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Modern Steel Products (2014) - Structural Steel and Rail: lecture 25

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cultural steals in rail and hopefully I can wrap this up to die in about an hour and then on on Tuesday I will will talk about the place products and in particular the flanked by the so line by being very important nowadays steel industry it might be of entrust to you to 1 you definitely attend tried to attend the classes and even tho there you know there will be no queers related to the material of choosing so what are these the so-called long products basically we're talking about structural beams and
rails but what will see 2 days talk about male designs for beans and rails we'll see sorry get very characteristic for the type of product that is being made here In contrast to what happens to bar and wire products they producer of rail and the structural beams makes the end product that is ready for use In an application for residence is in the grip of the railroad tracks and so will talk about shape rolling that's Porter a part of the process here of producing struggle beams and rails entered and so will end and will underline the fact that for structural strength is important that's the main thing but in the case of rails there is an additional requirement actually a more important requirement then just strength that its hardness look at what would be tied to the products look like that we are talking about what you are all familiar with IBM's widely used in the and seen on construction sites piles sheets knows if you want to make some kind of wall the 2 walls supporter walls make harbor fronts etc and he's piled sheets of this very it into important detail here this the curved apart that allows them to that allows you to walk them together channels and angles and industry things are very common thank you see you'll of construction slump sites right so these beings channels piled and angles L start
their production in continuous annealing at a continuous injury continuous casting their lines where you produce blooms yes and I nowadays but you also produced being able acts and you can see the advantage of producing a being blanked you already have a part of the general shape of the product in the casting him and so on how how how a Donald simply you the the continuous casting mold has the shape of this it's called dog bone shapes and you know what comes out is is basically already free shaped Bloomberg no good it's a the but a basically could also use slabs most of the time I use billets or blooms Audi's that being blacks and and eat their roles in a special merits in specially Mills specially designed males and of course and you have to have a specially designed role passes will talk about this and so let's have a look at the some general things
about what kind of steel grades do we use for these long products well basically they're not very complicated products in terms of the metallurgical and so if you look at you here is our age beings channels bungles and a typical grades that you would be using so let's have a look at how the European versions of the standards because they will give you information about what typical strengths we're talking about and yield strength 235 335 this are not extremely high-strength steels yes although Els who and will close with that today but there is definitely a trend to increase strength also in structural steels for for a long product rails for rails we have different notes set went into the hole rail road rail industry has its own standards for steals yes and so you have for instance costs in France European Union you have the European normalization yes that is just the same as you have structural steels in in the U.S. that refer to as a rematch which stands for American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association again this professional engineering organization that's dealing with rail road and infrastructure equipment and so let's have a look at these rails steel properties L it's
important specifications yeah railroads are depend on geographically very different from the you have very dense railroad networks in Europe the used for transport but also for a friend yes and so you have in North America railroads are used mainly for freight yeah so you have a very very heavy loads on the on the rails and the very heavy so you basically hauling a lot of stuff over the railroads and the passenger type of railroads much much less important in In in North America and so and and because of historic reasons but you know these European and standardize Asians are important there is 1 that's famous it's to you the UIC which stands for in your international edition meant affair that's the all the international body DEC has standards for the rails and then there's an European normalization standard also were so what do we see here yes In a few use look at these this European standard degrade named yes this is this salary as in Europe Europe so that starts with the letter that was referring to the application so if you if it starts with an art refers to rail against and very often the number that follows this denomination this great name is a number usually In these European of standards it's refers to yield strength source strength and my property in this case it doesn't it refers to harden its it refers to hardness and bring now hardest on the Brunell hardness scale right and I am there and the reason is because of our our rails are very heavily subjected to wear that's where 1 and fatigue that wear and fatigue at center OK so what do we know the it sea as a strength levels again not nothing very excessive yen and it depends also on what type of rights and the world will see that in a moment of different rails it depending on what would it's use words obviously the so so we have a resident not heat-treated basically perlite take steals and there we have tensile strength remember a fully politics steal you reach about you can reach about thousand make a Pascal unless you you dealing with wire steel where you can get these very high strength but in this case of course you don't have wires you have these of massive section so this about which you can get but right end and so far but we have the rails that too we can harden in some way partially particularly what we call had hardens the rail where the strength levels are higher than in the Ojeda Pascal typical of carbon contents year round .period 5 . 