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Modern Steel Products (2014) - Alloying elements: lecture 2

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but but this continue
where we left off and I
had introduced the reasons why steel so that important material engineering and we need it also explained that in his introductory lecture we would be focusing on general discussion about of steel so the stage was set to want to go into the products in more detail 1 of the things that happens 1st time .period is confronted with the a steals is the fact that when you look at Bastille compositions the but it appears as if there's so many elements making the composition of that testing would I remember myself young engineers looking at steel composition had the impression that the entire table of Vandalia had gone into the design the composition of the state of and so I always make it a point with this course to dispel this idea actually show you that's positive quite a few are relatively few elements that go into the design of steels however and so let's have a look at this but since the periodic table of elements and you see Byron and so on however if I've removed the elements of the are relatively that a lot of importance to the still deciding how you can see that top work was still left with a quite a few elements that steelmakers and it doesn't matter whether this big specialty steels for about carbon steel steelmakers will analyze routinely widen they that's but 1st of all there are only doing this because some of these elements they analyze and you find that the streets palaces sheets of steel and are just alimony elements just added to the steel at the basic allying elements are in steel stock for indicated here I find that again talking about carbon steel the elements are there other than hiring of course manganese aluminum silicon carbon and then I have also added calcium yes calcium is added to steals not so much as they Alan elements of to law changed to steals properties that directly but it has an impact on the inclusion means the metallic oxide conclusions that are in the steel and sold in order to given these inclusions in the right chemistry and physical properties so that they don't have negative effects we had this culture battle to steal in a process called culture treatment 2nd step processing step of secondary metallurgical lab at so that's how calcium gets the these elements then followed there are quite a few elements Jackson we routinely keep track of the are still not because we intentionally added to steal composition but because they are contaminants and we generally ended in in the industry would call the tramp elements of basically unwanted elements impurities that have come from the war that we used to make steel or from the scrapped that we used to make steel ferro alloys that we used say that end and and you can see there quite a lot of these elements are out of our presence there and some of these elements will be allowed impurities other kinds there will also be following elements of the case but anyway let's let's look at the list of proponents you have then antimony led this month person makes new phosphorus bar all foreign hydrogen picked up during I think reading of of steel and copper I can't go into all the details about these elements but I do want to say few things about for instance copper and did of when you use a steel that is produced by the electric arc furnace room and you need to know rap as input material to Europe left parts of it may be that this crap is contaminated by cover bearing the battles or copper wire differences I and you will find this proper practicing Europe steal it may be did you using materials that contain 10 past 10 called to the students for instance or land residues are impurities and said that they will end up being in your in they're not alinghi elements on the basis of impurities and if possible you want the concentration to use of phosphorus and sulfur ,comma basically from year to year the war that we used to make hiring steals we want their concentration to be extremely low of less than 100 ppm in many cases because they have a negative impact on mechanical properties having said that there are deals where we add false to increase the strength of it's a very potent solids and sulfur in certain cases we will act like this to make is more machine will give more emissions village this out a sometimes in impurity is invalid but in general we can say phosphorus sulfur part of purity is like to have we have talked about the gamut of transformation and it's actually very important transformation in the when we trying to generate interest in microscope in steals and we there are many elements that we had to harvest yields to control this the gamut of the transformation an important element in this respect are Kroll manganese all of the people of the world get to talk about this in more detail below but of say for instance bore this element that is extremely efficient in suppressing this government and health of transformation and it does this
