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Modern Steel Products (2014) - Major Applications: lecture 24

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we 2 so what such as some of these
products that represent the the highest-ranked steals that you can possibly a purchase today for applications and so what France all the time the players in have area and use these these products fighters as the beads here yes that makes sure the euro new tire is itself airtight yes and then and then here did the and part of the construction of the tire you have these belts of a a tire cord look at that very important is that in all cases strength but would equally important as the cleanliness of the steel cleanliness of the steel yes friendliness very important because the product has a small section and of it in the people applications such as the springs I you have suspension springs for instance and also the valve springs yes you need a very high fatigue resistance and that also requires at very high level of steel cleanliness in addition to strike these were typical why
products and then the bar products are shown here that's not within the main applications or shafts very big application are these crankshafts for automotive them but heavy Springs Kaba Aye skiers is also very big application area for 4 yes I and of course in the many cases forums like if you were to have these the shafts machine ability there is an additional requirements fatigue is important In addition to the strength of this can the fatigue fracture is there very big issue In NBA products that I for instance uses of broken a crank shaft and another shaft here that broke through 1 of torsional fatigue yes and it's a big issue of and as you know very often may notice from you courses in the fatigue and if you were interested in fatigue in general there is there is of course a professor of drugs from the teachers on the fatigue of internal cleanliness of the Steelers essential sold because that's usually where the fatigue cracks are in so have a look that these products these a general probably covers most of the the products of 4 why you're With all the most the important ones are this will hold a cool-headed quality products tired color products wire steel products the bearings steals and the free still has this from the work represents the largest of Tulloch and when we talk about goaltending quality we also talk about the products of so-called fasteners and and and what our fasteners bolts rivets screws you have of course when you need to make wire for nails fences that material is softer yes and so you have soft wire rod that use in this case and what you see but in terms of the composition I do want to point this out to you that the compositions are very much composition where we get the strength from the car yes get the strength from carbon and From what we do to them like rastructure when you have high carbon you know that if you are if you have a equilibrium situational have felt for this kind of carbon levels you have right and pro-life yes so you can do something to increase its strength by refining the mike awestruck too great smaller grain sizes and refining the Inter Lamela spacing in the perlite you can also turn this the steel into markets that's not sight you can tell With what grades you typically would do this yes where do you see the car the chrome content for instance from content on the higher end instance you see here chrome contents Close to 1 per cent In the case of spring steel bearing steel take little bearing steals that levels of chromium points to the fact that we are making markets I would not using the a political microscope and ended the chromium that's added in this particular case is on To make the steel pardonable interviewed easily get Arkansas now it's also
very important to realize that the product that's created the steel plant doesn't really have the properties and Mike rastructure Of the for instance the bearing steel order cold heading the quality of faster so their are usually many steps between the production of wine around and for instance a bold for a bearing or steel port that you will be able to use it 8 in a in the in tight against so let's have a look for instance we we were going through to all of them will we which will let you see if few things and which would would basically see here is that there can be multiple steps In the process the steel company well world bring this wire to a company that well additional thermal treatments suggests sterilizing before it actually gets to the company that will make bowls or barracks and given the state of the India the steel its final application for instance from Posco may be making guests the steel wire here but the Bulls are not made by the difference is made by a the company very famous company From Sweden SKF vary In future for Timken 1 of these companies a specialized they don't make steel than it may not make steeled themselves and and and thereby at the basically by these
the steals from steelmaker began what's really important here knows is that and these the wires steals belonged to the strongest types of steals you can get steel cord in the car tires easily reached 2 3 thousand mega Pascal bridge the bridge wire it's theirs is only to 2 the the Pascal yes the Standard Nos 2 few words again
