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Modern Steel Products (2014) - Steel Standards: lecture 6

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Modern Steel Products (2014) - Steel Standards: lecture 6
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6 (2014)
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A lecture about the standards for steels; such standards are routinely used in the purchase and use of commercially available alloys. This is a part of a course of lectures by Professor Bruno de Cooman, of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Republic of Korea.
Keywords The Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology (GIFT)
Aerial tramway Computer animation Steel Ship class Scouting Mint-made errors Material
Semi-finished casting products Steel Clock Piping Pressure regulator Hüttenindustrie Boat Cougar Volumetric flow rate Mechanical watch Photographic processing Rutschung Spare part Klassifikationsgesellschaft Engine Kümpeln Material Sheet metal Typesetting Semi-finished casting products Connecting rod Steel Mechanic Ballpoint pen Eisengießerei Coating Ampoule Cockpit Railroad car Wire Finger protocol Computer animation Photographic processing Screw Klassifikationsgesellschaft Material
Schneckengetriebe Casting defect Mechanical watch Matrix (printing) Rolling (metalworking) Blow torch Material Giant (mythology) Van Wegfahrsperre Typesetting Widerstandsschweißen European Train Control System Steel Mechanic Vacuum pump Eisengießerei Coating Finishing (textiles) Railroad car Clothing sizes Texturizing Sizing Glasfluss Computer animation Crown (headgear) Photographic processing Tanning Material
Coating Steel Kickstand Distribution board Vehicle Sackuhr Sharpening Roll forming Packaging and labeling Spaceport Guard rail Rail profile Material Transport Widerstandsschweißen Steel Wheelwright Mechanical fan Finishing (textiles) Train Hot isostatic pressing Texturizing Seeschiff Sackuhr Sheet metal Seeschiff Glasfluss Computer animation Rolling (metalworking) Gate valve Transport Plane (tool) Vacuum pump Strapping
Steel Connecting rod Tin can Bill of materials Wire Cord (unit) Winterreifen Last Deep drawing Gear Packaging and labeling Gentleman Commodore MAX Machine Collar (clothing) Firearm Material Sheet metal Typesetting Nut (hardware) Semi-finished casting products Connecting rod Spindle (textiles) Mail (armour) Steel Commercial vehicle Ballpoint pen Cord (unit) Wire Watch Automotive engineering Sheet metal Laserschweißen Computer animation Rolling (metalworking) Surface mining Cartridge (firearms) Spring (device) Steering Bass (sound) International Space Station Tagesschacht
Steel Distribution board Connecting rod Wire Laserschweißen Gear Screw Collar (clothing) Rolling (metalworking) Posamentenmacher Spare part Tagesschacht Hose coupling Material Semi-finished casting products Spindle (textiles) Connecting rod Steel Ballpoint pen Machine Wire Laserschweißen Computer animation Drill Bass (sound) Tagesschacht
Typesetting Steel Nut (hardware) Connecting rod Computer animation Steel Ballpoint pen Commodore MAX Machine International Space Station Wire Wire
Steel Nut (hardware) Computer animation Steel Commodore MAX Machine Hinge Forging Tanning Material Mixing (process engineering) Casting defect
Friction Kickstand Key (engineering) Scouting Cougar Commodore MAX Machine Hinge Rail profile Material Kranbau Typesetting Mat Semi-finished casting products Steel Machine Train Gear Kranbau Common rail Sizing Computer animation Cartridge (firearms) Steering wheel Rail profile International Space Station
Verzinnen Chemical substance Steel Jet (lignite) Cut (gems) Steel Structural steel Food packaging Food packaging Railroad car Hot isostatic pressing Chemical substance Watercraft Computer animation Wolframdraht Spring (device) Thrust reversal Klassifikationsgesellschaft Klassifikationsgesellschaft Single-cylinder engine Steering Material Last
Coating Ship breaking Cylinder head Steel Computer animation Steel Mechanical watch Spare part Automobile platform Schiffbau Material International Space Station
Coating Coal Wind wave Steel Kickstand Gemstone Coating Galvanotechnik Glasfluss Roll forming Glasfluss Computer animation Matrix (printing) Alcohol proof Cartridge (firearms) Screw Musical ensemble International Space Station International Space Station
Hot working Kickstand Scouting Slag Percussion mallet Surfboard Cardboard (paper product) Game Wear Wolframdraht Spare part Stool (seat) Tool Firearm Surinam Airways Typesetting European Train Control System Steel Power steering Hüttenindustrie Knife Mechanical fan Car seat Machine Couch Railroad car Hot isostatic pressing Computer animation Work hardening Cartridge (firearms) Stool (seat) Mint-made errors Gun Coir Compound engine
Schneckengetriebe Hulk (ship) Kopfstütze Steel Computer animation Stagecoach Screw Machining Steering Mode of transport Satellite Gun
look good morning before before we
start here with the the next section but there have been
looking at your test and the quizzes again and I want to make sure you all understand that this is a monkey when the monkey takes my tests the 10 questions and he only has to ask true or false yes although he didn't learn anything yes he can still get 5 out of 10 right and I just by guessing yes so when you take the test now there you have it the question that is wrong you lose support so that means you have student a then you have students unions and student a answers 10 answers yes it gives 10 answers and student 7 answer yes the student aid yes has made not learned a lesson he has guest that's when he has made 3 errors yes intent 2 of their 3 errors and this has he has made 0 errors yeah so this person gets 7 points right in this point with 7 points protect until but From nuclear saying he gave but 7 answers 3 areas to sorry I don't miss it as 7 errors 3 as he's got in his points is 4 points behind and this 7 points but he gives 10 answers he only give 7 answered but he has learned his lesson right he knows what the correct answers are yes so and he doesn't answer the ones he doesn't know