very clever commercialization from a technology point of view it's enabled us to work with all steel companies but we didn't use a lot of asking technology and the knowledge within I 1 my core goals king so they're doing this company was to rebuild our steel knowledge and put it right back up there at the top of of understanding various skills and that's very much where this university technology center that were visiting this morning plays a crucial critical part In our steel technology we've also increase the number of people that a research centers both in both in Hong and manufacturing development in Sweden with new technology to steal the treatment for heat treatment is the way that you get the best thing to steel steel is an interesting theory and I Harriet our Our professor here talk to you more about that later but what you do to steal off you form that how you heated cooled by should arrive makes an enormous difference that properties so that's what I mean by to steal absolutely critical to what I was sitting where you are now or whatever 13 19 38 years ago at learning metallurgy illustrate the university and I was told that the maximum strength you could get a was to the particles that were about you to I was told that was closer to the theoretical strength of material than any of them to the theoretical strength of steel should be about 20 but you can never get from for a real practical ways but to always closer than you could get to the to the theoretical strength in any element to scared of 2 is enough for we couldn't that typically it's for it's a highly stressed very I see numbers of I want to believe that like my lecture is willing to believe that while I was sitting in 40 years so still on the way we handle steal the way we treat steel is critical to other materials are important as well as the 1 of finding out for highlighting ceramic you for a very high excluded bearings we actually change the rolling elements from being steel to be a very hard ceramic material costs with the much more and silicon nitrite does not performance especially silicon I tried rubbing against you steal rings only only on the inner surface here performs extremely well sorry highest the bearings are actually in silicon I try ceramic material so material science generally is critical to since the realization this mechatronics that this adding functionality to orbit the shoes of bearings but has a sensor that that detects the position of the bearing his stopped why is that important well this 1 is actually from all this is for uh was caused after alternate system for in order to save watering to increase fuel economy of cars the latest generation of cars when he stopped the car the engines and then we put an accelerate again the or the engine automatically starts again it rifle but it saves using an issue fuel for the time when you stop not saves obviously emissions and saves his but in order to get the car to start really smoothly you actually fire up on its bottom water 1st started moving forward on the starter motor before you switch on the spot wants to fire they look the gasoline engine the petrol engine then takes the form and in order not to get a job as a transformed from 1 to the other you need to know exactly where the car stock for position the engine stopped a much what like that SKF knowledge enhancing the ability to to to create a new opportunity for fuel economy tribology I hate the word tribology what is it made it means it means understanding surfaces in a lot of detail this slide as well this slide looks like a really rough so this is a really rough surface until and unless you understand the units on this axis we basically said was about 50 to 60 atoms between the bottom of the surface to the top of this so we're looking at the surface and a lot of detail 3 point in front of me and understanding surfaces in a lot of detail is really what's critical to the performance of a rolling element bearing modeling and
simulation we are by far the most advanced company in the world of understanding what goes on within a bearing and indeed in modeling a situation that's happening around are very so that we can we can understand the environment of the bearing and provide the right bearing 2 June the right job in the right application lubrication I talked I talked before about the stability needed to this very very thin film of all between the metallic elements otherwise the varying wouldn't last very long so understanding what what controls this thin film of what what causes degradation and how it forms having degree is absolutely critical to and seeing what about finding platforms so understanding sealing material being able to the design sealed being able to work with seals to provide the very very best stealing from is absolutely critical and then underpinning at all commitment to sustainability of commitment to the environment so those really are are are the core skills that we focus on the how do we use them I just wanted to show 1 this 1 is is getting a little um uh we were a hundred years old in 2007 and told wanted to have some major breakthrough to another only days of our 100 unfortunately he didn't think about this until about 18 months before and he went to our chief Scientist 18 months before the said this I want you to make the world's greatest breakthrough in bearing technology so I can I'm so 1 of was 16th of February 2007 and stuff symbol of chief to because of the Lombard not entonces is going to be by the way you don't say 30 per cent of the fraction of barbarians and started 1st reaction was told our bearings a ready far more friction than anybody else however if the miners is and 30 % and apparently Tom left in that point it will so it's the size you Joe who had that accompany the Welt start this wealth also thought about it and I needed it needed in that time scale only launched the 1st to really we realize vignoble wearing them of cylindrical roller bearings on the day of our of our anniversary having done this in 18 months and say I said said when I arrived home at did you do that stuff he said
well all of the things that I didn't cheat and I kept exactly the same external dimensions are kept the same ISA load-carrying found that you know I had to make it exactly the same but I used those core skills that we had in the company so I 1st of all to optimize the internal geometry I would not be osculation that would be you're in into the details of the world if you got a bowl is running in a in a groove and if you make a to exactly the same you get cold so friction between 2 after all not listing the little bit and other than the difference in the diameter between this 1 and this 1 basically the osculation now if you up too far causal things that can be writing and and I think it's a bit loose but because machining standards that are higher than most he was able to open up osculation a little bit more than you we then change the standard steel cage for polymer cage the cage the thing that holds the bowls all rolling elements apart you have you have to stop them from touching normally this is with the with the with the steel cage can see a polymer so our knowledge of non-metallic materials or knowledge of polymeric materials enable us to select and to choose and to validate age to do that job which we haven't done before I'm impressed more important role on on because of our lubrication knowledge which a degree we went for a really special low-friction Greece the we actually had developed ourselves a mostly things together to the to the friction than actually by more than 30 % but interest in fashion we we do 100 tests on on the different kinds of bearings under hundred different kinds conditions and the western 30 % and we tell you that that there sense of some of them I can tell you what were already present that's a uh a narrow range of of energy efficient buildings really is 2nd to none in get also if you words about our overall technology strategy of where we going what are we doing for the future water are major new direction what we see technology