about the the mike rastructure here so when you make perlite I love you you can make a fully because we'll see we make fully paralytic Mike rastructure yes at compositions exactly the paralytic composition so what would do I want to stay here if I if you look at the again still very simple most of the time as you only need to look at the Baron rich corner of the phase diagram so obviously when you have foreigners in this case 4 . 8 per cent of carbon you expect to see know well it's not strange that you could it but verite seamen diet laments yes madam but it turns out that if I have a composition here or have composition there I can also get but fully politics Michael structure In that sense demonstrated what hunting you get fully prolific if you're not exactly and political microscope I want to understand this you have to understand why which makes perlite growth so when the ball let's let's see what makes polite grow and ask ourselves why does purloined pro In the I have here far-right and a half years this far-right has very very little carbon common very very small and he here the carbon is about pretty high close to 7 wafers but and we know that in order to grow this is gamma in order for this interface to go from here to here will be Seaman tied to growth yes I basically need to get carbon to go from here to there makes sense right they have to get rid of it but then how would that work because there's no carbon here and is not a carbon there with carbon go where there's lots of carbon already but obviously the reason because the carbon goes from this region of Austinite to this region of Austin From this area into to this area now what is the carbon content here and the carbon content here that is the question has not obviously the carbon content I just told you to comment ,comma with a carbon companies fairer than what the carbon content is the segment of best but that's not what makes the carbon moved from here to here what makes the carbon move from here to here is the carbon content at the far-right Austinite boundary and hear the carbon content at the tied also denied number so sigh I am I would like to know what what these what these concentrations are that's what are these concentrations if I look at this phase diagram if I look at this phase diagram hormonal problems say I'm doing deeper like transformation at this temperature this is the temperature at which I do the transformation Austinite too far-right plus parallel what is the carbon content at the interface of a government of a and B Simone tight there and so I look at this summer's wall on my supposed to know you know that I can't get the information right the reason is of course is this phase diagram yes tells you what is here at equilibrium has but we don't have equilibrium when you do the transformation at this temperature you still have Austin during the transformation but there and in order to know what did concentrations are these 2 concentration I need to extend these lines I need to do no where these lines would be if there was no the prolific transformation basically if you will see that it would be a basic need to extend and I can do this computationally from what I need to extend the 83 lines and I need to extend the NEC and and if you do this us what what is this line here in this line here compositions here correspond to Austin seem entirely concentrations and compositions on this line correspond to Austin 2 McKnight also corresponds to far-right Austinite yes and of course that continues here this is the carbon content at the boundary between Austinite and fair during the transformation and this is the carbon content at Siemens tied Austinite battery during the transformation and now you can see that yes it makes sense the carbon content at this interface this is higher then at this interface and so the carbon will move from here to there and it will be controlled later diffusion coefficient of carbon in Austin it's the controlling parameter it also means yes that I can I can make perlite when this condition is achieved when the concentration here yes when see Peter Gammons is smaller than city of them and so that means I can have I can form perlite inside this triangle and I do not need to have exactly the perlite composition by Canada slightly less slightly more and you can see it's an it's not necessary to have . 8 per cent of carbon you can make the perlite if you have . 6 % occurred and it will be fully paralytic the or I can go to . 9 per cent or higher analysts still be fully primitive and because perlite can grow viii but you can also see of course that things will change depending on the temperature at which I work so so that's
important the so I have controlling a controlled by the carbon content as and so on and in the process of creating this is just the start of this process here is Gamma Gamma grain boundaries you start forming Little variety seem nuclei so it's a nuclear nation and growth process so if you look at the kind that takes of the transformation I see that very close to 81 was I don't get much better at low temperature also don't get much in terms of transformation that's because my diffuse the parliament facility becomes lower but there is a maximum rate of transformation and so that's important and we'll see this Back indeed when we look at the processing of the steals has between 600 550 and 600 we get the very fastest growth rate the takes 1 2nd for the perlite transformation to start so very fast and that's where we also get very fine per line look OK what is fine purloined that's where you have is small intra Lamela spacing them small Inter Lamela spacing means that you have a loss of interfaces has also interfaces so any time you have an interface that means you have more energy into official energy so small Inter Lamela spacings are unstable so if we hit you keep this up With easily it can easily cost In fact from a purely thermodynamic point of view even the perlite is unstable again because of all this into facial energy and if you keep perlite long enough at between 6 and 7 and degrees C it will Sparrow dies the the perlite will turn the 2 media seem entitled turned into little balls and that will minimize the Inter facial energy however From an application point of view this Is this what we walked that's because that's where we have the best
