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Modern Steel Products (2014) - Standards, Ironmaking: lecture 7

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standards and we had talked about it and some basics of the Japanese and European standards which are vary widely used internationally so when we closed on Monday To the 2 said the young we we had gone through the basics of the European normalization schemes for those deals and then and now we come to the U.S. normalization of steel grating as I had told you earlier in them in the U.S. the impact of professional engineering societies yes on the standardization of materials in general and still in particular is very large so far it's a bit different from situation in France Japan or Europe where are you government agencies we have a big impact also 2 of homogenized the approach to the you you won't find this in the American Senate and depending on you know the weather before you become an engineer In in company depending on the client's you have but they will be ordering deals if they do this using American standards they will use different standards of depending on the application let's have a look at that there is a move the American Iron and Steel Institute has which is which has standards which are widely used across many industries to specify a steel grades and they are very closely tied with the Society of Automotive Engineers has automotive industry is a very big user the steel products so it makes sense that day streamlined their approach to normalization so they basically use of a very simple wait for the numerical symbols and or alpha numeric symbols 4 or 5 and it always looked like X X Y. Y O X X 1 we want because the digits refer to something different because that's white so the 1st stages of the reference to the major outlawing elements consider define the various types of of steals you have basically 3 types of the plane carbon carbon manganese steals to mark pardonable grades which contains substantial Allen excessive fixed for instance carbon steel but with a less than 1 . 6 5 manganese and a . 6 Silicon . 6 copper will look like this they will all start with and 1 X what want OK so playing carbon steel hs of this type here the 1 X and Y Y are divided in subclasses so 1 0 0 2 0 means that you have a low manganese content less than 1 per cent if it's someone instead of a 0 it it doesn't mean anything In relation to the manganese it just means that its result for iced it contains . 1 per cent of sulfur if it's got . 2 yes it means that it's resell fries and it also we phosphorus to the higher phosphorus content to make them easily more than more machine about if it got at 3 and we're back to a specification related to manganese this means that the manganese ranges from 1 . 6 to 1 . 9 % manganese and if goes to 5 you would think it would review related to a higher percentage of manganese so and it doesn't it's it's from 1 to 1 . 6 per cent so there is no logic not not necessarily logic in the in the number of case in this number is it's a little bit frustrating I and you usually have to go back through the you know the tables to find out what specifically is referred to as that's a little bit frustrated exiting last luckily the last 2 digits all 3 digits why why or why why why defines the approximate carbon concentration times 100 and so for instance and x x number number 40 means approximately 8 . 4 per cent of the carbon and if you have X X 100 years the number number 100 means approximately 1 per cent of carbon so and then so we could you can basically divide your steals 2 low-carbon steels medium carbon season carbon steels and so on low-carbon lesson . 2 percent . 2 2 . 5 medium Cottontail high carbon steels are more than half a percentage that is in U.S. and North America is very very common way of referring to steal low-carbon medium carbon or engineers and high carbon it's kind of good to remember that what would people mean when they say high carbon the U.S. means more than half a per cent of mean 1 per cent could be 1 per cent but it's been known that could be as low as have and then the other is still contain important allying elements yes there is an extra latter inserted between the 2nd and 3rd digit so sometimes you have a 5 symbols but 1 of them is not necessarily a number if it's a B for instance it means that it's a boron added but if it's contains led yes but now this instead of a peace which you would expect from for the chemical symbol itself has so that's that this also indicated terrain the direction so and quite a a challenge to to find your way in these in this number and was so obviously I don't expect you to work to learn this but I'd like to provide you with some starting knowledge in the indeed about these same this is the approach used by either side as the standards I to 1st of all but the way you have to look at it the way it's it's it's structured the deal the general with the material steels are divided in low alloy steels and high alloy steel when we meet alloy steels we don't this nothing about the car yes following means adding chromium Molly that it doesn't say anything about the Carter so what are high alloy steels with a high