right here I assume that when he gives answers he says guessing right so you get this is not this is a common way to evaluate on multiple-choice questions right because you can always gas somebody who doesn't know anything yeah well have just been elected and so if you have to win only 2 possibilities not 304 that it's even you know your your chances of getting the right the answers so don't forget that when you take it could do the test because if you give 10 answers and 6 are wrong if you don't get 4 points you get 0 points To suggest you just want to make sure that we all understand this so the the ideas says make sure you up you go through the material you go through the material and you know she didn't learn that just on cancer or you don't remember don't answer and aunt right I just wanted to know the 1st class asks you to write down Europe name This is this somebody called after much study now it is not taking the class because I just wanted to know if that person was kept some I said today this session will we won't talk about standards so because in practice when people buy and sell steel did not involved in research at all now they just want steal for the application yes and uh so but when they described 2 steals the EU standards To this have a look at what
standards the basically classification methods to identify steel grades still are white types of steel and why do we use standards and why standards so important me because it Baron tea's quality product quality reliability and interchangeability you can compare to products to steel products with 1 another usually the standards are coherent and their sample and they should be convenient and usually don't you know that this deal will have name symbol ball or a number or letters or a combination of name symbols letters etc. and attached to these grade names are it is information about the composition perhaps the dimensions of the steel will see is there's some of grades are specified by the dimensions of this the steel strangely enough I the a mechanical properties of course or other properties for instance for electrical steel cylinder used for To make transformers the magnetic properties will be very important but so what will will go through the years some development of standards material science and of course mainly that is a physical malady that's behind it the standard 0 that that's the basic Of the standards but a lot of the input comes from professional engineering societies 4 people involved in the use and the trading of a steel toed trade associations play role government regulation agencies play a role at or also official the standardization institutes such as for instance the Iusacell from international standardization organization which is an international organization so they all have their input so so in general this is not specific for steel specific for all the alloys and metals and materials as well so in general when we look as you know as soon researchers at a low-carbon steels regionally we sell and look at the phase diagrams and we say we have our own we have steals which have less than 2 per cent of carbon and some of them will be a hyper Liu tech toys some of the more the hyper utecht Oregon in the Steeler here somewhere yes and of course cast barons a different group of the ferrous alloys will not talk about that there also standardized and then we have a whole group of non-ferrous alloys and metals which also are standardized in similar waste
right if this is a very interested is a professor perjury interesting approach with it's just physical analogy is not very useful in practice because in practice what happens is somewhere you start by making steel yes you can that material you turn into slabs of blooms ability and you go through a plant that turns it into pipes 4 plates she material go to the uncoated yes like I beans and then you also have products that are borrowers who steal Rolaids like these rebars while you products has so you can already see here that there is 4 both for the producer of steel this is typically what comes out of a steel plant yes and you can obviously see there's no product period this will problem may ,comma car or maybe ,comma you know something else this may be a common part of a boat to share in this time of year but so the user yes will be using the slides right so they need to specify they don't go to specified the metal achieve these things in the physical maladies .period list of courses so so products and comes out of a plan to steal and I to this industrial plant is processing uses raw materials In order to control the process users information technology automation there an IT infrastructure that controls the whole flow of materials and what happens to them the product has as a result of composition thermal processing mechanical properties yes and then there is it has application properties and at all a product which grade specifications and this this particular being here has specification it's certain steel it's used in a certain application yes it's got a grade specifications according to a certain standard then we have the
plant makes a steel products and this steel product you know many of us because when you're involved in this and still researchers have tunnel vision right you are working on texture development of low-carbon steels orally and texture develop of blue or grains group control of grain growth in heat-resistant steels that's your thing right and but a product has mechanical properties geometrical properties Mike rastructure ll properties which may be important and and technical properties what is a technical property wealth Weld ability magnetic properties resists electrical resistance polarization resistor 50 etc the attack and all these are important when you talk about the product yes because when a car maker buys a piece of steel is not really interested in the grain size order physical melody integrin he just once a product that will enable him to make a car OK so he's not going to specify according to the anomalies PT results I want this deal he's going to specified In a very specific the product