6 manganese silicon and then in the case of a pardonable the rails you will have chromium editions so let's have them the review of wine is the rail harness so important because you
get a special type of where which is rolling contact fatigue as an it's very it's highly dynamical situation as it exists extremely high loads and and you can see here that our you you initiate cracks yes but in this type of fatigue below the surface and then no part of the metal crack all them there is also an issue with hydrogen content which should be very low to avoid hydrogen flaking so in Jenin in order to get these extremely low hydrogen contents modern rails a year's leave steals are using vacuumed aghast and also extremely low sulfur content because of this requiring requirement for rolling fatigue resistance that so I'm proud we will make the rails the process usually starts with nowadays with being blanks those ones shown here that they go into a furnace the he did too 1100 to 1200 deg C and you basically ready to the role of the rails and you start up with a breakdown mail waited the wrath of large amount of relatively rough defamation and then finishing nails the finishing mills will allow Seidemann Maude dealing moment you get the final shape has there is cooling line here very long cooling line if the rails are long nowadays you have a production sites that can produce rails at about 120 meters in length they go on cooling bad this and then you're going to have to go through the finishing the park 1 important aspect of the finishing so make sure that your illustrate yeah straighteners are important and finishing involved for instance the year the ends taking care of the ants right so let's see here in more detail what we have as in modern rail making lines reheating furnace breakdown mail so here you have a reefers rolling here the material goes back and forth for a few times then you transfer it to a continuous universal mail and in a continues universal Melby Rail goes in 1 direction and got these special males that will do the shaping of the rail and then you have a heart soul before the cooling it will wait what's the hot also important for me so you don't shear and did ends of a rail and to have the right length and the quality of the the cut you need to do is hot Cutting "quotation mark sorry and when you see along the cooling bed the these very long rails on the cooling bed but they're not strength actually did extremely crooked and the reason is that because of this section of the rail they don't cool at the same rate that's when you know that when you go to the face transformations there is a lot of expansion From Austinite to far-right so as a consequence on very long the pieces like rails this gives rise to considerable distortions sometimes use this distortion is partially compensated by story Bandy the the rails in the other direction return to go this way the term only did from thermal distortion there band in this direction before you start coup well we what is the universal rolling so that in a conventional rolling In
1 of the of long products To make keep things simple but you basically go through 2 to males this role this way yes and that and you have also grooved the roles this group as a consequence of their that surface quality is not so good because the outer flanges they are wiped by the sides of the grooves and become so the way you do make this change is by having grooved wheels I thank you see that friction on the side but because like you get friction because the Rail Moses direction only but the role goes like this so if you damage the officer surface nowadays but use universal rolling hills and in the universal role that rolling mill you haven't used what was called universal Mel as in this case you have well roles in this direction and roles in this direction so you have a role in this direction and roles that turn in this direction and we call it a universal because we can change now this gap in this gap and make in principle a lot of shapes yes With 1 man it is in this case because the roles of grooved yes 1 shape for 1 type of roles yes you cannot change focus so L it also and also because this role turns right it can beat roles with the surfaces so you don't get the surface damage I also higher productivity smoother products surfaces improved pro-life costly less where but and this is good you can you can do much better control over the thickness of the dimensions of your product so you have a horizontal role for instance and vertical roles here against and you can control the wet thickness and the flange thickness at the same time as in this case for incidents were chance illustrated I a for over rails the more complicated but you also did not use universal rolling nowadays there's too To make arrests were as stopped there and say you you're Starting Bloom save you if you would work with them but not be being blind but is square move right you basically would have to make a real out of tests this block and traditionally it's done with these horizontal roles yes sir the defamation now so used you 1st start by by doing the wrath of roughed information in this direction knows and then you use these are shaped rolls to make the rail has all the defamation is in this in this direction in universal Mel it's different you it's more much more homogeneous and and the million doing on is more flexible this is 1 man and 1 of these older style