Ellis Steels Inc it inside the topic a standards and that's usually that means corrosion-resistant chromium Hi chromium high nickel steels basically stainless steel workers so to do so she lets just focus on what we say go low alloy steels they are divided in these 3 big groups low-carbon lesson .period 2 medium carbon . 2 2 . 6 and a high-carbon . 6 2 the expected this this a few typos this and this should be . 5 and then .period 6 hired and . 5 a game so if you could change as 2 . 5 maybe then you don't add up to 2 . 5 it's the medium carbon steel and then from over there it's what we call the high-carbon steel cage and sold in each case yes you have a plane carbon version that's just as steel where the main ally Liang element is now and into because they're not alloyed all all the numbers following additions it doesn't mean that there no specifications about levels of certain elements but in principle if you don't make balloting and what was the when we talk about steelmaking usually you have to even if you make a very simple grade you need to have the right composition for all the elements of the specified in the sense that took in you may very well have added some manganese just to get the right levels in the principal it's it's not an addition to achieve anything peculiar their specific so it starts they all start with 1 0 0 because there is no allegation editions and any other yielded a number it's of importance the 2 last digit this means . 1 per cent of carbon . 4 per cent of God .period 95 per cent of course and of course you can have this this type of steals where you do alloys where you do Alec for instance it each a deals you add Michael Allen additions and so on different numbers as to but I can live with just still make you feel good I told all but the eyes that I know few numbers you know because their common but this 1 I would know you would tell me as we would have this you precisely I would be able to tell you that we have to look it up but anyway so this as friends of my quality this group here is very important discoveries are all the engineering steels yes so they usually start with a 4 5 for 6 of numbers just so I know it when I see this it's an engineering steel that's so it be treated usually used in the quenched and tempered state as an event and the highly alloyed steels the same thing what a court lots of carbon and lots and balloting editions because why would you do this for instance if I make mark inside here it's going to be much softer Martin site and in this case because that would be for instance 1 of the reasons that you would do this and you can see this in the applications this year for instance these kind of things will be useful to make France's pressure vessel steels and here will make the parts for that go into construction of motorists assistance gears of the wear resistance part in machineries the kind deals and here drills tools salt dies etc so but and the year you have a number of about the is this list this is put together these are Brent very common the IRS and the other side of the grades theirs this is great Avery ,comma and you can see so the 2 top ones a playing carbon steels no alloy stock with 1 0 as soon as you get the 1 here probably remember this means that you've added sulfur yes to result rights sales the 5 here means it's manganese added as soon as you don't have this 1 anymore you know you're into alloyed I Lloyd crates followers to be calibrated and higher carbon friends this 1 is a well no it was a great name for steals that we make ball bearings with ball bearings are often made with us this is a very well often used engineering steels so facilities anyway these are pretty an important so you can see here adapt but if I look at this carefully I can see friends at 5 5 I look at the composition is 1 of the To the important allying element this as you Nora Molly nickel and you can see here that With the 5 1 5 1 by half I only have chrome yes so that the 5 thousand series usually refers to to steals where we only edition is chromium as you can see that in this case friends the 8 thousand 620 I have Nicole I have added chrome and I have added molybdenum so these numbers will referred to the but I didn't do the more complex alloys a dish let's have a look here I can say such is so here I know it's a plane carbon steel because of this this 1 here right sitting here yeah I have that 1 under the 2nd place so the result for right here have a fight on the side of his high manganese steel these numbers here 41 43 51 52 I cannot is no logic to it but these numbers refer to the type of alloy steels and chrome alloy chronicled Molly alloyed is a nickel alloys so if you want to do this you could do this and and this is the actual West yes so if if you if you want to know the you know what for instance 88 means OK you can see it's a nickel chrome Molly Alice and you see typical levels this but if
it's a 5 5 it's only chromium you know I was you to look at your table yes and there are some typos the 5 people expects he is His mastitis this Nicole something something if you go on the line chromium steels 5 0 x says something with nickel I think if you look carefully and there's another 1 that I think 52 this should it should be this Hi prone and and and high carbon 10 and sometimes like you know and I do have to say things can be quite confusing and for instance you would think that the Nichols the law originally demanded the silicon steels the high silicon steel would be all with nineties but you actually have a nickel chromium molybdenum steals that also stocked with the same number why is that will because with this approach you wrote you quickly ran out of numbers so so it's not a at a very young the logical thing but if if if you know vaguely how it works you can know you can identify degrades and religion for specific grades you will have to go back