properties and that's the reason why so as we decreases the temperature at which we do the good that day the transformation of what we see is that so again in the region of 600 2 515 you see here that the growth rate of the growth rate of the perlite very very high enter and the corresponding Inter Lamela spacing is also very small so you can get into a lamellar spacings which are between 0 . 1 per cent .period . 2 my crops so that's 100 to 200 nanometers so and if you would do France's the transformation very close to the 81 temperature you would have a In Lamela spacing which is 10 times larger than cases control of the temperature at which you do the transformation is a very important and people we have
so you don't want to go into this
kinetics here so anyway L let's let's have a look now at the hour with these implications are so and look for instance at steel the wire Steel the country's rest . 6 percent of common sense how would we processed a steel or what they would 1st of all we will look at Our phase diagram we will have to extend indeed 18 underlying the 83 lying yes 10 and we will have to look at the DTT diagram of but it would be the TGT diagram here so if you can see that as soon as I go below this temperature I will form to form pro you tech toilet fair the if I am in this range of temperatures here yes I basically continue the same thing but only started to make perlite the lowest temperature so when that work when I'm in this this Triangle region but if I want to make perlite yes I have to make sure that nite cool very quickly To this temperature range yes not not just being below the year 81 line will be enough I have to go below this line here below the 80 see alive then I will start making Pearl again we're talking about so so if you would choose a transformation approach around 600 you'd be you'd be fine OK because that's where you would have the maximum the rate of transformation into good so so we know that we want to have a fine Mike rastructure Of course when I have less carbon I guess this means that I'm exaggerating here but it was just EU if I have less common than the you take to composition I will have more fair right In my pro-life if I have a carbon content that's high the new tech that I will have more salmon tied In my perlite contact that's of course it if it doesn't the amount of Simone title change them so it comes as no surprise that if you plot the the strengths all of these steel spheres as a function of carbon content yes you will see an increase because you have more seem tied more Of this very hard in the structure however and you can see this here even if you have a toyed a slightly off you take .period composition you can still increase the strength considerably by strain so what happens when you strain perlite and you can see here if I strained the material I can have at all .period 8 carbon I can have the same strength as an 1 . 4 cars and the reason areas but if you strain what's that
if used in a few strain the perlite you can reduce mechanically the Inter Lamela spacing them so if I I think this material here yes I have a certain in July Mellors spacing yes if I wired if I FireWire draw this material has now I have material where the spacing is much smaller this yes much smaller much smaller than this . 1 or 0 . 2 Micro I can now go to .period all 5 migrants and secondly I can further reduce yes then what I get after the transformation so and that is
being used as a burial so let's not look at some products and at 1st circuit called heading qualities to pull heading qualities are typically made used to make these bolts yes and the carbon content is typically 0 . 4 per cent but the structure itself there's a visa but it but when you start with the wider use the y here has a perlite far-right Mike rastructure nest box the Bulls here doesn't have a fair it hasn't Martin citic Mike rastructure OK so I will go through some processing to make this the 1st of all let's have a look at the time of the steals it typically would call medium carbon steals and these are steals used for engineering applications To make thanks with basically has to call Imagineering steals and their allied with chrome and Molly this because we want to get the market citic MicroStrategy and what are the typical ranges . 3 to close 2 . 4 about point about 1 per cent of chromium and About . 2 per cent of Lee was and is a typical examples here but this is the equivalent and you remember here as such it is I J S 4 steals C 4 chrome and Molly and 48 stands 4 . 4 per cent of of carbon here the heat European normalization . 42 carbon Kroll and Molly and then the 4 former means we have Crohn's yes and you know that the 4 here is not four-percent it means for divided by 4 was about 1 says and hear the SCE by assessing where we recognize 2 . 4 per cent of the and can right and and so afforded for these deals that this is the composition range of cases this like this is similar to what you have here but that this is a wider range because the cause of the problem right