Nelson and where so you can see here so from the breakdown male whose Quebec you can see here you have to
hide horizontal roof
roles here you have again to high horizontal roles here again this there only a few intermediate steps where you do also vertical rolling to take care of the head and the foot of the rail and so in a traditional real finishing mail your Eurail goes through these you can see here very nicely in 1 of these grooved roles has to make the shape of the and don't derail moves back because moves in this direction and then moves in this direction brought here in this direction yes it in this manner in the old-fashioned outside real finishing and in the modern ones the railcar most still through the whole thing through a tandem mill of which has universal standards looking at the structure of the real steel Perla look at what we saw last time that perlite is also very important for wire products many wire products while in the case of of rails that's basically you can assume that most of the rails you see opera let just this is a structure in which the and so as a consequence we also get the issue of you know if you want strength if we want but where resistance like off somewhat aware resistance but then we have to refine the microscope so that's that's together it's going to be fine it's important that the cooling rate this controlled so that we get the transformation wouldn't remember 6 600 to 550 degrees and you get to fight Mike rastructure so if you pull down big rail like this has come as you are whenever he would stop the cooling at the exterior of the of the rail it if it it's reheated bite the Claudette calls that schools last and there is also an increase in temperature but when you do the transformation which is due to the heat of transformation this is a typical the CCT diagram for carbon manganese real
steel if about but that's what is interesting it said this would be the cooling rates that you'd want To achieve fully political MicroStrategy not necessarily very high cooling rates but if you would be able to cool the rails faster than you could actually make the the Benedict Mike rastructure and In particular ending in certain countries in particular and in Europe there is a trend foreign at a lot of interest in using Rail still would have been hectic microscope and we'll see in a moment of what is the advantages of indeed there you have it you can see from
the this is the head of a rail as the head of a rail and obviously it's on the top here on the top surface that you want to be the best where resistance and that but that's also them a massive piece In a massive be so what you do as you had hardened the rails and you while you make sure that the rails are given the accelerated cooling yes and when when they come out of the universal mail this year you can see the a cooling had its praying the news you hear that the head of the rail against so that you get that much of the increase hardness because the structure is refined so you can see the the hardness profile incident g very high hardness is on the outer side of this related steel then in in so there's just been certainly
along a lot of interest in the rail the last 2 years has because of high speed high-speed tracks are becoming a very important I saw in Europe of already for many years in Asia and China lots of highs and relatively producer you have to realize that I once Railtrack has been put down it's not for ever right the the rails will be monitored they should be monitored as carefully to see that there is no damage and then they should be regularly replaced so 2 quality issues are very important and surface quality surface hardness and so and in particular the because you have these very long railroad lines now we also need the very long rails too to reduce the cost of building the railroad stations so so varied that dissident that they had quality had surface quality is very important in this instance because of the long distance passenger transport and also freight application where where we have very high axle loads has and so these axle loads are tremendous for instance you will have on the phone on 1 of these the contact areas you can have more than 10 Toms load on a few square centimeters yes this is a very big To this the hardening is is important and nowadays it's been dominance in special units 10 and because of that you can but you can also say that the the idea of a key to reading the the rails to obtain better Mike rastructure is potentially better than plane perlite they are being explored so for instance is example here when this would be a traditional the railroad steel rails steel it's a prolific steel so we I have a lot carbon to make deeper perlite right and so will add some chromium to a and improve strength and and this is at the end of the year the transformation diagram here so what we usually the way we make this the MicroStrategy we cool down yes and then we go it's day-night transformation asserted of polite transformation of With the Benedick steals the stories is different we don't need that much carbon yes and the Benedick steals where we're using have relatively high recent we are trying to make In very fine Carbide free the tonight the carbon the United this and here of course in order to To do this and of course because I have so much less carbon I don't really have to worry about pro-life formation but I do have to worry about the car fast far-right formations in order to avoid as I need to have a decent cooling in place and I can do debate nite transformation has the result is that is shown here here I have the paralytic steel and here I have the carbide free Benedict steel and In in use for some time and you can see here that there is a tremendous difference in the where between the 2 yes and so b Natick steals currently certainly these low-carbon Carbide nite Benedict steals have higher strength and appear to have a better fatigue resistance also and in addition because we have this very low carbon content welding the steals In the the rails to 1 another there is also this year so again just a few images here of a of the production line here