to the right of table like this war of course by the actual standards OK so In the U.S. there was also is something that's called the Universal Numbering System and that's basically ultimate all materials have a number but basically all of its it digits one-digit followed by 1 letter Excuse me followed by 0 5 digit number yet To anytime there it is steel yes and you still being developed against the number right so the number itself doesn't make much sense it doesn't say anything just a number you news still comes in the number of but there is a little bit of a subdivision and the number of years and that's in the latter also G S T D H so G stands for just it's a plane carbon steel alloy steel asked if it specifically for heat or corrosion application resistant deputy T 4 tool steels the specific mechanical properties usually meaning drawing growing applications and H 4 a pardonable steals by this system as very rarely used its you know you have some people use it it's that it's even more so you know mysterious what the number means because you know the numbers are just given to steal as as they are being developed so but it's not very much is that you should know that it's that if you ever come across at it's universal numbering system the number of not having said this In in North America the you have the Ironside units which have a lot of other professional organizations that have their own specifications so it a Ironside itself has the designations for stainless steel nails which takes into account the frantic state steals Allston extremists deals Martin City stainless-steel precipitation hardened stainless steel and that does not refer to the numbers they also don't refer to the composition of the carbon levels so that's what for instance 3 0 4 yes it said we call them at 300 series stainless steel and I need stainless steel the stock that is of the 300 series Austin yes if it's Varitek it's of 400 number yes and sometimes these numbers are followed by letters such as Elf which l doesn't mean led in this case in this case it means little for low carbon so the 304 is a very very common that 18 10 the 18 chrome 10 % nickel Austin attic stainless steel and it's the L means it has a reduced below carbon content To provide adequate Weld ability or form ability properties depending on the situation the car so that is that also vary widely used across the world so even even just standards you this numbering system so if you see a stainless-steel sweater of 400 you know it's protective if it's for a for instance of 439 is Riddick stainless steel a 321 you know it's an Austin effective it be you obviously the special 1 but it's an Austin at right up you I'm sure you've heard about AST the STM is but it also stands for the American Society for Testing and Materials so in the war in the name itself that it says Testing and Materials of very often these specifications years will Will you will have In this specification will have steel specifications and testing methods 40 steals yes it's like the STM test methods test procedure of our very widely used cancer because they allow engineers to do the same tests you know in China Japan according to the same rules right so we can compare our data I Anderson it also defines the grades yes and so that means there an application element too that the test and a great 2 so we have a STM classification where the focus is on steel the the type of steel product application you will have information about composition and properties and very often you can recognize these grades because they are proceeded with the number preceded by the letter a so for instance for structural steels and you will have 8 36 836 very common structural steel and that means
some still you make buildings with them if it's for ships the 131 for Bridget's 709 there's no logic don't look for logic in the numbers but if you come across in a a graded numbers look like European specifications great name it doesn't look like the SAT a great name but it starts with the Nets good chance that it's an AST and specification and so you'd think that would be enough for Americans to deal with but not as there many other societies that bring out their own specifications for steals princess the American Association of I'd have to read myself of State Highway and Transportation Officials have specification for steals in bridge construction Jim the a S I mean it is very important engineering society when it comes to is and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers for pressure vessels pressure vessels America is a as the American engineering has a big impact on petroleum and gas the technology so this is a very important society when it comes to pressure factual piping steals etc API yes also related to petroleum and gas industry but there too the the the the tubing here's the line pipes In the offshore platforms they society which it has a lot of standards in this so there are specification for line pipes are usually according to the American Petroleum Institute a man in a is for aerospace aerospace and applicant material aerospace material specifications and the military is also a huge consumer equipment and and obviously the equipment is according to specifications but those once you can recognize when because it's Ismail the stock with a mail you know it's a military grade steel for instance for instance when the military makes orders vehicles for troops in the battlefield usually have plates to protect the against explosions and so the steel said their use like this