jokes How should we try to understand this from our point of view so I like to use ought to do to 2 to think about it as you think about steals as having a steel design chart what the user once this some kind of performance index and it can be very very but let's say where interest mechanical properties for instance will need strength a certain strength now this property coming from structure and processing Tennessee all the parameters that can play a role in and that Performance Index is usually attached to 8 property units this may not be very clear but let's let's have a look at what I mean by giving an example right so the performance is something you find attached to degrade specific technical requirements so In the integrated specification never find something about perlite transformation kind that yes the great specific technical requirements of these type of things that basically you know how strong is the material which the yield strength tested in under these in these right so let's have a look With that the typical
example for instance automotive steel grades 4 exterior panels require very high for mobility yes so 1 of the very important parameters is the like for parameter the ratio Of the wits strain the thickness strained measured on the sheet material yes that is what what property is this yes it's a form ability properties that would be in the column of property In terms of the structure would assist me means with its related to crystallographic texture and the sharpness of detection and in terms of the processing where at the bottom so that you can the the press to control the the crystallographic actual there indicated here some of them are related to composition the vacuum the gassing the outlawing of and some too processing particular the cold rolling and the annealing conditions became so these spots ardor kind of these 3 columns as it were particularly ones on Towards to 1 bundle the brought your right hand side of that distilled aside the parameters that we are using these here this is where the great specifications are all of us it is the findings steel
performed in terms of the needs of the EU's are but it will let let's let's use that let's have a look at 80 a steel made by Posco here you can see it's a coil and use made by going on works and on the the label it's got information for the customer I think I can see it said she had Precision Industries has Engineering Company Inc and you can see underneath but underneath the name of the company there this JI ISG 31 38 1 S P H Wright that defined the product that that gene and Precision Industries ordered from possible yeah when is this means that's because that's the only that's how they order this steel we want tests and so what does this mean for what personnel I think you can say that already for they used a Japanese steel grade naming matter and the use of certain L Standard a certain standard to end the number code of that standard is G 31 during 31 years and this deal itself this sp agency very often these letters short for something else as means of to steal the stands for planes yes playing carbon steel we'll see in a moment of what it means H stands for hot-rolled this and see it's a commercial quality means regular properties and that's it basically and if you want to know exactly what these regular properties are for this level of carbon you have to go 2 the Standard the answer to this G. I S g 31 during the want to find out what is what is this it's just a little lighter version here because we never talk about Monday when we do research but a coil like this when you see this on the road you have any idea what it costs and costs about How is in 2000 the about 600 and 20 dollars for top and I UCI you can see on the every coil is Wade separately you can see it's 11 thousand 530 kilos write to this oil costs about a little over 7 thousand dollars that's a very this is a very basic state so that you can almost say this is like the the the cheapest steel you can get hot rolled commercial quality the automotive steals which will be cold-rolled which may have coatings can cost 10 thousand 12 thousand 50 depending on them when you I pay for something you want not only pay for materially also pay for transportation so who pays transportation you buying from me I have to material know who's was paying for it the material coming to your plant always important now because Of course if you transporting from full-time to Wilson's not very far but if you transporting from Paul found to show aura of 2 a notable at this plant somewhere in North America Detroit yeah it's expands more expensive than going to so it's always very important the prices are always so FOB yes the FOB if you ever I confronted with this you always have to ask what it means and you want some silly because it means different things in different countries His most people like in Europe and Asia when you say free-on-board means the seller pays transportation to the point of shipment and the bad pays the cost of transport insurance unloading and transported to and from the arrival port to the final destination yes and also the risk this you know when you when does it stop being my Michael it's your core right the passing occur when the goods past the red chips and rail at shipment why do we need to have all these details because you have sometimes you have accidents you know coils sometimes fall off the track or off to train for the tuna fall off the train in a civil manner this declined have to pay for this it said that in the US they use the word FOB origin which means that the buyer pays shipping and takes responsibility when the goods leave the sellers premise yes means as soon as it becomes out of the gate of Posco it's the clients problem but you also have FOB destination that means the seller pays everything yes still the buyer takes possession yeah OK so as I said FOB can mean very different things isn't things are not finished when the product is finished this have to get to the client and things wouldn't get anywhere