so soon let's make them let's go through the steps of making 8 a bolts yes so you start with wire around from that's and and is it's for instance a 1 of the steals is typically used to make wire rods the CMO 435 for instance the equivalent of European and American great so the 1st thing you do yes it is that this Alpha Plus perlite Mike restricted is and he is going through softening of this often is to soften this material this is why the new material has typically when at least the plant about 900 1100 make Pascal strength yes so we going to soften it it was so weak it so it can be drawn it can be dropped and then Sphero died so we drawing from because section and we started I said to make it really soft and that usually happens In the company that's specializing in heat treatments the latest he treat materials get materials he treated give them back to their cost this day he do so so when you do the soft annealing you just go to below the 1 has several Dies Inc you may go a little bit higher than 81 years and then this product is now very soft 500 to 600 megabytes we're going to use it can called former yes and that is the number of steps and you start with the wire has got set at extruding you finally make thread this bold and that usually happens in another customer that's the actual maker of bowls yes he will quench and temperate so we get for this particular grade will get about thousand make Pascal In strength and he will apply the quench and tempering treatment so he get a tempered Martin site might rastructure 10
this is this is a
sermonizing this material is turned into material that looks like a a very small part particles of this
because this material is chromium and molybdenum added usually it takes a long time to Sparrow dies wire steel OK so we will
be using a process yes we you cannot use a continuous annealing process because this too slow to use white something that looks very much like a batch annealing furnace that we've seen for strips weeks Light Station so in this the 1st you you put stacks of these wires as the drawl organized as their produce yes then you are you cover With insulation their coffer and then you put in the put over that your furnace Nos the current menu heated up in the wire heats up the soft annealing usually that's not with the same company is the 1st soft annealing that's right below 81 this followed arising in dealing yes is much for small much longer 30 hours and you go slightly above BAC 1 1 would that be you can't do this
another picture where you where you are perhaps you'd better hut where the the wire material is
the reason is when do we go slightly above AC 1 when we do this paradise that's because this seaman type particles we want to destabilize and so we partially dissolve this seaman tied in the Austin but we leave so soon and tight In the microscope track so we get Seaman tight seeds In that when this slowly cools down yes instead of making perlite we now get these very nice rounded so the Cerro .period shaped so so there are many theories and models of how they're really happens I would like and you can see some of these small but anyway and then it's it's very interesting physical metal G but on or
however whatever the process it's a slow process OK get so once you have this annealed of several diced wire you basically covered in little pieces and then you go through the process of making but threaded ball once you have this dreaded bold you Austin at Tai said you can do some extra forming sometimes necessary and then you can quenched and tempered the material and you end up with a tempered Martin side which can be very strong indeed yes no
high-quality bolts of very important us In engineering applications and bowls and no joke and so you can always recognize a high-quality bold because it's it's got name up to company who made the bold yet and it's also got numbers and the numbers help you not making the error of using the wrong ball right I'm so Francis serious 6 5 6 and here 8 8 the date very is used all very very much in engineering applications the 8 a tells you that the yield strength is 8 times 8 times 10 as of 640 make Pascal and it also tells you the 10 cells UTS that's 8 times when we do the same on the 5 6 5 times its 300 and 500 made of Pascal's duty on and again as I said this serious business in engineering at construction or you don't makes bowls yes even if they look the site of why because there could be serious consequences if you use a weaker bold yes and the building collapses or you know the machine breaks or you know it's a high-pressure vessel and the bolts are not the ones you should be using it may maybe oceans and things like this is very serious about those things and then known so that's how you can tell and he's a good books
and usually in engineering applicants there also specify what kind of ball you should be used but while the interesting applications for the wire seals of spring steel and so Springs Kan come in many different forms that and you have strips for instance this light the spring here has very commonly used for household items but also in the this suspension spring here from from car and and of course motorists have also many springs to In the facts has granted typically the report 45 2 . 70 In carbon content 1 of the things