are not just just any steel and their various well specified steals according to 1 of these military specifications but and and then perhaps I just want to finish but I'm not going to talk about it there are also I so I suppose is an international body also the standardization international standards solution office now and they also have a standardized many many things not only steals but they have standardized steel grates and they're basically based on the camp on the composition of this steals they consider deals unalloyed steels alloyed steels and alloys special steels you can read this book you will very rarely come across the specific this the specifications since so I usually skip that all because it's not you but it's it's really important for you to opt to know about the use of Japanese and North America and the European specifications really you come across them very often and everywhere but when you are an engineer in the plant yes then you have to do something according to specifications your company should buy this the specification standards as you should not read an article and so will hear it says that a ideas I 439 should have this much Titaniums yes so that's not the case you do specifications you have to buy the new company has to own their hands because if there is ever a problem now it turns out you don't even know the specifications or on and you know that's not very professional usually used by these things you don't John you don't steal them from Internet or you don't copied from somebody else so the cost of some money of course but you company should you know should have this is part of a quality aspects of still make digital the standard it's very easy to buy fire Internet was involved right so again so I hope I've uh been able to to show you that the standards can be useful in and data also show you that is still a lot of the impact of professional engineering societies and trade association and government into these the steel standards so I knew the physical malady is sometimes very hard to do to find but and it's there behind it and that was the reason why we use this is because it's put forth for reason of quality reliability and also interchangeability and interchangeability in 2 days very large international trade is extremely important and the standards are not just about chemical composition titled will also go into the properties it has mechanical properties dimensions yes dimensions and I want to go close by saying that even tho we have standards it's very well possible that is in your professional activities you will be making steals not according to they as I've already STM or some European but according to the specification of your clients so sometimes large consumers of steel such as big car makers Toyota TM you have to make their steel yes according to their specifications OK so you also have this this kind of situation so that was for the standards and no 1 will we will love continue
With some few more
basics related to
products what is it 2 we
will I have to say a few
words about we have a chance to lectures lots
of them on the phone steelmaking and the thing
with these courses is of course
a year on the deal would still making it the
blast furnace and slags and Citroen home very often not necessarily in connection with products Bob but as in this case I'm not giving this type of introduction would I will be focusing on as few technological things you should know To understand the further processing of the steals and some things that are really important for specific products so it's a very young white introduction to iron and steel making essential so we just going to review the essentials and so on and so will love look at the blacks furnace will look at the
electric arc furnace that's where our part irony comes from so that you have some understanding of the liquid part of the the manufacturing process and the impact of this liquid part Of of the processing on the Mike rastructure and composition of the steals this is also important to know that this liquid part has has a big impact on because that's basically where you make your chemistry that's that's where you you know when we talk about sick chemistry and composition that's where it's made in the liquid part and as soon as you cast a steal this no more going back yes there is no more of this kind of interesting to know a few things about and how this alloy is being docked at will was a few words about this at the end of "quotation mark all try to to convey the idea that steelmaking is not something simple yes and I am not getting the composition right of a steel is the you know this is not done in a simple way wanted to take some effort has to work to get the right chemistry is and it's important for you to know that's because you know if you work in an engineering in for instance In the bar a mail for instance you know you may not be aware of defects that you see that are caused by the liquid part of the process but lets them that start to it which we're basically going to talk about this it there this
year and the flow of material flow
to make products and steel plants we say we start with steelmaker in contention that and and before that in the electric arc furnaces or the blast furnace and then the continuous casting already engulfed casting and the material gets is in a solid state and then gets processed to 2 different products and consulates let's have a look here and has a few words about the ways we make Our steals will usually we start with you we either stocked with a blast furnace or a variety the variant on the blast furnace but by and large most steelmakers make the irony from or using the blast furnace and so in the blast furnace what do we do we it's a big reactor at the top we load of iron ore Coke and