that was just a small detail fielded a call I thought might be of interest to you so interchangeability OK let's look at the example we had and so we have to we had the standard just this sense for by Wade said Japan the Institute for standardization it's very very widely used in Asia and it doesn't mean that Korea doesn't have steel standards Korea has its own still standards but nobody really uses duck In Europe we had the same thing for many years every country had their own standards British had the standards Germans French Italians very complicated now that there is a European Union we have single he added steel standards which is much more convenient yet and the U.S. is of course and Canada has had the U.S. I have to say have had their own standards for for many years and so these are the main standards that people are using GIS but the at the end European normalization standards and then you have in the in the U.S. others much less government influence on standardization you have more professional societies like the Society for automotive engineers has standards the American Institute for iron and steel the and AST Mechanical Engineering Society the American Society of Mechanical Engineering etc. This will talk about this and so on AT and because America is such a big market for for any product basically any material they also have a big international impact so good so that's just that's what I'm concentrating on these it doesn't mean that at the the standards Koreans nationals and not go go the perfectly good but you know and chances are you'll you know you will probably not used to the March because so let's have a look at that and this standard here 31 31 as the seeing so there is a we can find it in the year in the U.S. and equivalent steel cans and uh SCM 8 36 are also well known as a 283 on the phone don't worry about the numbers here right all local hopefully be able to give you some insight about the numbers and and and and the European as the normalization for this grade would be S 275 but it's so that this this particular steel types of steel here that the regulated but according to just 31 31 but that's not doesn't control it doesn't describe only 1 steel it gives the data all the properties of other steels and so as PCH will be commercial it's really basic hot-rolled grade but that you can you can also have hot drove grades .period are easily press for so we called him drawing qualities and instead of a sea there is a deep or you can have a deeper drawing hot-rolled qualities and then you have an each here yeah for the E of extra deep drawing at the end of this so you can see here for instance that Eddie steals Avery comparable strengths however the the requirements in terms of compositions are tighter 2 but at this let's have a
look at that another product here it's also made in Korea by a subsidiary of Posco called possible special steels yes and there and here we can see similar type of label on the product but not all the products that come out of a steel plants that are sheet or wired some of them are at or just below its that will be processed by clients yes so this bill it has already is sticker and and it says again GIS you consider possible does not use Korean standards at all With this for sign account even so again but she answered gives you the standard 41 0 5 that is the Japanese industry standard code numbered at a number of the the missing number 4 documents where disinformation is and what it says S C M 4 4 0 on I care so what does this mean in this case against its GIS the ostensible off steel the C stands for crawl and the M stands for molybdenum OK so this is an entirely different steel you wouldn't be able to know that if there wasn't a skirt guests I wouldn't be able to tell you know just from looking at the steel coil that it was a very cheap hot-rolled material where you know commercial grade this is a much more advanced materials and much more highly alloyed obviously it contains Crowley and Molly and so uh and as I say here it's a continuously cast billets and it's used to make it can be used to make wire rod and and and and this wire rods itself can then be turned into ball bearings and nuts bolts wires tire cord springs the new name right so get let's and have a look at the 1st of all equivalency so so the SCM 440 Japanese have this symbol for it in the U.S. there are equivalent grades and the American Iron and Steel Institute and the Society of Automotive Engineers have an equivalent which is called 41 14 yes every standardization of our group has different ways of doing things and this particular as the ideas I N S E they only use numbers right so but if somebody tells you with these numbers mean you know you can subtly see that number and you know what it is so and will see that in a moment of the the European normalization it's a little bit nicer to everybody you know because yes it is no mystery about the name OK so says 42 C R M O 4 How can sold you can obviously see you don't have to think you know what to see could mean a what he and could mean right and you know it's it's cruel and Moline Ill you will see that in particular for the European normalization scheme the 42 is related to them the mass Percent of carbon and this the 4 here is related to the chrome content times for so 4 means it actually 1 per cent of chrome in so that's that's the only problem with the European way is you need to know the conversion factor for this number but usually it's for unless it is different so again right in their molybdenum additions we can see this because it's in the in rate in this case here but I also know it's a crow Molly because it starts with a 4 authority I know and I know that it starts with a 4 it's a cruel Molly steel but that's because I notice and you don't know about I hope but that after today you will know that so this steal again this is a medium carbon steel it's allied with chrome and Molly and obviously we know that crewmen Molly increase the hard ability of his steel has so it will be able to make things that are high strength and the AP 1 application is France's Bowles has an end and that is done by the end of a process of different process steps sterilizing annealing cold heading a goal heading in being forming and then the treatment to to get to the final the property and the Bolton did not have the UN not the same Mattel contends this is a typical composition the grades specifications if you by great specifications it doesn't give you a composition that it gives you a range the 2 of them here it gives