you will see In these spring steals is the high silica Hi silicon is because these these deals are not aluminum killed as you want them to be Silicon killed so you don't have these nonmetallic inclusions will In fact the fatigue resistance the chrome content yes it points to the fact that we need hard ability here and certain cases you have cop so let's have a look around what's also very important here for spring steals is the control of the nitrogen content because you don't want nitrogen aging in the deals it turns out that the nitrogen reduces the victor of these carbon wires and we and Borel To this day steel to make Borel might try and there has been this and and that reduces the effect of the the nitrogen that we you conceded effect of nitrogen on the media properties Of the year the wire by twisting the wires you twist the wires and so on if there's nitrogen aging number of Swiss is very small if you and boron you can you can have enough twists before the wire breaks typically you will need to be viable to do a minimum of 40 twists the and
you know you know springs have their own technologies when their unit for instance suspension springs can be hot processed or cold processed Quayle types springs are usually always it called for coil him hot form can be Is it applied for court but also full leaf type springs this is a light weekly session but I'll this also applies to leaf type Springs that used words trucks OK so let's have
a look at how we make engine valve yes again if the steel company makes wire for instance typically that would be 5 2 13 millimetres section wire as it goes through 2 2 steps school makes wire doesn't make spring and 1st Place the the wire goes to is a company that does heat treatment that prepares the steel so it can be process by spring manufacture and consumer so the first one customer will coat it will make the wire drawing and will reduce the section of the wire will do patenting what is patterned thing when you deformed the perlite yes it's you reduce the the Inter Lamela spacing but the media becomes very hard so if you want to continue her processing at reducing the Inter Lamela spacing even further you have to India like yes and that's this patenting process here so you do what you can wire drawing until you have the required section that section yes and then well quenching and tempering OK so that means In this case you make D the final like rastructure and property so I know what happens then with the the year the spring manufacturer hopeful House Springs again as you do cold forming into there is and will be stress relief after the Cold forming shot Pini you know that In order to improve fatigue resistance it's good to have a compressive St residual stresses at the surface of the parts that can undergo fatigue conditions has shopping stress relief again to remove excessive residual stresses and then Free setting of the wife of the of the spring so you can have and then you adopt basically what kind of relative strength levels while France's if you use an a 9 2 5 here about 2 thousand make Pascal strength these wires for suspension bridges and another cables has it's a very specialized business the wires In particular cables because of the way you love you to ride the wires basically you can have opened spiral stands the strands like this usually hot dipped galvanized steel steel wires and then there's usually twist or helical EU wandered around the core but you could have more complex versions like where the wires and are shaped for instance here in this case you have an outer the outer cables hero are locked the strands are locked so you you cannot access to these In the wire snares the disease shaped the wires and the ourselves corrosion protection is very important to
most of these wires will b galvanized and so that it can be very complex sold suspension bridge cables are not just a little wires you know next to each other and and depending on the application the stiffness you want the flexibility you want you will use different of ways of organizing the wires around the central wire and also if you look carefully here but you can see that there is also also use a mixture of the wire diameter with forensic conceded that in between the the larger white you filled the interstices with smaller wife OK right so let me
skip this 1 here very
important also in the wires yes because we use this the ability To reduce to refine the MicroStrategy when we when we draw on the wire the the wire diameter this business is essential contributed to strength and Seoul if refused so Francis same grade here it is black gray about 1 per cent of carbon was to here you can see that but if I use of say 1 in 3 of the 5 millimeter wire yes will have the strength of its 1 thousand better but I can go up to 5 thousand and if I can make a difference in the way very very fast get so I'm and that of course would you will use because you know I have to do anything to the composition basically of 2 of the state so the weather at the wire drawing again that doesn't have also doesn't have to be a circle or it can be the complex shapes so you can you can design very complex cable sections and and so on 1 of the things you will be the thing is this patenting To get the optimum the fine perlite Mike rastructure the Isle of Wight where you basically want find Mike Microsoft and again you know the optimal range of transformation will be In the 600 to 550 degrees