limestone is of baked the basic things and at the bottom yes we N get out molten iron in Multan slack the molten irony is this apparent not steal lipstick but the multitude they dislike contains but should contain all the what we call impurities so what else happens here will be this big reactor is operating at high temperatures so there is a lining inside that's refractory linings and inside we I have charged this it the iron ordered Coke and limestone in layers yes in layers of so we alternate Coke layers with the irony or in enter In order to get the reaction of the irony reduction of iron oxide production going we blowing air heated air yes at the Baltimore here these this is a big pipe here death connections to the the furnace Viet shields down which recalled 2 years bucket some details here 1st of all what we load is not usually but that is not usually call it's it's colder has been treated metallurgical cold that has been turned into coke so it's hard and it has been a mechanical properties so it doesn't collapse and it doesn't contain gaseous compounds can same witty iron ore iron ore its we don't use you know irony or as such very little of it we centered the iron or usually so again so we have a very strong lumps of material yes but with the right permeability yes and that the right strength and so doesn't collapse on that high heat and the hot and the correct dimensions so that the the flow of gas is good through the the blast furnace and with the heated air here but we can also inject gold powder to decrease the amount of coke we add that to stop you are what happens we generate heat in this a converter basically this reactor excuse me by 1 Exeter Mc reaction which is burning of carbon C +plus you so this is this react produces a lot of suture and then we reduce the oxide to Mattel and we we use for the reduction of this the oxides we use CO gas which is made in the India in the furnace and we use carbon Nelson and India's other reactions here with a to it's really going to IRA and an effort to 3 being reduced in steps to carbon all these reactions are and determined that pick up the unique you need heat for that OK so you absolutely need coal combustion too make the blast furnace work this other important reactions to have purification all our the war material we add contains not only are iron oxide but also silica alumina yes etc. that it would it we need to separate this from our mettle and we do this with by adding a line laughter is basically calcium oxide is and the calcium oxide reacts with silica and alumina to form a liquid slack and it's it's oxide yes and so it has a very low density compared to the IRA so it floats on top and we can be removed from Beacon separated 2 phases all right and Simpson a little detail here some numbers 1st 9 thousand tons per day Britain that the mother of blast furnace produced 90 thousand tons that means 2 . 5 million tons of Byron per year yes the blast furnaces operate around-the-clock every day for many many years 10 years 15 years depending on the wear of the lining this on the inside where does the or come from this book of hiring can be mined in many places but most of all I iron ore comes from Hi Irish oxide content minerals and said they come from the mainly that the countries like Australia Brazil units which have very high wars which very high iron content and 1 of the other minerals is Our bandage Byron formations which this is with the mineral looks like you can see the iron oxide dust the red layers and I this is where the remains the robbery made billions of years ago I originally wait did not have on Earth oxygen and the oceans contain a lot of IRA which in was dissolved in snow oxygen in the air however and we started getting all living organisms with change boxes as CEO to into oxygen and suddenly we had due to the Fodor said that since we started to having oxygen in the water and this was then transformed at this oxygen and water reacted with the IRA yes and just formed deposits of hammered tight and magnetized and because the deposited in water they form these layers and the alternate web silica rich layers so there's always intimately mixed with with other minerals in and that's reason why you need the slacks to remove these other oxides that you don't need to have in the steel but because it so that this is important here because minerals that are in the office will also be reduced to
certain level in so there will always be some silicon In your steel um because that's in the or the same thing are there will always be some manganese in U.S. steel because it's very often associated with irony in your irony but the now the steel that this was really IRA and that's been made his contains high levels of carbon High levels of phosphorus and high levels of sulfur and carbon in itself we don't mind we've seen when we talk about standards that no you need carbon for for many steals to achieve strength on but in In the blast furnace Byron there's the levels of very high 4 per cent you can't really use this material because it's basically a cast iron and is very brittle so you need to remove the carbon the sulfur and phosphorus the sulfur and phosphorus because there are very strong and Breitling agents and the levels of sulfur and phosphorus part too high 4 most