strategy in 3 different areas if you think about of somebody making an invention and of doing or what kind of early science that you need to do in order to find it's gonna work and then you start launching a product and and and and you develop a product and and and it grows rapidly and then you get into a volume part of the business of and to be honest beyond the scale as in our case this volume business goes on for a for a long time we do different kinds of of research in each of those areas for the volume of business water is famous for is working with the customer to to give the customer exactly what the customer wants than any application and if you if you talk to our to our advanced customers doing difficult things this is the thing the volume of the formal we worked with them we get it right it gives us an absolute nightmare for production point of view we have a far higher degree of product complexity than most of our competitors but the customer really volumes of what we're really looking to do here is to be driven by the customer and to just fine tune that product to do just what the customer wants to do In the rapid growth area clearly this is this is my challenge this is this is me trying to create the next hundred years this is this is we gotta make breakthroughs that really are driven by our knowledge by our by our technology leading to new product returns and here's what Cambridge that's this early stage this set the strategy go in that direction you need to stick with this for a while and then take the time to get up this curve but you get an area and you grab the intellectual property the pattern and and keep the competitors so that's how we think about technology
let me just say a few words about would doing in each of those areas are put up at this energy look at the kind of late stages of this growth period what I'm really looking to do is to bring all together if you just take us on bearings I have a people with bearings make brings with a bit like I I can really differentiate most easily by adding all the bits that by having an automatic invocation systems the bearing by adding by adding extra pursuant takes a lot of friction at the bearing by by adding some electronic functionality by taking and combining all of these and offering the customer a bundling of all of our of our technology there is a real opportunity for us to develop more quickly at this end of the of the of the technology-driven inventions scale in the early stages we have initiated a thing called the Innovation board actually was initiated before I have a joint density of Thomas started at all it wasn't working or what well but it was 1 of the reasons I wanted to join us here if you read the text books on innovation they all say 1 of the key things you must be still engage the Chief Executive Life and ask if a company that already have chief executive engaged this innovation board is chaired by told bottom myself clearly the 3 divisional presidents and senior technical people or almost innovation board and we are looking for a small number of people really big strategic projects that we're going to focus on very large amounts of investment so the whole a senior team of the team members of this new team of my guys are always coming to move the business case I think we could do this and I say sorry guys if it needs a business case for justify it's not good enough this has got to be so blindingly obvious but it's right for instead of I don't need a detailed business case to help me justified to talk and this 1 which will be to do so I don't know on the 1 usually I and I certainly know when Toms than to accept he stopped asking what's that called he gets so excited about the stopped asking about what is going to cover we just have to do that I'm not sure an examples of things that we know we've been doing is gonna be a real game-changing opportunity force is going be radical but it's going to be absolutely blindingly obvious why so this is not rocket science and actually a few examples of many of the things we've been doing a were only looking to do 5 or 10 and these and maybe find your projects I'm only looking to find 1 or 2 new projects each year I'm not looking for a very large number I wanna focus on a small number of real game changing things is 1 of the see the target we don't energy-efficient bearings fathers and I'm not taking 30 percentage of bearings but of course most bearings we sell us Spinrad beautifully well there's no seal and you could see limited facts a break not much point in having a really good energy efficient bearings unless you're really good energy efficiency so we are seals were ready state of the art also how would it be if without any extra cost we would take 40 % of the friction you we have all these things 1 the done done region was running using a business about state I deleted take too much to convince Don was good things we could manage to do this and we can differentiate us of a high values could be done with 3 years in the instrumental in getting this up and running with this and the many is where we are today are the links are going to use as what they are but this is the percentage improvement on the various different conditions uh for for various different temperatures and kinds of bearings so any then see that the use of 60 % that are similarly 20 30 % better I think on average we probably at the 40 already we still work to do but but without we're pretty much that of being able to offer a friction seals these went production but this is how we make