you arrange for the carbon content arrange for the manganese content His best in a specified as a certain amount of silicon usually This is the maximum that is specified the maximum and it gives you range for cruel and 4 for Mali and if you take for instance this particular example the composition here you seek that the steelmaker is free to choose where they this range what he provides but low and behold that if he the steel under this name with this much chrome yes and there is a problem with the product this will be a major problem because this is the specification and the specification which regards to the composition very strict begin typical applications for this is the bolsa's I said that you gears shafts couplings panels etc. but in general in the machinery application at the carbon content this is important here is relatively high so that means the year the welding maybe the difficult and for Sisulu in order to ensure good weld good weld the quality you will need to preheat material and stress relief it after the welding so the material was very interesting is that the material there's not necessarily and go From the steel plant to 1 client and then becomes a product they may be different steps yes and the material can change hands a couple of times and an example France's with which to them a would making bowls both we call this the steel so they used to make both column called heading qualities cold heading that describes the process the mechanical deformations we used to make bolts nails screws and recall them fast do you use them too fast and things to to 1 another as so and that the steel qualities recalled a cold heading qualities so they usually when you make bulls start from wire rod yes the wire rod made or originally have been billets the billets that I showed you right there's so these wire rods used these billets don't necessarily stay in the Congo in the steel company then BBC sold straight from the steel company to a wire rod manufacturer this was A-Rod manufacturers then the 1st thing they do they may soften the material and they made a drawing yes to a certain dynamic and then they usually is Ferro dies at the four-day do called for me To get very low strengths and so that they can achieve easy forming part of the bold and eventually and 1 that was to have the ball they will do but claims To mark the site between now and then a temporary so this particular step here of Sparrow dicing where you reduce the conceded the it's originally very hot very hard material is after this fairly Inc it's reduced by more than half yes and that is because wait it's an example you that we turn perlite here yes fair I must Sparrow diced Suman tight and it makes a material very soft so this process
takes a long time this pharaoh dies and is an example here for instance if you want to use eyes a tyrant carbon you know it takes you 100 hours so a few days to Sparrow dies this if the material is alloyed with Nicole or Molly workroom it takes even longer this disparate Isaac processes
this is very important again and not here is not made wit the same type of steel but is made with medium carbon steel that doesn't contain any chrome or Molly it was not only so this still here that is used to make the ball
answer we need to we need
not only to have Sparrow dicing information we also need to have the quenching tempering information it and by the way and so the process of making wire he and sermonizing may happen at once specific client and then there the process of making fasteners themselves usually happens by specialized farts who who actually make the bowls or yes and so as I said there may be 2 or more guys companies in between the steelmaker and the bowl make bold manufacture OK so let's go
the on here so for the
last steps then and you will need to that the person who makes the Bulls will need tonight wept at a temperature he could fortune at what temperature he can anneal the material an would normalize at an inn in a really important is the hardening and the temporary so how at what temperature does he have to In the letter what is the minimum cooling rate he has to achieve to make the structure Martin said and and what is the the tampering conditions that he has to use because this information is usually not standardized not provided in the the status usually but it's provided by the steel manufacturer 2 the the
companies that provide a steel another example here you know this time we look at the material that is turned into the geared we'll hear with Cobb arise to that means surface hardened India wheels so this is the year I 51 20 which is the same deeds C for 22 you are now you know that if it starts with investors just standard units and as stands for steel and see stands for pro the 2 chromium steel plants this is the equivalency test and there's usually these he's billets this is cast ability yes will be forged and machines to try to get it the gear wheel it will be heeded and at same time ,comma rise Scarborough rise means you diffuse carbon in the surface layer so you get resistant against abrasion but and you quenched and tempered the Whelan and you get this the gear the wheel and you get a product so important here the compositions you can see here carbon Condon's 0 . 2 this but it didn't really did the key addition here is the chromium once and again it's to make the steel no broadly