applications so we removed as to how does this work so you do this in a the desulfurization to start with you do this in a pretreatment so the material that comes out of the blast furnace is the sole fries and a deep harbor ization and phosphor ization is down 18 the conferred With ended this unit called the BOS convert basic oxygen furnace the right so that the U.S. is basically a reactor there's a reactor where you put the the irony of the siren will contain about 4 per cent of carbon after the treatment in the F it will be 100 to 500 ppm Of course it's a huge reduction of the carbon content How is this really uh reduced to this level by blowing oxygen on the surface of your and by injecting gas prodi bottom of this the U.S. again all this car but is turned into C 2 you produce a lot of you too and this if production of Siu 2 is very Exeter Macht reaction so but you will need to have it refractory bricks lying to convert the unusually that is magnesia brake lining which contains the little bit of carbon it has mechanical stability and chemical stability is also important the year chemical stability In toward the liquid metal but also chemical stability Towards the slag that you for get less sets Italy this a few numbers about converted typically 152 350 Thomas of metal can be 350 is very large 1 150 is on the smaller with typical sizes are too 15 up to 50 to 75 it's what you usually see it as an industry standard tapped to tap time that means half the time it takes to make 250 tons steel is between 20 and 25 minutes is a very high rate of production How long do you blow typically well of these 20 to 25 minutes about 15 minutes are spent blowing that the glowing meaning carrying out to the car isolation so what you do is you know you have oxygen Top mowing his and you have bottomed story Bolton stirring means you inject gas in the bottom and it usually that this gas oxygen and argon the oxygen will just to the decarbonization and the argon is used to stir up the back yes and this is very important no ollowing editions the U.S. is not an an alloy you don't do any alloys if anything you removed a lot of a lot of elements not only not with not only card who's To say here an example we come in not only with high carbon would also at high Silicon . 8 silicon almost 1 per cent of half a per cent of manganese 600 ppm of sulfur 300 feet 50 ppm of carbon yes so the that you have by the time you go from the blast furnace into this the basic oxygen furnace of U.S. is about that 1400 and 50 degrees that's much lower than the solidification temperature of our room which is close to 1600 so you've noticed that there is no added heat in this there's enough heat produced by the burning of 2 cars so so this is what you have In terms of the steel coming out you have 500 to 800 ppm of carbon and it's important that you remember this number OK 500 you have about 0 0 .period all 1 per cent of selected so that you have about .period 15 per cent of manganese so even an an alloy no carbon steel I will always have at least . 15 per cent of manganese not 0 per cent of this I sulfur 350 so about half of this phosphorus there is reduced to about 100 ppm remember that number that is typically the lowest level you can get in terms of phosphorus the phosphorus is actually removed effectively in the blast in the U.S. yes and that's kind a level that you can get In in the regulars still in addition to this you have about 40 ppm of nitrogen usually low the hydrogen or no hydrogen and no residuals is no residuals when steelmaker's stock about residuals said they did they mean things like antimony this month copper and the temperature is a staggering 17 hundred degrees C so it's very hot the reaction is very high but the slack that you get about is slide would very high CO content and also very high fuel content and this is very typical after 8 but U.S. flags it's a very goal very high best city slack and the reason why we have this is because it's here underneath is the is to ensure that you remove as much phosphorus as possible To have edited for those who have taken over the lot steel and metallurgical this slack has to be oxidizing and have a high by you need to oxidize the phosphorus and be able to trap the phosphorus in the slack the as I O 2 is in the slag and NGO is in like the NGO in the slacks from the life here from the the line that we used to have to make this line but and if you ever worked in a all visits at the steel plant there many Viet variants of the process but most of the mother the U.S. combined top blowing there's an Baltimore blowing technologies then you have which we call combined blowing so most of the the U.S. nowadays look like this you have both combined the nitrogen argon or nite oxygen and argon bottom blowing and that top blowing of oxygen that's what happens during these I we the the blowing the steel composition changes yes temperature increases and and the composition of the slack changes so let's have a look here at indeed carbon silicon and phosphorus content Of the steel this is for the steel so what we see is that the common level decreases yes the fastest silicon level decreases very quickly yes so silicon removal is very easy interview carbon is also very easy you do have a lot more carbon so it takes a longer time the phosphorus initially decreased a little bit and it stays flat years entail yes this scene at this stage here that three-fourths through the process the amount of carbon In this steel has dropped considerably and you start oxidizing the IRA this iron