the cooling beds of modern rail producing facilities very always very impressive because you can have In Europe when I think that In in China you have no lines that will produce 120 meters of of of rail in the U.S. maximum length up to now is 90 feet it's about 30 meters yes that's considerably smaller yes and you get this distortion during the cooling as I said and as a consequence because he did dimensions "quotation mark the rail or very important you have
very happy straightening equipment India in the finishing off line of real products and also a using this year you have these roles here alternating roles has very rigid frame and you basically bands the the the rail back-and-forth that you've got the right straight profile I am and a guest and you have to do it in 2 directions of so horizontal that's here and here vertical today the Varela straight in both that horizontally and vertically testing it's important that you want to see the material quality externally and internally in order to make it to look In sued material you have to do ultrasonic testing and that allows you to see if there are any internal defects and modernist rail steel should what you know in the most advanced countries is 100 per cent of the production this test against for thank you you and others persist right in here and you see here the
roles that Will bands B of the rail tale it's perfectly straight when you look at the that being said yes but I basically in terms of the cross-section know it's not very far from what they are Rail looks like them so are obviously very very big similarities between rail males and the e-mails and very often it's the same company or plants that will be producing both yes both of these long products so well here you a but with whites Lancz & White fledge meaning this hearing it has long been a mail for construction also here the technology is Towards Universal rolling rather than these groups using these groove roles yes and you typically go From ability yes through doors through a line that will end in laughter about 10 defamation steps I will give you a lot Nice I've been through this an example here of the possible production route here so you you start with these grooved roles To groove drawls and then the horizontal role here this is a universal mail the stand rather with combined vertical and horizontal rows and you can see it this is further reduced and then you take care of of the definition of these edges Cancer nowadays yeah very often these steps in the past would be gone back and forth in
reversing the fashion nowadays most of them modern technologies will be certainly for medium section males this section sizes hearing but you
will have universal standards yes Universal stance the position such a way that you get continuous operation for the material comes in here yes and never goes back wages goes straight through all the universal males steps as an example here of a 5 stand mail medium section of products you can see here here the motorists yes as the vertical parts think comes to use the conditions here at the are here you see their motors in between there's another more gregarious that takes care of the horizontal parts the horizontal the roles of the year of the OK let's have a look at this particular aligning or or something similar so how does the
hard you work From this we start with the reheating furnace your but In this particular case the blanks are used this your have already pre-shaped materials coming out of the reheating furnace again temperatures 1100 to 1200 deg C M the and you do rusting In this case 5 stance but so that's here this you share the at the end of the year your product has the right length analysts and here you start you can see you at the finishing line the different stands to 2 for stance of the 10th stand finishing line after the this material has the finished the the rolling and you're calling you've cool that you do to straightening of that the product just like you did for rails against straighten the products horizontally and vertically and then you do final cutting to like yes according to the what's been what the customer needs stack these products and shipped OK so very important In a D technology