seen here when I discussed steel grades according to specifications I was talking about the the composition but there are grades they wear composition is not the only thing and it can even be dimensions so for instance you have specifications 4 rails now you probably only familiar which rails that are used for trains yes I did but you must rails from many other applications will 1 of the applications His cranes anything that is heavy can be moved around on on steel rails against and out very often these rails Our the 2 grades for the of rails are described again and it's special specifications in the case of rails it's the you I say I UIC is a profession international professional organizations Net deals weight right and rail infrastructure and UIC stands it's a French word it's as its international Railroad Association in international fishermen affect it's in French and so this a very common type of rail is UIC 60 and you would think that that is a it's don't steel great actually it's the shape of 2 the the rail and in particular the 60 refers to the mass of the rail per meter and if you have the the section is defined the section that these these these so the sizes in the shape of the rail is fully defined by the the great specifications and so it should weigh about 60 kilogrammes for a leader so that's what we call UIC 6 and and and the specific the specifications UIC it's 6 6 there are of course composition and strength requirements for the steel then what would that you make rails from and these are for instance in Europe covered by end 13 6 7 kph or and these are interesting you can instantly recognize them because stocked with an R Our for rail against and the number of very conveniently here so it doesn't referred to strength or the tensile strength your but refers to hardness according to the Britnell scale if you ever wondered who uses the Brunell scale well now you know steel and not stupid and railroad people use Britnell scale and why would they use hardness well that's because it's the most important property of of rail system the rolling on the rails creates a lot of frictional damage so you need to have high hardens so the strength of course important and uh the yield strength is important but what's really important in practice is the hardness of and by the way typical of tensile strength of rails around 1300 make process it's really hard material and on depending on the applications of the specifications of crane rails on different sides of the news not the same specifications but but it's that I like that the example of the rail steals because it shows you that for the UK because of the application that this the great specifications and what's important agrees that can vary widely but at so let's now you
go into leave the examples and go into power standards so let's look at it what would I think you should know about the Jets standards well we have 1st of all the gist standards for materials for steel the specification of the grades they all start with S & yes because these are the steals just is it's normalization institute that does not only normalization for steel the normalized everything up copper alloys aluminum alloys Major malaise plastics etc. right so when date with the great specification for steals is with the so you recognized this when for the alloy steels you can also instantly recognized chrome chrome Molly nickel chrome nickel chrome Molly weakened by comparison of the grades defined equivalents inferences of these would be the American Iron and Steel Institute equivalents for the steel they have a carbon steels for instance to structural steels which you will see used also know most structural steel here today tendency for constructional no free cutting steals spring steals as you several bearing steel as you show 2 and their deed the lettering it is a little bit no not logical but anyway important thing is that as the market in them In ready here yes ardor to last digits and you see that the 2 last digits of DJs in the eyes of the coincide very often unit 20 coincides with and that is b carbon content times 100 so so this is .period 3 cars this would be .period to carbon . 6 carbon and this is 1 per cent of right
it's look now at the EU standards the US EU standards have had the advantage that many countries collaborated in it and so the system is a little bit I thought I think the information in the name is a little bit more informative but there again you know it is you have to remember some of the details so this is the name of this that and the important standard and 127 -dash no 1 is sick and it has 2 approaches to classifying steals and so 1 of the 1st classification is based on is related to property it's yes and the other classification scheme emphasizes composition so did 1st classification is a combination of the letter cold In related to application and the number code related to property OK so that's of the mechanical properties we talk about are usually the yield strength in major Pascal and the application codes in a base on the 1st letter of the application for instance and this structural steel the for drawing Steve high-strength steel is page press reversal steel is speed Turkey is 14 plate or packaging Stevenson M is for electrical steels with magnetic and magnetic properties and then the 2nd Way of classifying the steel-gray is based on the chemical composition is and here we have and that becomes a little bit difficult we have subgroups in and all the standards go into this matter with this aura of the ideas I or me and they always know have this this the approach of the 1st there is a subgroup 1 where we basically have unalloyed steels knows which usually referred to as commercial director says the unalloyed steels and and European norms it's unalloyed steels with manganese content of less than 1 per cent In way the 2nd is unalloyed with manganese content up to 1 per cent and any other allying element less than 5 per cent and usually there's nothing in front of that there's no symbol for these grades and have yes when you see Ex In front of a the European steel denomination it always means its ally and the allowing level is 5 per cent so there is when he stresses the exit means still contains more than 5 per cent of an alloy element and then we have we have special His most standardization so special grades for high-speed steel because their alloyed with high levels of very strong carbide former such as tungsten Molly and vanadium and also alloyed with Cobol OK so let's make it