In so for the wire steals what we see this page evolution From about you tech toys compositions which give us about that close to 3 thousand make Pascoe true higher hyper you tech toys compositions so . 8 you take to accomplish can give me close to 4 maker Pascal and definitely in a hyper you take compositions with about close to 1 % I can get 4 thousand make a pass :colon strength for cables so typically uh Inc applications as as high-carbon bridge suspension wire or for the tire cord reinforcement of the tires we we will use these high carbon levels for strength so and the
strength and the way we work to the strength is decrease in the level of space you can also cause increase the strength of the variety but increasing the amount of the salmon type is the easiest way to have a very high strength steel too but the carbon content the you can also increase the work hardening of the wire yes again an increased amount of Simone tight will improve this you can do this with higher carbon ,comma also hired chrome additions the and then drawing strains is very important we use very small sections In smaller wire diameter is you can see here right away the the effect of the chrome editions 2 the strength here with you just look at the Wired and it's basically a political thing is you see that you can increase the Strange by adding some the
chromium the very important here is Is the drawing right because the drawing allows you to go beyond what the thermodynamics will give you in terms of the deformation in terms of refining the grain size took an it's also very important to see that In fact it could do this with any materialized so so if you if if you would use like an IS steel has and you would strain as a wire from for all of and and we find a MicroStrategy sweat you can't you would you know you would be able to achieve but to get the best out without any alloys and but basically we find the Microsoft but if you have a two-phase Mike rastructure like perlite has the effect is even stronger you can see here at the same reduction you have about 5 times the the impact of the the defamation 2 smaller wire
diameters nowadays 190 meters and lower our ovary normal industry in terms of perlite refinements there
high-carbon wires again you want you start with wire will for instance they typically say 5 mm into 1st wire drawing the 3 mm 1st but that things that means you you're going to softened MicroStrategy and well so you you wish basically and of whom you make find much politeness so you do 2nd wire drawing too from 3 mm 2 1 2 2 mm now the strength goes up all the time to 1700 1800 2nd patenting yes Of course the thickness of diamond hasn't changed your strength has reduced net 12 13 and you can do when the wire is really fine it becomes difficult to wire drawing sees you need to know how to do it in 1 of the ways you do it is by coating the wire Collins with processed and so now you are at it so you start with 1 mm after in the 3rd 1 drawing step you can go 2 at a fraction of a millimeter tend to a half a millimeter and the strength levels reach more than we can make a Pasco and then you do the tabling there may be many additional steps which are not included here suggests pickling phosphate training I remember it may be that I talked about phosphate is important in technology because it allows you to reduce friction it's not indicated that it's 1 important part of the step for forward the produce production steps in and drawing and then of course many of these wires they're extremely high strike the sense right and they're made of steel carbon steel but we don't you don't want him to to rust away the case is also important to coach these wires and so galvanizing is a very very often used to coat why is this
bearing steals are steals which contained probably the highest levels of carbon and not many steel grates that contain 1 per cent around 1 per cent of the curve the bearing deals are typically around that level so they're all hyper you take toward steals 10 again
you start In making bearing steals by obtaining AT and wire steel same carbon wire steel In the steel plant and then it goes 2 the company that will do it will prepare the wire 4 the producer of the ball bearings all in all the types of various and the the the company that prepares the wire is again mostly a thermal treatment company that will do a low-temperature annealing to soften the material to draw on the material so you get the right dimensions in and then it will do Miss Farrow dicing annealing we're going to make it very soft why do we want to make this the wire very soft because we need to make very accurate metal balls yes From this wire and so we need to forge cold forging of the wire to make these metal balls against and then we need to he treats the the softballs to Martin citic Mike rastructure enemy of the also be surface