a 1 in 4 wheel bearings for cars in the world so we make as many will bearings as the are world is most cost for you for of for for those US mathematical but I thought I did the just I was there with it didn't mean that this is how you would explain so if you could take given other currencies shines a wave what could we do will go on and set itself a target take 30 % away at no extra cost and you need a business plan for and effects of where are we will we got 30 % of weight we have quite a lot extra cost would probably about and % cost penalty among OK for a further from the early stages of the that's OK for the the luxury vehicles at the top and uh this is important weight-saving its weight saving millions from Marston and protecting which which is a warm water the static things with them a lender advances in condition monitoring we we all the world leaders in condition monitoring what I mean by that I mean by my sense arising the bearing by listening to vibrations in the bearing by measuring temperatures in the bearing uh and and using that as a way of predicting things that are going wrong are taught here was to create a little by the little stick on patch stuff from the side of the bearing that generated its own power we talked to the internet and then what is it you want mention wanna measure temperature strengths vibration well well-conditioned in the general you wanna make sensor on their little major and all you will know you will have the data on the internet and put it on your smartphone and put it on your on your computer or whatever you will know the status of bearing in anything and not just the variation in the vibration it'll tell you about all vibration of the of the of the machinery around you will tell you we will be about problems with the when you look of problems and help problems 1 but the concept and would pretty much that basically is the very very clever power generating opportunities using essentially mobile phone technology to talk to the internet and some real clever and also since this is this is a Nautilus barriers for windmill you can see it's not quite as me there's a there's a band-aid just yet but where this is this is the prototype this one's for a we application we've hidden bits within all of the existing parts of the of the system in and it's pretty much just what it says Of course the next thing we really like to do this I listening to our liking what the customer really wants to know is what percentage of my life I used up and if I'm getting near the end can I turned out the load in some way so that I can make it last a bit longer to get it into its next bombing the but most it's pretty much of the story is I showing you would only see I and talk with these as you can imagine these projects of very sensitive within that here these are the 3 that we talked to the outside world but so far but actually gives you some flavor of the sorts of things but what trying to to make sure that we still premier company in bearings in 100 years time of finishes with a few words of introduction on our University Technology Center program this fits in other
saying that are at the center of the of the strategy driven direction and at the very early fundamental stages of the development of any new area for we're really looking to underpin our own work with long range work at the top science University science and engineering universities in the world so creating clearer core partnerships with some major universities when I joined us I soul that we spend an enormous amount of money in university but it was very scattered we supported a PhD here there and everywhere it wasn't working terribly well in many cases typically I don't know I are are Italian factory would want to start a PhD in there will local their local university and then also from of the person that it started the year activity would move on to another job of the poor guy doing a PhD there will be working away for 4 years or something after 2 years our guide moved on and he been going to America or something and and on the and the PhD was little left behind and on the wasn't much lost I sold what Rolls-Royce had them in their use of universities will rise to an enormous amount of work with universities they had this thing we call the university technology center on the say the 1st the first one the evident in nearly 30 years ago now is actually on the site and high-temperature they went in saying I will support at least 5 people for at least find you annota when you say that 2 universities suddenly get attention you don't just get you just get talking to their the lecturer level dialog that with the center stage in the professor starts getting interested and indeed when we when we opened our university Technology Centre here uh the Vice-Chancellor came along to to to join our opening to to say a few words on the same when we government or of the real world the John was old the Vice-Chancellors will come along the Rolls-Royce model as I find 5 people and then I'm going to go out and look for partners and only for customers or suppliers of people I want to work with I'm going to expect then to work with me on projects so I'm going to try and find a person or a company or a number of companies and the support 5 people on makes suddenly there's going to be 10 in this activity and then the little government funding and from the European Union funding or national government funding or whatever and before you know around on the double it again and I sent to some of you people over a set of known for a long time and I said to them and what sort of multiplication factor you get a new money from a set of off typically a factor of a half we tell everybody is a factor of 5 I to be honest I think is a factor of 4 unanswered questions for you you from finding you end up with 20 and that's about so that's the model we're trying to follow takes time to put in place takes a long term commitment but it really creates serious partnerships serious volumes between a sphere of those universities that were working so that's the that's the goal of it the goal was to get the university not doing the things that you would do anyway this is not a cheap source of of of research this is a partnership with the University of doing the things that got a we're continuing to do things with but the 2 together really gives uh from major new opportunities for a sphere and the aim is to build long-term technology leadership I said that I said you know the aim was to you find people for 5 years here at Cambridge all all the harry and federative to give you the details of what we're doing here but typically the ones we've been we've been working with for some time uh Cambridge among them that we're already doubling the uh the numbers of people that we think for those alongside us our twice as many people as we're paying for or worlds but in many people is thing and and building partnerships with key customers and he's 1 so we have a we haven't got as far as Rolls-Royce that we have decided to government funding and yet we're working on that dimension of what was said in moving in that direction let me just say a little bit about each of those university technology centers of handling they fit the core competences that I showed you I told you earlier we were working on all mediate subject and where are we now with university Technology Center program will Cambridgeshire today it's about stealing the treatment it's about providing the underpinning fundamental knowledge that we need all tools to enhance and improve our steel the what we have in China and seeing what is the moment smaller than the others but it's about sealing material it's about elastomeric materials like that of making the people this point usually say a mark my worried about Intellectual Property 1 of my worried about the future of knowledge in China my standard answer to that is normal I I believe that although the chinese have a lot of press about you know stealing Newman and ignoring patterns I believe the Chinese changing very rough I believe they will rule exactly the same way as the Japanese when 2 generations of the Japanese used to being accused of copying everything on on and and on not respecting people's intellectual property as soon as