simple let's just give it some example here so and it occurred to company a construction company can buy a steel called S 5 OK so what does this mean that if this is the a yes so the 1st symbol is a letter and we have 3 numbers number number number and then there may be some symbols here which are related to requirements symbols yes which is the number and a letter an extra symbols which are additional requirements for instance relates to the processing thermal treatments and coatings cancel at 7 example here S 3 5 5 means yes centrist structural steel has the best of structural the 3 5 5 means a minimum of 350 5 major Pascoe Of the yield strength I so this is a constructional Seal Island will be used to make Bill something would right so that I can stop them but I can also order is steel which has g symbols J. R. have behind it that means there is an additional requirement in terms of toughness yes customs so for instance if it's a ship building great I'm going to use it for a a to build part of a platform for the oil industry has likened requires a minimum toughness requirements and they're defined here as J. will see in a moment with this means and and for instance we know that when you hat want high toughness you won't find grains yes when you purchase a steel you can require that it can be normalized that it went through a final he treatment where they also that ties the material and cool it back down that the 2 times you do the transformation gives me grain refinement right so you add the requirement and so this is what you order for instance and as 355 G R N OK that there many symbols the 1 we just described here for this this additional treatment is normalizes here but you can ask for for instance the material can be you can be requested to be as role if you don't want it material and yeah you'll do just declined will do it and sell it or they want to use it in the cold deformed states so as wrong OK etc. so there are plenty of of possibilities here all you wanted Q N T plus UNT quenched and tempered this very often used right
about this the toughness I just want to those who are not familiar with this this is a toughness tester New York which is sample here looks like this and you hit it which is a big hammered that it's so this big camera sitting here December slams into the sample here and it breaks or doesn't break the sample units when it when you do this with is dial gage here you can measure the energy that is absorbed during the the heads yes OK that is the way we use uh the 2
defined toughness so what you would you often get wit therefore attic steals is that at this when you when you measure the absorbed energy it on this dialed here on the you find that there is usually a temperature where the young there is a huge drop in the toughness and in these departures are usually low but take not not know that you are still temperatures that that do occur in the area in nature so we're very concerned about this and that's why certain constructional seals have this requirement for a minimum toughness France's a minimum toughness of 27 Jules at a certain temperature yeah cancel and that there is this requirement
that we just saw remember we had S the Rory 5 5 was steel yes the firefighters J. Jr R here's Jr it means that the impact energy yes minimum the impact energy that this deal will have at 20 degrees C will be 27 content but I can also said I could have also asked for it as the 355 K 2 that means that here I want a minimum of 40 jewels minus 20 contend this is a much harder toughness requirements and you can specify steel according 2 but another example let's see of of this use and say we have a steel coal the the seal 3 this is a OK what does this mean all again it's you standards so deep isn't an application in the stands for Cole drawing Serena drawing steel the application properties but again 3 numbers should be 1st letter and then numbers then requirements symbols which can be alpha numeric alpha numeric music in the letter combination of letters and numbers and then extra symbols required which are also related to what you need to know what you want in terms of processing thermal treatments of coatings there so this is the example the seal 3 at Excuse me C stands for cold-rolled and all free In the case of drawing it does not refer to strength but referred to the level of form ability old ones 206 all 1 is just commercial grades deal form ability and all 6 is for a very formidable interstitial free greats instead of this can have be if it's hot rolled and X if it's not specified and in this case there is no don't have a requirement symbol but I have is III this means that Ziyi stands for a galvanized coating and the E stands for lecturer galvanized the governor's means zinc coating of course wants us to be the decoding has to be applied in the electoral galvanized manner In the by Electrabel organization not by halted play OK but the it's with friends if this deal had to be the for a those suitable for enamel length to apply an anomaly layer France there would be an EKG here suitable for anomaly right so a couple of
examples where you see 1 way in which the steel can be specified With the the requirements clearly in the name again the that's not the only requirements you have to get the the great booklets as at work where will be all the details about 2 years this specific rates but do so in these EU standards we can also weak there is also a method yes I know that with its used to described the composition and again I as I told you we have 4 different types of of steals In an so we have the unalloyed steels less than 1 per cent of manganese unalloyed steels With manganese up to 1 per cent and all the other elements less than 5 per cent alloy steels we call those that are 1 element at least as 5 per cent in weight and then we have a special section 4 the high-speed steals it's always best to look at an example so for instance 35 he for instance see we know we 1st 2 the fact that it's unalloyed With less than 1 per cent of manganese nears the end of the stool numerical