treatments of work at so it typically these bearing steals there will be under the divided into through hardening steals or Kahane's hardening steel the through hardening steals yes have a very high carbon content it also tend to have a very high chrome and Molly called so what does that mean that means that we're going to when we heat treaties balls In 2 likened oil bath the entire structure of the bearing will be Martin said will be fully Martin said if we have lower carbon contents was slightly lower chrome and Molly then only the outer side is Martin said and the central part can be don't Benedict traumatic depending on so we want in in this case that's why would you want to have the structure is only case Hardin a ball that's because you want to have friends at a tougher more ductile Center part of the during the so I'm here this is a typical bearing steel the 1 per cent of carbon and 1 .period 4 percentage of chromium as for the hard ability Free cutting steels are also typically wire or products unit Free cutting refers to the fact that these products will be going through machining centers like a CNC machine and their carbon contents are typically . 1 2 . 5 years what is special about these is the sulfur content certainly free cutting steals will require . 2 2 . 4 percentage of sulfur that's a huge amount of sulfur remember for flat-rolled products we went out of our way to have preferably no sulfur as in this case you had the sulfur in it and the reason s because when you're working on work peace with the tools in the late for instance of CNC machine and if you look here in detail the the tool cuts trips basically Of the metal chips away at the metal and then formation of the easy formation of these chips is very important yes and if you have manganese sulfides particles In your MicroStrategy this really helps chips formation so you tools can be used longer and the cut the quality of the cut is better than could not I do have to say that is the requirements on this relatively high sulfur content there really are lately not so useful because in many cases the tool of the quality of the tool material has improved a lot so the tools can take the higher heat and a higher stresses during the undercutting them and also the use of CNC machines has improved the machining a lot we don't really have to rely so much on sulfur inclusions in our materials 2 2 get good machine ability it's still important when you drill small holes I have to say so in view of engineering courses requires small holes there this is the presence of the cell very careful however when you add sulfur you get all the negative problems of sulfur In that part so but you cannot add sulfur yes if the application doesn't allow France for instance France if you have a seamless tubes yes and you need to make thread on the seamless tubes and so the thread the part that you will use to make the connection it will be machined was that must be resistance to stress corrosion cracking in in applications and so on and so that's no sulfur in this case that's a very important limitations finally and this is not a very high carbon applications very portent in terms of college are rebar look at we believe that you you have to know that you can make Reebok for many steel so you can buy very extreme this is the people typically think of Reebok as a cheap products has however there are you can make a Reebok from very expensive stainless steels OK and it depends on the application for instance In part of Switzerland all the time or most of the civil engineering construction and like bridges and roads in the mountains that they use very expensive stainless steel rebar because it's difficult to do to inspect roads and bridges in the Alps and lots of snow and stuff so I know you want to have guaranteed that you know there's going to be no deterioration of Reebok etc. so the and in a certain European countries in particular in the in the mountainous regions that you will use stainless steel types of Reebok's but most of us think of rebar as you know I worry about the commodity products that is for which we use plain carbon steels at that point 2 per cent of carbon last and . 4 per cent for the carbon equivalent so you can well you'll strings a pretty low 250 500 there for high-strength steel that the strain can be because of the carbon levels more mechanically sometimes you can you can get work hard and a Reebok that's just harder because it's twisted or more expensive are vanadium micro alloys of grades word of the words pardoning comes from precipitation OK and again here the
Microsoft dropped short of these at the bar is it's kind of nice there's typically nowadays you will you will try to make your rebar both strong yes and tough and that's happened uh they usually this way when you make your Reebok you finish the rolling at 990 have a three-stage process In the 1st stage you make Martin side at the surface of your Reebok by its strong cooling as this would be what happens to the surface is quickly cooled to below the MS temperature so that the the surface it's basically quenched as the 1st stage that you then the 2nd stage you temper the Martin side as a result of the temperature gradient equalization so you do very quick cooled on the surface as an end use at this point here who stopped cooling so the Martin inside at the surface is reheated yes and Tampa V and the yen the the layer below the surface doesn't get to be transformed tomato inside and goes straight into the bay nite transformation and in this 3rd stage yes news of this century the Thursday at this center is cooled and here we get Upper Bay nite or even far-right perlite MicroStrategy so a Reebok yes