in a very special way in goes said segregates also died "quotation mark under Tuesday and when the transformation to overexposed to start by Greg boundary nuclear nature of variety this process cannot happen doesn't have suppressed by the presence of Borel at the the great about of board effectively we tired very effectively participate in Boston I think that's what we call these elements transformation control mission and it's a very often these elements part of it design of the and then we have special depending on the application of the add specific elements to obtain certain problems and let's just review few them you have died Tania native and I know that this group we elements is a well known as Michael Allen we know that we add my new amounts of these the elements to achieve 30 Lord relatively large improvements in strength of fire grade size reduction we have steel that are very there have been engineered to that you very hard at it 2 steal to Washington materials grown Molly banks part typical additions made to steal of these elements the 6th elements the for not present In the final product as pure soldier but as part of their very strong carbide elements such as copper that can be added because it gives me precipitation Frank can begin engineered to steal the scientists feels that called instead of being so purity acts as it contributes to the strength by forming a kind little precipitates the far-right matrix and thereby giving us the fact called precipitation story and then we have elements such as sulfur and discuss this no water there used to be forced to 2 commissioning inability of of steel phosphorus can be added and strengthening but if the situation when certain element is positive or negative the certainly many cases of of impurities negative impacts on the steel for the occasion in all the cases that we will add a controlled amounts of phosphorus or sulfur for the 1st time special steels will use special elements that we have for for instance in moderating steals we have a global vision being stainless steel we will have depending on the type of stainless steel we will have a special edition so in protects stainless-steel had at the moment the proved the Formosa performance of these areas steals and we needed these 10 to 12 per cent of the of world has had a few per cent of molybdenum To achieve this 1 we use when we design stainless steels which the Austin it the SEC but a stable prosperous some of the temperature but we need to add it so important here is that the is this not contribute to corrosion properties but it's the element that we can stabilize the Austinite very often stainless steels of Natick stainless steels are also alloys with nitrogen because nitrogen In addition to follow the strengthening of the Austin also and added promotion all right and we continue with special steels steals waves but to 3 per cent of silicon argues in many electrical applications for but motorists many transformers at these deals that are Beloit would select liquor standard because it has been back on the Treaty of Baron and also additional reasons why we have to look into the lead the structure of 1 Chris what else can we say about knowledge of them now we know that you know about the don't use all the elements of rather table make steel with is quite a few the strict number of elements that we had in steel the and when we add minced because confers certain properties and how all of these elements with their influence there is In general when you element was added to the composition it will have an impact on the relative stability of the Boston various things but it's the it can form it can stay solution it can also form or it can't segregate would when the environment of so on the left here we see contracting the deal would bring boundaries the elements that we had a substitution for interstitial elements can in solid solution for instance supersaturated solid solution and then when their supersaturated soldiers taken prisoner of war in form precipitous and these so that can be into granular by the time frame boundaries or they can be In try brought into the precipitates inside the major this would be for instance larger battles would albeit at a smaller the new entrants harbor and the the :colon talented and reforms to make part these are a few
examples so days this is an example for for painting my truck typically 1 type in that steals and it will almost readily for fighting I tried in the liquid phase already because of the very high for more than half its ability I think nitrite the low solubility of this like trying to steal and you can see here this article Nice large particle of tightening and I'm very often these precipitates of citing United Front act as PetroChina used nuclear nations sites for compounds that precipitated at a later stage this is an example of here where making himself has precipitated onto the title might try to this was the 5th Amendment sulfide that has happened in the solid state 10 and to continue nitrate provides the substrate for himself other
examples here all precipitates assignment of which find and this is with :colon extraction replica of steel containing the a Union Carbide that small black adults on the lack of a carbide supertitles in this particular for for this particular steel which contained Tania and items we had again citing United tried precipitates on which the Union Carbide foreign aid precipitated had to ingeniously nuclear data at lower In carbon steels and there are numerous possible so the tapes but very important precipitates Bar Harbor and we have the number of Carbide's here In general and if you think about it again about 2 years table 1 of periodic table of elements of the elements that are on the last of world carbon governments on the right-hand side do not form part that's why I reproduced here section of segment of the the Periodic Table where the following elements that we encounter steals and in the car 1st of all Irish itself Byron himself forms the stable cotton the went on accuse but it also