the Japanese started inventing their own things and fighting the wrong about they started playing by world rules and and now are absolutely respected member of the of the international community playing by international standards and on the Chinese are very very rapidly moving so yeah this is a toe in the water he I'm not doing anything really radical the moment of a lot of the what we're doing at the moment is on analyzing our competitors materials and see how they respond to to to use and to aging and so on so I I'm not yet generating a lot of intellectual property here but I don't have any concerns moving forward in terms of of will always be successful and family work in China Will you are right up in the north of Sweden uh there is where we're doing our work on developing a completely new concepts for condition monitoring once so an abbreviation we used within the company condition monitoring and centralization of our very late brought together we completely different departments that never worked before together and have offered us some real insights that we would never apart ourselves in terms of how we can think about the condition monitoring this the future Imperial College in London and we are doing those and we'll detailed understanding of what happens at that point of complex what happens is you squash that although feel highly desirable filled in breakdown of normal not break and what are the conditions that you can use how can you develop the right invocation How can you model at all because ultimately you don't want to do everything experimentally you want the fundamental knowledge the fundamental understanding to enable you to do that and then finally show was on sustainability and environment we as I as a say hello very strong commitment to the environment we have launched a whole range of energy energy-efficient bearing uh of the pay back almost energy-efficient bearings for the customer can be very very rapidly if you for example using 1 of our little friction bearings in a large mortar application such running 24 hours a day 7 days a week if it's for a big compressive formal companies a big form of some sort where the where the water is running all time we charge a premium of between 20 and 30 % for those very the pay back time was very and in terms of energy saving the amount of the power of the state is about to be not doesn't want to we favor we are the work that we're doing in in Chalmers is largely about developing lack of understanding of and giving us the hard data to be able to sell to our customers the advantages of the product that we have to offer so I'm kind that to to
Harry Harry professor Harry at a given its full title is the director of I. University Technology center and on our systems director the use of the fact
that will will be a little bit at the end of the 2 federal uh we've had our you know we we signed the contract for a university technology center I think right to the end of 2008 and work began in 2009 and underwater to talk to you but a lot of background is the woman federative talk a little bit more about the itself was not a new idea that I was in the water out of which means if got any like to other interests that the report of the incident that that that that this idea of the gate so today I'm going to talk about steel uh but my focus over the last
space has been on gold yeah I mean that I cannot concentrate on work at the rate at which gold medals upcoming 14 GB and you know if you compare against the major powers who have much larger populations we are actually ahead of them there are no good is of course very important I don't know why yeah because this technologically it's a pretty is material except in electronics for joining the conductors and so on I want to show you that iron is what you should be excited about In the let me start by asking you a question yeah so feel free to shout at a question and answer redesign come from good than any other and says for this I'm
going to surprise you with the answer I am is made in the stars OK so this is the milky way
so our galaxy that period and the sun is approximately around here and when the universe
was created the light elements like there's no hydrogen and helium they existed for
billions of years but the heavy elements are all made at extremely high temperatures that you force the nuclei to come together and I iron is actually made in the stars temperatures are of the order of 100 billion centigrade and the pressures are enormous and that what makes furthermore you know I have to disagree with and other materials are important I and is the most as as stable element in the universe so this was calculated by a person girlfriend in Cambridge who invented the term the big bang you know the big bang the origin of the universe he invented the term but before that he do it extraordinary on the stability of the elements and proved that iron is the most stable element in the universe and eventually you know
lowest energy state of the the elements when the galaxy will completely become yeah savior working on another material you know you do so ultimately everything will be now you would have won a Nobel Prize for for this work but many amended the tone the Big Bang he was actually being derisory you know he was trying to say this theory is no good and he tried to build and build an argument against the Big Bang theory and phase in the end OK can somebody not only would this
picture represents crystals there are really beautiful to look at but this is also a crystal the classic around this is a single crystal have a field it's a it's a turbine blades roots goes into an aircraft engine great experiences a temperature of something like 14 hundred degrees centigrade and these are routinely made on the factory floor you enable very efficient aircraft engines to operate the shape of that is nothing like the crystals that is on this slide earlier its shape is designed for aerodynamics so the meaning of a crystal is not that it looks extremely nice and beautiful but the scientific meaning of a crystal is that the atoms are
arranged in a particular pattern which is repeatable over a long distance so here for example is a crystal because the atoms are arranged in a regular order in this case the iron atoms on the corners of a cube and at the center of the face and we have some fluorine atoms here which might be carbon to make steel steel is a combination of iron and carbon so the scientific definition of a crystal is that we have a periodic pattern of atoms not a random the location of atoms as you might have in liquid so crystal is defined by a periodic arrangement of atoms and it was the 2 brags in Cambridge who discovered way of interrogating materials to see whether there are still and not by putting x-rays on them and you will be visiting the laboratory where they're actually did this a Nobel prize winning work now these are the patterns in which