conceded section of the typical Reebok 16 millimeter Reebok it's actually has actually quite interesting MicroStrategy very hard outer surface then progressively gets softer and more tougher as you go to descend into the outside we have laugh Martin side and as you go inside you did the bay nights sitting here in the middle you can even see the perlite in the MicroStrategy so that makes for a nice properties and so
With this small review of products and the physical of will to stop the session here for today to thank you for your attention
Sommerreifen
Schlitten
Lagerstahl
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Punktschweißen
Übungsmunition
Computeranimation
Gummifeder
Cord
Bandstahl
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Ersatzteil
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Treibriemen
Buckelschweißen
SKF GmbH
Tiefgang
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Staustrahltriebwerk
Computeranimation
Antriebswelle
Visitenkarte
Maschine
Pleuellager
Rollenlager
Kaltumformen
Eisendraht
Beschichtung
Omnibus
Mutter <Technik>
Aufladung
Timken Company
Munition
Punktschweißen
Übungsmunition
Raumfahrtzentrum
Gummifeder
Kurbelwelle
Eisendraht
HV-Schraube
Sampan
Gummifeder
Material
Zahnrad
Aufschmelzverfahren
Pleuellager
Bergwerksschacht
Rührreibschweißen
Bandstahl
Cord
Eisendraht
Knicklenkung
Kraftfahrzeugexport
Linienschiff
Austin Motor Company
Einschienenbahn
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Kommandobrücke
Übungsmunition
Computeranimation
Buchdruck
Feile
Mutter <Technik>
Linienschiff
Proof <Graphische Technik>
Estudio Lamela
Werkzeug
Edelsteinindustrie
Computeranimation
Kaltumformen
Eisendraht
Kraftfahrzeugexport
Linienschiff
Zementation <Metallurgie>
Airbus 300
Werkzeug
Staustrahltriebwerk
Rad
Computeranimation
Eisendraht
Bandstahl
Kopfstütze
Material
Toilettenpapier
Pleuellager
Motor
Fiat 500
Eisendraht
Merinowolle
Material
Schamotte
Übungsmunition
Computeranimation
Pleuellager
Wärmebehandlung
Eisendraht
Eisendraht
ISS <Raumfahrt>
HV-Schraube
Schnecke <Maschinenbau>
Pfadfinder <Flugzeug>
Material
Computeranimation
Pleuellager
Pleuellager
Hochofen
Eisendraht
Wickeln
British Aircraft Corporation
Isolator <Luftstrahltriebwerk>
Sägeblatt
Munition
Computeranimation
Tagebau
Eisendraht
Piper Cub
Material
Ersatzteil
Pleuellager
Modellbauer
Eisendraht
Eisendraht
Feile
Blechdose
Modellbauer
Material
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Gleiskette
Computeranimation
Pleuellager
Satzspiegel
Motor
Eisendraht
Gesenkschmieden
Querstromventilator
Trenntechnik
Maschine
Fehlprägung
Material
Wasserfahrzeug
Abwrackwerft
Computeranimation
Kaltumformen
Puma <Panzer>
Buchdruck
Kraftfahrzeugexport
Übungsmunition
Computeranimation
Gummifeder
Tagebau
Bandstahl
Motor
Eisendraht
Fiat 500
Gummifeder
Lunker
Abwrackwerft
Buckelschweißen
Patrone <Munition>
Wärmebehandlung
Kaltumformen
Galvanotechnik
Fließfertigung
Beschichtung
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Computeranimation
Pfadfinder <Flugzeug>
Motor
Buckelschweißen
Pleuellager
Kaltumformen
Buchdruck
Eisendraht
Gedeckter Güterwagen
Übungsmunition
Gummifeder
Bandstahl
Motor
Werkstatt
Eisendraht
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Lastkraftwagen
Gummifeder
Ersatzteil
Walken <Textilveredelung>
Eisendraht
Eisendraht
Galvanotechnik
Gedeckter Güterwagen
Computeranimation
Pleuellager
Sommerreifen
Eisendraht
Proof <Graphische Technik>
Fuchs <Panzer>
Werkzeug
Airbus 300
Computeranimation
Cord
Eisendraht
Kraftstoffverbrauch
Fiat 500
HV-Schraube
Schiff
Pfadfinder <Flugzeug>
Kommandobrücke
Kaltumformen
Eisendraht
Eisendraht
Konfektionsgröße
Pfadfinder <Flugzeug>
Fußmatte
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Computeranimation
Naht
Personenzuglokomotive
Eisendraht
Eisendraht
Schlagwerk
Reibantrieb
Mutter <Technik>
Diamant <Rakete>
Merinowolle
Ersatzteil
Reisewagen
Beschichtung
Airbus 300
Übungsmunition
Computeranimation
Rennfeuer
Eisendraht
Lagerstahl
Kotflügel
Zementation <Metallurgie>
Farbton
Material
Fließfertigung
Munition
Airbus 300
Computeranimation
Unterwasserfahrzeug
Tau <Seil>
Locher
Blechdose
Leisten
Postkutsche
Koffer
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Spanbildung
Computeranimation
Rohrpost
Maschine
Verpackung
Edelsteinschliff
Buick Century
Negativ <Photographie>
Postkutsche
Kommandobrücke
Buckelschweißen
Rohrpost
Setztechnik
Pleuellager
Kaltumformen
Feinkohle
Eisendraht
Locher
Zementation <Metallurgie>
Berg <Bergbau>
Übungsmunition
Kommode
Werkzeug
Bandstahl
Motor
Eisendraht
HV-Schraube
Lunker
Ersatzteil
Material
Schiffsklassifikation
Bandstahl
Lagerstahl
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Eisendraht
Linienschiff
Pfadfinder <Flugzeug>
Cord
Postkutsche
Computeranimation
Gummifeder
Pleuellager

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Modern Steel Products (2014) - Major Applications: lecture 24
Serientitel Modern Steel Products
Teil 24 (2014)
Anzahl der Teile 31
Autor Cooman, Bruno C. de
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 3.0 Unported:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/18340
Herausgeber University of Cambridge
Erscheinungsjahr 2014
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Technik
Abstract Professor de Cooman describes some of the major applications of steel in the context of the production technologies and metallurgy of the alloys. This is a part of a course of lectures given at the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Republic of Korea.
Schlagwörter The Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology (GIFT)

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