nowadays is the way you shake the the beings the new technologies almost entirely universal technologies of horizontal and vertical rolling at the same time then the the product quality is improved by ensuring that the MicroStrategy is homogeneous now if you look at baby in years when it's when you're going to cool it yes it's not going to be it's not going to cool at the same rate everywhere as for instance you can very well imagine that if you leave it to cool in air ends here yes will cool much faster than in near the middle section here will cool much faster than these these barriers here so in order to address this the Inglewood unity in Mike rastructure that will result from it you avoid hot spots that's where the flange the flash and the Web meet it is hot spots here has so you cool that you you you actually water cooled their guests but when they come out of the the mail so you can see that this is this is water cooled because its stock has so it's cooler than in this part of it and that's because there is a cooling also here installed to make sure that this doesn't develop into hot spots OK 4 L a large beams there is a the technology that's used it's very similar to what we discussed for Reebok when we when we close the lecture on at the close of the lecture on Tuesday is you have a technology that's called Q St as and I these I-beams high-quality I believe it's where you control the Microsoft structure if I had this technique called Pugh sp which stands for quench self temper so what would you do here is after the DUE the formation of the manufacturing of Europe of role of Europe being 6 his Maine you the the outer side of Europe I've been very carefully so it develops a very fine Mike rastructure very high strength on the outer part "quotation mark the being and then you basically Leavitt yes 2 temper this very hard outer part and by Corey heating so that means that the servant of the surface gets cooled and that the bulk of course goes much less quickly and you get a tempering of this very hard out the layer of the yet to be its technology that's useful really heavy beams that we require a very high strength and so what are we talking about like beans that are in our our use for very high Rice construction the standard because it gives you a again a material that's very because of the very high strength on the outer side and the interior and much more the tougher and ductile material could very nice properties said these constructional steals argued that no vary widely used is not a building
that doesn't use them yes buildings bridges parting offshore you name it How is the trend yes you would think that 4 days type of products I with the kind of the chemistries we use for steel etc. and that would not be much development as well actually that's not the case there a lot of development to try to make also here higher strength materials why is that interesting also for building well it's because when you when you have a building you have to build this and so it's much more economical to work with lighter materials so if you use a lighter beings yes you of transport costs may go down your construction costs can go down etc. so there is no that's 1 of the the drivers behind the use of more advanced and highest-ranked steel so this what the drank the path standard of steels work 355 you'll strengths against nowadays we applied thermal mechanical rolling has accelerated cooling UST for the beans which is slightly heavier sections and what you see is that nowadays you'll strengths of close to 500 mega Pascal's are actually quite like unbecoming of interest and available for constructions otherwise in terms of this an example here of a about 500 mega Pascal yield strength that's that's being used by some and you can see the longer Asians the maximum to 22 per cent this is it so so effective that would go back here this is this would be this this type of thing right kind and also it's it's it's not some laboratory thing right
it's it's act an actual
material that is used to flats and should and I've been material right so and it's according to the U.S. United the 13 so it's high-strength lawyer structural steel produced by Houston that's grade the where these properties are obtained by accused of let's have a look perhaps at the composition of the steals because of that rather interesting low-carbon yes not much in terms of manganese and silicon you always see With the silica half a per cent therefore the strength but not too much so you know you don't have problems with toughness but you can see other elements the copper also strengthening him but this may be 500 ppm of oversee it's Michael allied plans to get strength Canadian also Michael and of course the reason why what do these things are added is because you carbon content this and so and why would the carbon content be well because in construction on construction sites there may be needed to do welding and on welding things on a construction site you want to have a material that doesn't give you any problems in terms of welding so you need to have a very low carbon equivalent to that means low-carbon no manganese this etc that's why I and the USA Q S T materials are also very often also Michael alloy steel the dead just 2 to wrap up this part get structural beams and rails very different with the rails you know no shape wise of the related and then some companies will make both of them all the nowadays the trend is to you know if you make rails you make rails human being to human being it's because because rails of becoming really specialized products but the young and very important aspect of rail metal achieve physical malady is the the wear resistance and declare this contract rolling where and then out of shape rolling is a technology that is really are being introduced in the manufacturing of beams and of the rails and then this this general trend into developing you knew or Mike rastructure because this standard Mike rastructure for both constructional steals was far-right perlite and in the case of the the rails is basically in much in many cases still fully paralytic 10 minutes left in the world this should
convince the products I think
introduced the plate products which will then continue on next
Tuesday they will the the lecture