iron atoms are arranged in solid and the most common form of iron is where you have an atom of and the body center of the cube and at the corners of the cube but if you hate the iron not then this is how the arrangement changes we now have atoms at the centers of the faces than in the middle of the you're right into the center of the uh where the temperature is of the order of 6 thousand degrees centigrade and the pressure is enormous then you have another form of iron which is a hexagonal arrangement and is the densest form of possible now these are just 3 different crystal structures of iron right there are actually 7 different crystal structures which we In May but that the others are not very common and of course we can throw in many different elements into the eye and so here for example we have the carbon atoms sitting between the iron atoms or we could substitute this rhythmical
chromium or whatever and there are hundreds and hundreds of different crystal structures that we can produce an 9 this very as countless millions of crystal in countless billions of crystals if you look at this in a microscope you see the most incredibly beautiful crystals I will show you some images later but this is crystal and shape doesn't resemble anything you would associated with a crystal but this is chris line now the reason why we can use Iron for many many different applications is because we can change the structure by deforming get or heating it gives us some bread hot iron in Allen slides putting magnetic fields applying a stress the it is such a worse at that material because of all these crystal structures that we can generate to the the founder of the game is that this is the idea that there might be you used know what it of the is that that you want to know have it in the of things that I have ever is the sound of crystal and because we don't have offered this year I'm going to pass around another piece of metal which is called Indian and if you if you
bend it like this you'll be able to hear changes in crystal structure OK so is the changes in prices structure which tell us that we can make a last variety of alloys with different
properties and the sound that you just heard the vibrations that you get when you get damaging bearings is of course a condition monitoring that Alan was talking about because when you install these written is out in the oceans and so forth you really want to stop the rotation at the point where you think there is significant damage because you don't want the damage to growing cause much bigger damaging to the very and all that has to do with the structure of the material now this is just to show you that these crystal structure changes also cause a deformation so here is a piece of metal we have going from very glycolysis do very hot there's nothing there's no components inside this piece of metal and that is changing its shape yeah just by altering the temperature so is the fact that the patterns in which the atoms are arranged are changing with producers that origami like feature in in the here and now when it gets cold it becomes flat again so these changes in the order in which items are arranged Rio you can feel them and some of you might have seen advertisements for a minute spectacle glasses made out of shape memory metal so that if you bend them accidentally you can just put a hair dryer and it'll come back into shape 1 day because might be made like that and you I now this is the periodic table of the elements and I explained to you that you will never actually find pure iron in any real applications because we want to engineer the material in order to provide the right properties and we can add more or less anything that's on this periodic table as long as it's not radioactive into the metal and designing new properties and begin creates solid solutions so you know when we add sugar duty in dissolved right that's a liquid solution similarly we can add elements into iron which is all into the solid iron and form solid solutions and if we add a lot of that element we might actually create new kinds of crystals inside the solid iron and therefore all the properties again so there's a huge amount that we can do and you can do this in 2 different ways 1 is what we call a bucket chemistry that means you just add and see what happens but the possibilities are infinite because you not only have a heat choice but you also have different concentrations that you can add and you could be there for ever get that that's not the way to go so for many many yes you and I found myself started looking on iron in 1970 for many many years but we have been developing the theory that enables us to to predict what should happen if now I don't want to to get carried away and explain that we can do everything that's just not true the problem is incredibly complex but we have developed sufficient theory for us to reduce the time scales in which we can get to a product and then what we do is we express that theory In computer programs yeah so this is just a way of telling the computer what to calculate and this is 1 of my 1st ever students standing next to a supercomputer that they're using to do calculations so by doing this we can try experiments my calculation before actually spending a lot of money going critical experiments or even to take it to the next stage of development which costs a huge amount of money really wasn't long ago that I was at uh islands innovation boat trying to get them to spend a huge amount of money to make a very large amount of material ball bearings and new material that we've designed and I think it will happen this is the end of this is the material that we
created about 15 years ago and it has 2 forms of iron in it 1 is that the body centered cubic a structure that is the here and the other is the high temperature form that you've been able to preserve the room temperature so you got this beautiful mixture of do different kinds of crystals an intimate mixture on this scale which is 1 millionth of a meter in size because and this is 1 millionth of a meter now the final you may the crystals the stronger the material becomes because then the evidence find it difficult to move across the boundaries between crystal but even more important is that they become tougher material becomes tougher that means if I if I hit it it can absorb energy so we know glass for example is extremely strong but if you had chapters that really doesn't absorb energy when you basically we don't call it but the reason why we make cars out of metals is because they absorb a huge amount of energy should you have an accident if you have an accident you're protected but your car are basically the right of because it is is designed to deform and absorb energy the finer and finer per when we created this particular structure we decided to apply it to a totally different kind of really line it's alliance usually contains a phase which is policy meant that which is very hard but is not done so you can get easy fracture here we don't have any of that hard phase we have these 2 beautiful and they find Chris slang phrases and In this
image you're looking at individual atoms so we really can go to magnifications very can see individual atoms and then we can color those atoms according to what kind of an atom this this carbon so here we are plotting the carbon as the red and the green is the so this is nothing fancy it is that we can do this routinely but the point is that not only do we have 2 different kinds of crystal structures but we also have 2 different chemical composition it's so 1 crystal absorbs and observes covered more than the other and that is why we have been able to retain that high temperature phase he went to room-temperature normally the face centered cubic form of fine is only stable at very high temperatures OK so