oxide goes into the slag yes and this makes it possible for dislike to absorb P 2 0 0 5 phosphorus oxide is and that's where you start decreasing these phosphorus levels and so this the airfield content in the slack is necessary for an efficient phosphorus removal and of course it results in some loss of irony To slack In the meanwhile the temperature has gone before 1300 and something or way over 1600 the very high yeah can we have all the techniques to make them the steals yes and that's basically by melting old steel him next to the technology is electric arc furnace an electric arc furnace technologies are usually associated with smaller steel companies yes but so companies like Posco Nippon Steel Arcelor Mittal are big companies they make 15 40 50 million tons of steel 100 close to 100 million tons of steel per year most of their material was the steel they make is new steel New steel as they use or to make Irish pig iron and then turned into steel many companies use all steel recycled steel the recycled steel and the use electric arc furnace to make steel so we have so steelmaking from recycled scrap steel we have the electric arc furnace where you basically melts scrap metal and and you already made chemical composition when you do this there's something you don't do interview work right and it usually 2 steps you will have an electric arc furnace where you melt to scrap metal you add ferro alloys and other additions and the 2nd step you adjust the composition the data which may involve oxygen also so let's have a look at this electric arc furnace there many different technologies but nowadays you have what we call low-cost high-performance electric arc furnaces and disorder beyond the specifics of the use of electric arc furnaces so diameters are about then there was the circular furnaces about 8 4 2 8 meters of diameter that the doing the weight that's the 4 of steel is 58 typically in the range of 50 to 150 nowadays industry said about 120 to 150 songs that larger-sized 125 electric power it is typically hundreds 25 mega volt amperes transformers and we use alternating current so there's a big difference here between making new steel and using scraps when you make news steals you make all lot of Suter yes if you become a major source of C O 2 when you use an electric arc furnace all the heating comes from the electricity yes so you don't emit C O 2 10 there's an environmental In fact to the use of electric arc furnaces and there are however also burners usually there are some gas burners natural gas burners are used use of foaming slag as the special slack that forms is basically by injecting a mixture of carbon and oxygen into you I have about 30 heats today with a L electric arc furnace of the production is about 3 thousand 600 tons per day you can detect to tap time is about 15 minutes or so so an electric arc furnace will produce every 15 minutes will produce 120 tons of steel a B OF producers 250 tons every half an hour he has so it's a big difference because of you produce a lot more steel in the BUS situation than in With an electric arc furnace look at both of them the news so this is what it looks like you you basically have these electrodes here that's the Macon market with the steel surface and that basically melts the the metal and then you have a special act on top of the steel again you can separate them both units nowadays but would you when you take toward the steel you pour it from below an X was called ET extract eccentric bottom tapping yes I and so you can easily separated the the steel from the slack because you don't want to have slag inclusions in your steel it's very very bad cancel here some numbers here and then I'll close and what would the typical inputs in an electric arc furnace well these that electrodes are made from graphite so they do burn units in the atmosphere but really there have scrap metal goes into the uh electric arc furnace lying or Dolomites alignments of CEO and dolomite is a mixture of fuel and NGO that will form the slant weakened as said make a foaming slide will need to inject oxygen and carbon than we do the topics would do we get we put in about 2 thousand kilos of scrap here yes we would put more than a thousand of course but this is just referring to Tom right so you would you get out space to which you put it this year you put in about a ton of of scrap you get out of town of steel use about a few kilograms of electrode about 30 kilos of lying about 20 25 kilos of oxygen natural gas coal and refractory is and this is what you get out of for every ton of steel unit about 100 kilos of of and so will allow world will finish here thank you for your attention and will meet
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Modern Steel Products (2014) - Standards, Ironmaking: lecture 7
Serientitel Modern Steel Products
Teil 7 (2014)
Anzahl der Teile 31
Autor Cooman, Bruno C. de
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 3.0 Unported:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/18344
Herausgeber University of Cambridge
Erscheinungsjahr 2014
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Technik
Abstract Professor de Cooman finishes his lecture on "Standards" and begins one on ironmaking using the blast furnace. This is a part of a course of lectures by Professor Bruno de Cooman, of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Republic of Korea.
Schlagwörter The Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology (GIFT)

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