numbers here that is the carbon content times 100 so the carbon content is . really 5 yes so I know the real physical metallurgists will will have mole per cent or more fraction or atomic presented in technology it's always Mass % and very often people say weight per cent overweight person it's not really correct its masters but anyway so when SEC and this little III here yes it is related to a requirement that you have very low sulfur another example here for the the 2nd 1 here is 13 yes this you'll see very often therefore a sofa and that is the name of the grade will be 13 C them and the current 5 1 2 so the 1st 2 digits are carbon contents times 100 c this is it down this is the chrome and manganese are main allying elements and the and a 5 are related to the amount of chrome and manganese so is not for Percent of chrome bidders for divided by 4 just 1 per cent of groans and 5 it's not 5 per cent of manganese it's 5 divided by the reason there was a Moscow there is a great for instance nowadays is called 22 and the 5 this doesn't mean that it has 5 ppm of boron and has nothing to do with boron there's not so 1st of all the 2 there is no symbol in front right no X or no seats so you know it's alloyed but Everything is less than 5 per cent and you know that content will be given by my uh but by by my yeah landed the degrade a symbol he said 22 means 0 . 22 carbon manganese and boron part of the most important allocating elements in and the 5 is always the the 1st number is always for the 1st element method of the 5 can never before the Board of it's always for the 1st element and so I have to divide by 4 so the composition is 1 . 2 5 per cent of manganese 2 so yes why wide wise assists this crazy system of dividing by 4 well it's because then you don't have to use digits 1 ,comma has 4 points it In its well and and it makes it easier you don't have to worry about you know when you type thing you don't have to write .period 22 because maybe somebody makes an error and and rights to point to . 0 2 2 it is no part of in his nose the risk of making errors when you copying or writing something because there no decimal points and in this way that's the week that's the reason behind us and of course the result is it makes things confusing because if you don't remember that you have devised to give knowing they have to divide by something but you don't know how much they waits for that's the 1 I remember but but it's for 4 chrome cobalt manganese for the main allying elements in it's
1 it's divided by 10 for molybdenum aluminum etc divide by 104 cerium nitrogen phosphorus and divide by thousand for Boro that usually the only 1 you have to remember is for 4 you know the main outlawing elements it found and if you don't remember the other ones just make sure you always have this these lecture notes close by now when via the ballot in concentration is higher than 5 years you start doing this yes 110 and now Europe grade will for instance B X what said G. Ex 2 cruel Nicole Molly because this would be also great specifications of what does it mean here in but this this means that it's casting its catch To visitors are well also important here but so it acts To chrome nickel manganese a mother dinner 1911 yet so when you have an X in front of the name you all the numbers are the right numbers so carbon is 0 . 0 2 yes 4 . 0 2 the chrome I don't have to divide by 4 it's 90 per cent of April the 11th I don't have to divide by 4 it's 11 per cent and the 2 I don't have to divide by 10 it's true molybdenum and of course this is a stainless steel yes stainless steel and all the stainless steels always start with an X because they have these high levels of right H S for high-speed steals yes usually come out like this and then for numbers like in this case too 9 1 8 asserted that that you always know its fate a high-speed states and the hit 2 9 1 8 they are in sequence tungsten Molly vanadium and cobalt you really have to know that its I don't don't even remember old tungsten Molly vanadium and cobalt in sequence so this so you basically had no it's a high-speed steel yes high-speed still meaning for machining purposes and and these are the compositions of despair Carbide forming elements and of 2 Cold right so this is an example here right of course what would we discussing this lecture and I guess part of the lecture next Thursday morning this is just the tip of the iceberg writers a lot of applications and all these applications have specific Grady nomination but let's have a look for instance at tool steels to Steele said that these are our Steele said you know for forming tools like you know when you make a died so if you look at the big forming presses in the hall here the dies or not to steal right they're not the same still you make cars like these are special steels dies steals tool steels were called into the differences are it's you do cold work steals forming tools you have a knife if you do plastics it's different from steals if you do cold forming is different from the hot forming etc. but and let's have a look but you can still use this simple a method to describe the composition France's this assess x 38 Molly 16 OK carbon content 0 . 38 Crowley and Molly by domain the following elements there's only 1 number so I know it's for Kroll yes and because there is an ex I should not divide by 4 so it's 16 per cent of of crop this the same with here this is . 5 carbon 5 kronor 1 Molly and I don't know about the vanadium right senior high-speed steel what this should be an age in which is if you want to correct this the nature of so this sequence right so it's 6 for the time stand and fight for the Molly and I guess too for the Canadian and there is no cobalt so there's no there's no the number of people for a number of political the usually you can you can move around you can get a lot of information on this on
this using the other European again so at this stage the kind of come to the AI aside and SAT sentences are also very very widely used so I'll stop here and will alert will pick up this year the problem of standardization on on Thursday