here is a real application of that particular structure we can show that rolling contact the is really good for this structure now what is Israel in contact for the Allen explained that
we've got a rolling element here which turns around and about race that so when I turned this every time this rolling element goes although the surface it induces a stress and the underneath the sofa is very large stress is of the order of I'll explain how big a stress and it does that all the time the bearing is the data and eventually the metal but the get started and it might break but this structure because we don't have any hard but that is very good in conductivity and rolling counterfeiting is not just a problem of bearings but also when the wheel goes over a and you can see that the new structure of
outperforms anything that existed before and this is about where resistance and the where rate is also reduced to a negligible level and this is the new material in service in France and have you been through the channel tunnel any any of you been through the Channel Tunnel the next time you go remember me because these are the that are designed which are in the Channel Tunnel again but they really lines are strong and their but bearings really strong really really strong so this structure is no good for making a bearing we've got to make it much much stronger now I explained to you where the strength comes from so what should
I do what do I have to do to that structure to make it even stronger make it fine yeah so we know how to do that just to illustrate to you some scales 1st I showed you a structure which was a
millionth of a meter in size now I want to go to a structure which in Christos our billion of a meter in size so there are 9 9 zeros here now we can do that by making the crystals grow at in the solid iron at a much lower temperature so we did some calculations on what is possible and what is not possible in a reasonable amount of time because you know Alan might not want to do a heat treatment which states 100 years yes although you know you keep line 400 years and then you set it to a much more money the now let me explain to you
the meaning of strands so you know that Newton was set in this university but it turns out you know the weight of an apple is approximately Newton right so this is a scientific measure of way so an apple weighs the Newton and if I put it on 1 square meter then distress is called 1 task now an ordinary still would be able to support the weight of 200 million apples on 1 square meter a bearing steel has to be able to support the weight of 3 billion apples on 1 square meter so probably you end up just apple juice in sense and so the ability of very very strong materials incredibly strong material and if if
I look at this bearing again and the stressors due gigapascals that means 2 billion apples per square meter and if it turns around and 25 thousand revolutions per minute and let's assume there 20 balls here then the total number of pulses of stress that this deal with experiences of the order of 500
thousand half a million in 1 minute so imagine if you're being wants to have a million times every minute of it With this stress which is 2 billion apples was when media yeah so the stuff that you have reducing it is absolutely remarkable yes and no 1 outside of the unknown is about that because it is beautifully designed it's a it's a it's a reliable material is not like a computer system because of updates every so often the fact that you don't have to know about it is a good thing because you don't need to know about if it was unreliable you would need to know the this is the
structure that we are hoping to make the next generation of the the variance of the and here we have reduced the scale of those crystals to 20 billions of 4 meters in size so we still have 2 different kinds of crystals with different chemical compositions as well and I don't know if you heard about carbon nanotubes yeah so the the very very fine to use of carbon in which have had a lot of publicity but I'm not terribly useful but we are fine enough than carbon nanotubes so this is an incredibly fine structure and I want you to remember this image until dinnertime in that that there is a surprise for you but I'm not going to tell you anything about so this this structure is what we are hoping will lead to the development of a totally different kind of steel for bearings the current banks have what we call carbides these as strongly hide like those but they're brittle particles here we have none of them we have these 2 beautiful crystals intertwined producing the strands and indeed the toughness and it's the same structure but much finer as there is still so I am confident that we would have good drilling contact with the performance and where performance but we have to go through all the now scientists have the
tendency to make claims long before they're justified in long before that justifies the if you look at you know papers from nature and so on their claim that they're going to solve all the problems of the world and a few years later you know there little consequence the carbon nanotubes stories like that 1 of the reasons is that although in a laboratory we can make materials when you scale it up
everything changes have absolutely everything so 1 of the key requirements of anything that we do is we must be able to manufacture the material on a large scale in all 3 dimensions that means you cannot use incredibly severe processing or incredibly rapid heat treatments etcetera and what I mean by large dimension is that this is a photographic joke at the oil sands mines in Alberta in Canada this is a huge stress there but there's no magnification marker there so just to put on a magnification market if you focus on the size of the media this is
major with so I want to be able to make materials which can be lodged in all dimensions and manufactured easily hundreds and thousands and thousands of tons and indeed we have done that so this for
example is the best armor that you can buy you know to protect against really terrifying trends made from the structure that I showed you the idea of the very fine crystals of 20 billionth of a meter in size this is an aircraft
engine for a civilian aircraft and you may not know this but most of the air actually doesn't go to the engine is simply provides a trust for the engine to push the aircraft forward only about 25 per cent of the air goes to the engines and is going to be a do cause everything to rotate the critical component here is the steel shop and the reason why most of the air goes outside the engine is because you want to reduce the noise from the aircraft and that's why military aircraft are much more noisy then civil aircraft because you can't afford in a military aircraft have you have a very large energy yeah here you could have a couple of people standing in the opening it's very very large so we want to make it even larger and that means that the torque that place you provide on the shop is going to be even larger in the future we are trying to develop this concept of that very fine coarse line state also