will will actually focus also on tubular products because there are a lot of interesting developments in the area of 2 products and in particular then choose a large that are being used for the transport of petroleum and gas and because we call them API 2 we to degrades so I mean huge amount of 2 Beller products plastic to steal to lots of materials are being used to to make tubular products but when it comes to steal we will all classified on the basis of the diameter production technologies important very very very different routes in the production of welded Chilton seamless stew so just the seamless due this seamlessness no there's no Weld In the case of a well to you have it well this and of course if you have a weld you always have a problem or an issue in the you can make seamless stew you can easily make seems it's not a big problem the the challenges you the problem is you cannot make a very big tubes that seamless guests and I want to make big students you have to use she products hot-rolled sheet or flights and that's where part of the lectures on the next week will be about I have to really will allow review you know how you make June news selected struck you can use it to produce spiral pipe your W. pipes your W stands for electric resistance welded pipe seamless pipe and you etc. and so will will talk about plates for the production of large diameter the steel pipes and it's an interesting development that's the reason being that the demands in certain areas the more these large diameter steel pipes particularly demands coming from the petroleum industry that has led to the Barry advanced use of thermal mechanical control processing in the production of the steel plates and and 1 of the things that the very important steals is not only the fact that we need strength but also toughness right and will will
will see how this is being done how this has been achieved how successful people have been let's have a look at these this tubular steel products so troops can be made with slick stretches With plate militants so slanted strip is basically the spiral pipes and tubes electric resistance welded pipes and tubes and Annan also but to welded not pie in the pipes and tubes placed but we usually referred to the tubes that are made with the played as you all pipe the the letters you an old referred to the fact that you you start with a plate this plate is then shaped into a U shape yes and then shaped into an ocean and then you make a well here so that's why where the name comes from you all type and then the seamless pipes and tubes it's a indigenous pipes and tubes are made with pellets round billets that and where you do have piercing a piercing process to make a seamless pipes up so we can classify them on the basis of you know how we make their weak groups we can also classified ads on the basis of their applications yes can't it's important because depending
on the application of the requirements may be easy to achieve or very difficult to achieve so L do we have general applications we use standard like then you have for the did the troops that argues for the oil and gas industry a very specific ideas and they go by the name of all CTG all CTG good oil Country tubular goods this whole country and so they're being used to make well casing so you during exploration here on aligning the surface the use of drilled wells for tubing and tubing within the welds attribute well for the extraction of oil and gas and of course also drill pipes to make the Wells pipes are used in heat exchangers yes so we we call them boiler pipes yes and we see we find them of course and power-generating facilities and then we also have a mechanical pipes for mechanical applications structural applications and more and more nowadays pipes are used to that as building materials ,comma future looked at our modern buildings the entry of part of GFT built entirely with tubes so there is also a trend that you visit in charm you also see lots of the structural parts are actually chips not being with you so these tubular products point when you have to if I don't tell you what it says it can be extremely small tube can be a huge due rights obviously of the radios diameter it is important and the thickness is important and so if we look at the types of pipes this but to enter the sizes while seamless pipe we tend to have
small diameters and median diameters what would this know what does that mean well small will be 25 mm yes diameter 2 about 100 so you probably 1 white 1 these will you when you have these queries numbers here that's because this tempers come from the ancient inches right To products and so I have changed with them into mm and so anyway so up to 400 mm thicknesses 2 mm of 2 16 millimetres and the lengths about 20 meters so that's a typical the maximum length about 20 meter readers that you can get in terms of product look at receipts 12 of the past 12 months
Schaft <Waffe>
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Patrone <Munition>
Pfadfinder <Flugzeug>
Gießen <Urformen>
Erdöl- und Erdgastechnik
Pfadfinder <Flugzeug>
Universal <Firma>
Kaliber <Walzwerk>
Explorer <Satellit>
Ford Focus
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Nut <Technik>
Patrone <Munition>
Entwicklung <Photographie>
Proof <Graphische Technik>
Band <Textilien>


Formale Metadaten

Titel Modern Steel Products (2014) - Structural Steel and Rail: lecture 25
Serientitel Modern Steel Products
Teil 25 (2014)
Anzahl der Teile 31
Autor Cooman, Bruno C. de
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 3.0 Unported:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/18341
Herausgeber University of Cambridge
Erscheinungsjahr 2014
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Technik
Abstract Professor de Cooman takes the topic of long product manufacture, including rails. Both the production and metallurgy of the alloys is described. This is a part of a course of lectures given at the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Republic of Korea.
Schlagwörter The Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology (GIFT)

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