choreographed engine shots and you can see here we can make them no problem at all it takes 10 days to need treat this but we can make them large and these are the statements being done in Germany and this is the
next stage it's got to quite an exciting level we have indications that this material that perform well but we have a lot to do before something again going to a critical applications now I explained to you I'm sorry this is
just to illustrate that some equipment that as Gafez installed over here so that we can actually do initial measurements of the rolling contact with the properties this is energy that comes with a PhD student working on this and this is bedroom with talk but immediately after meetings here we put our experimental materials we subject them to contact stresses rotate the system and monitor that kind of damage that it happened in the material under the surface as we develop it so this is just 1 of the set of experiments that we have to do to prove this material and there's a lot more land within asking you know the manufacturing trials except except do that now I said to you that it takes 10 days to produce this structure we are also working on making it faster but that may not be an advantage if you making large components but I would like to get the structure even finer even finer than 20 billions of a meter and our calculations tell us that we can do it but it will take 100 years so we have produced so we have produced this material and 1 sample of it is in the Science Museum in London and 1 in my office and at room temperature we started this experiment in 2004 and it will be completed in 2 thousand 104 yeah so what I have to tell you is value children and your grandchildren about this story so that they can verify whether the experiment has worked or not so the material has been abolished completely flat and if our calculations are correct then by 2 thousand 104 you will see surface upheaval on the piece of steel and then my so and rest in peace thank you very much if you have any questions about this and B yeah the production part is is the state of the honesty of human production but is straightforward there's no new technology in the production of steel the new thing is basically you have to transform at low temperature so almost like a pizza oven temperature there is no normally heat treatment for steel that done in finances and so on this you have to hold that the temperature of around 200 degrees centigrade and that is the key that generates the very fine structure that we see it was right to this the yes yeah so so in the in the case of from uh we have a parameter which we call the ballistic mass efficiency that means if the data standard armor we for the same ballistic performance how much can you reduce the rate and be a factor of 3 times higher then standard on yeah and that is now commercial absolutely absolutely I think it's forget and you want to come in a better is the assistant director of the University of Technology Center will carry on 12 thank you for coming and visiting us I and this is the director of research at the University Center and well we we started in 2009 with a number of projects and I just want to give you a general flavor of what is what we're doing and I would like to focus on what Alan mention what the intention of this group which is to develop some of those seminal concepts that could later developed into technologies that lead to products that are are better for for asking on them I will start to
my story with some well just 1 regular bearing on would you actually want avoid which is failures so on we as you have seen her earlier of failure originates from the contact between the sound rollers on on the you know contact surfaces under big pressure and so on as mentioned earlier if you the actual applied very large stresses horror mentioned I think 2 billion apples per square meter this actually we localize these pressure relocalizing very very small areas but 1 square millimeter so even so what Parliament has mention is correct that lover accounts in theory should be the key elements on toward a key concept to look at the retention it is still the fails so what we want to do is to create something to avoid that failure on and there are many elements that are in the atmosphere that can actually diffuse angle into the varying that actually produce failure and hydrogen is 1 of those hydrogen as you know well Hari mentioned that are in comes from the stars and actually if you look at the same Fred serial from you know universe formation everything starts from our hydrogen so all the elements trust me it's good the from from hydrogen into helium in and then you get to Irish now when we face reality we have a bearing like this the this is the bearing surface that contains very refined grains which are represented by this Hicks-Allen bits those grains are usually about 107 mm and then you have all sorts of found of features in that within those small crystals and we can't call microstructural features for example horror mentioned is brittle are faced calls human types which is every word in the microstructure with hydrogen is 1 of these elements that that these everywhere hydrogen is in the atmosphere but most importantly hydrogen is in collaborative and so you certainly have heard that oil companies referred to these up to all of us hydrocarbon molecules because you're combining hydrogen with carbon forming long chains and what really happens is that when these when these sample variance are subject to high pressures sometimes those molecules that are in the in the library can just be composed and you get free hydrogen hydrogen is very tiny hydrogen is the 1st element in the periodic table that you start today and actually it is very mobile and it diffuses in the microstructure and it produces that much and that damage costs those failures that we saw In this
earlier image so 1 of the 1 of the 1st project that was started to work on in the universe acknowledged center is defined to devise a solution to prevent this hydrogen damage which you see here uh step schematically represented and listed here so
of hydrogen is something real is is not something purity cult of wheat in the heuristic knowledge Accenture we not only use state of the art technologies to visualize a problem for example this is a 3 dimensional art and probe what what this means is that what we are not being here are atoms each of these are small points are items on and these the style for deuterium which is a form of hydrogen and this 100 is actually diffusing into the into the crystals a small crystal that comprises this very and produce damage so 1 way to prevent that damage is to actually on immobilized those hydrogen atoms and from the literature we know that when we add this compound which is tight carbide with charges small dots here were produces small compounds that locks the hydrogen and this indicates that the damage that hydrogen can so 1 of the contributions from the university Knowledge Center has been actually to device by like was sitting at the end of future out 1 real bearing still but contains these type of particles which are tightened Carver like but in the in her case she devices still the displacement in college and we have proven that current actually inhibits the damage from hydrogen and we have plenty of experimental evidence to so actually this this technology has been involved in a patent has been requested so as 1 example of or very first one to very 1st appears students blanket case now and I'm considering whether she will join as scale which is which was 1 of these long-term partnerships that Ireland was mentioning or 2nd our 1st pages student last
of 101 which it in the in the in the theater which also considering joining as creative as well and who also worked in us in solving 1 of the seminal problems that also led to a patent requests on here but as you may have heard from hard because a barrier and this barrier is contained is very complicated cresol arrangements inside them and they are very carefully engineer on 1 millimeter is so you need pressure that you are very familiar with and the microphone us us hard mentioned is 1 of thousands of a millimeter so this this gives you the this is an optical image that you obtain from taking up a portion of these bearing still cutting it I'm polishing the surface and this is about 2 1 1 50th of a millimeter and these line the here you see this very fine needles of range here and they're not these needles RD once that results from 1 phase transformation what what Hari correctly mentioned is that 1 thing will like to do is to create a finer and finer crystal structures for example these are very long needles that odd result of these still there which sound you could shared and was slowly transforming on forming this this enables that actually give the strength to the steel but here it's
important that you realize what is the size of this this is a good-looking fellow but this showing up the that the hair actually and then displays of thinking which is about 1 10th of a millimeter does 100 microns 40 micro 6 matches people with very fine her do hop on Her thickness in the range of 50 microns which is about 1 20th of a millimeter now when we this sign these new bearing steels that poverty line we started flying started
taking up as a reference these actual real bearing steel microstructure which we call bainite and this is what you see some of these fields and I want you to look at the scale marker because is pretty important this is point 5 microns which is on half a micron which is 1 2 thousands of a millimeter so this is about 100 times finer than your hair and these are 2 scales that we're aiming for and that we actually realized which is about 10 times actually when you look at the thickness of the use of features of these small crystals there are about 100 times finer than the usual all bearing steel now what is important here is that 1 of the shortcomings of this is not new technology just mentioned earlier this is something that's a hurry had been working on for to is 15 20 years ago at least for this this this type of development is from 1 2 decades ago but what wondered which is breakthrough is to devise a way to produce this crystal structure much faster I'm using less expensive elements so for for example 1 of the elements that have are interregional invention of the steel was was considered use cobalt called is rather expensive or what 1 has done is to demonstrate through the thermodynamic calculations through computer simulations that we can actually produce is still cheaper and faster so we don't need to wait 100 years to go back to the British seemed to to realize whether we form the microstructure we don't need to wait 10 days we're talking about a few hours to produce the same very fine crystal structure with more achieved mental televisions and possibly with better part meta properties of we would realize soon so to summarize of at the center of all research
use color ability to produce variance we are doing research into fatigue and this In the case of bunker led to the conception of hydrogen resistant steels so we can prevent these are damaging effects from this very fine but atom which is hydrogen and really accelerates knowledge In doing so far received by the who is sitting to review of the theater using some of the finest characterization techniques that are available on our as you will see some of the finest electron microscopes for is the end of the day In the Maxwell what the former Maxwell laboratory where we have our high-resolution microscopes this new knowledge is leading to the truth new materials that could be commercialized and most importantly these would lead to all the the understanding so that new understanding so that we ensure that the products are reliable to customers thank you very much
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Ersatzteil
Material
Rundstahl
Rundstahl
Posament
Kaltumformen
Ford Focus
Rundstahl
Absperrschieber
Porzellan
Computeranimation
Verdichter
Seitenleitwerk
Material
Ford Galaxy
Flugtriebwerk
Beschaufelung
Rutsche
Proof <Graphische Technik>
Material
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Rootsgebläse
Computeranimation
Ford Galaxy
Kaltumformen
Drehen
Verdichter
Proof <Graphische Technik>
Material
Schnittmuster
Rundstahl
Übungsmunition
Linienschiff
Spiel <Technik>
Leisten
Lot <Schifffahrt>
Rundstahl
Kaltumformen
Kraftfahrzeugexport
Entwicklung <Photographie>
Linienschiff
Boot
Konfektionsgröße
Glasherstellung
Schnittmuster
Material
Postkutsche
Lot <Schifffahrt>
Computeranimation
Stoff <Textilien>
Kaltumformen
Drehen
Linienschiff
Diwan <Möbel>
Material
Lenkrad
Buckelschweißen
Wärmebehandlung
Linienschiff
Konfektionsgröße
Material
A6M Zero-Sen
Rundstahl
Computeranimation
Buchdruck
Material
Stoff <Textilien>
Entwicklung <Photographie>
Konfektionsgröße
Material
Rundstahl
Papier
Bohrmaschine
Computeranimation
Kraftmaschine
Untergrundbahn
Gesteinsabbau
Wärmebehandlung
Buchdruck
Konfektionsgröße
Passfeder
Material
Panzerung
Rundstahl
Schlauchkupplung
Werkstatt
Motor
Linienschiff
Militärflugzeug
Zivilflugzeug
Rundstahl
Totholz <Schiffbau>
Motor
Greiffinger
Wärmebehandlung
Kopfstütze
Ersatzteil
Proof <Graphische Technik>
Passfeder
Material
Rundstahl
Postkutsche
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Panzerung
Greiffinger
Spiralbohrer
Verdichter
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Anstellwinkel
Setztechnik
Computeranimation
Kaltumformen
Motor
Verbunddampfmaschine
Verbrennungskraftmaschine
Verdichter
Hubraum
Linienschiff
Leisten
Rundstahl
Nadel
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Übungsmunition
Computeranimation
Entwicklung <Photographie>
Linienschiff
Konfektionsgröße
Ersatzteil
Rundstahl
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Material
Material
Rundstahl
Buckelschweißen
Übungsmunition

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Bearings and Steels
Serientitel Physical Metallurgy of Steels
Teil 14
Anzahl der Teile 14
Autor Begg, Alan
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 3.0 Unported:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/18581
Herausgeber University of Cambridge
Erscheinungsjahr 2012
Sprache Englisch
Produzent Central Sites Technical Services

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Technik
Abstract Lectures by Alan Begg, followed by Harry Bhadeshia and Pedro Rivera, at a meeting held in Cambridge University on the 8th of August.

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