forms which we called transition ,comma low-temperature transition and these are these comments are not thermodynamic please table that means if given the chance they will readily transform scene but instills we observed them very commonly because the precipitate when Harvard precipitates out of their eyes and so the saturation of of the right precipitates out it will usually not former seamen died right away but it will form intermediate phases the low-temperature transition Carbide which typically called that's Carbide or heated clarified and have chemical formulas such as ever the to manganese the government right next to firing of the last in the periodic I means there are are no Carbide's for manganese but in general just the stability of these manganese Carbide's role will end In practice you almost never ever you we have to deal with them instead elements of scrawled Molly tons of Canadian I only like him for ready leave Carbide's Carbide's so if we move away from IRA 2 words Tania we go from less stable her right to the very stable .period I'm also on the last to know the right hand side of the stable we tend to see makes cars whereas on the writing on the the right to experiment on the left and you know the tied and what we're doing with him for instance In the presence of manganese statement I will very often not be pure efforts we see world some of the iron at the latest by nite that is the next part the same if your ally contains a little smaller than or tungsten carbide this pursuant time will contain some with some of the irony is that will be replaced by 5 what Carbide you you get depends entirely on the reward of course the composition of steel the thermodynamic stability of the carbide and the solubility of the car itself and of course don't forget we have to follow Tropic forms of fire down health and the solubility of these Carbide's for example the solubility of the vanadium carbide cost this very much however what when you across the face that would transform the Austin variety the solubility of this vanadium carbide drops to Breedlove so during the transformation you get a burst of transportation of very fine vanadium carbide particles in the fact that interfaces and
found that we use this for instance to to get to station on intervening in various so we just talked about car rides in low-carbon steels many engineering applications by foreign buyers two-year-olds wires feels the Soon tied that is the main carbide but we always have a lawyer elements in our studio and very often what there are some of the iron atoms industries are replaced by the following following so we get what we would it's called partitioning of the following elements between the affair I can it's kind of interesting rather interesting to have a look at how this partition coefficient is the difference in the far-right following elements this strong and stable so on top you get different following elements of the new nickel prices Bowling Canadian manganese crop and so on so we go from elements which have no Carbide forming tendencies in steals 2 elements which are very strong ,comma form suggests problem petitioner coefficient is ratio of the content of that element in the seven-time divided by the content and the other the there and we see for instance that silicone all this not very presence in this universe cobalt nickel however elements such as chromium will happily partition the To the statement and so will molybdenum and vanadium machinations Thompson not so much a part it the margin element that fits very well in the 2nd type letters so that if reason why partitioning the on this partitioning there appears to be dependent on time and temperature for instance if we don't look at the the tech support you tech .period steel steel which contains a lot of some pride and the measure the the amount of for instance call In the some entitles them to partitioning of the world the ratio of microorganisms from their eyes as a function of time at certain temperatures see that when transformation starts 1 more burlap and in pro-life you have the entire incident situated consistent picture verite for life if I look at the buildup of troops called In the same time I see that at 700 partitioning is 1 there is no crawl in the summertime origin had passed by wait let time pass 1 hour 2 2 hours and hours the partitioning of can be 15 inches 15 times more chromium in the the car buying this year than in the so it's kind dependence this is here time-dependent so you see that at the start of the transformation petition with 1 then gradually there is a buildup of the left the diagram is for crawl on the right the diagrams of partition see that the politicians of the magazines to be at same time will increase with time and with him In other words general ensues when reforms tight it's pretty much a few weeks it's after if you keep the 75 at high temperature for long look at this and placement of the Paris patents by formula doing what so when you form statement I low-temperature it'll probably be very few or something like that if it's higher temperature it will be partitioning of Palestine elements to 1 let's have a look a little bit at some key elements and their effect all the time basic the wood academics and kind that takes of the Austinite Karen transportation convenient way to do this as you know doctorate courses in physical maladies undergraduate years is too look at phase diagrams and to look bad and teach each time transformation time temperature died so will look 1st at the effect of the effective 90 days as I've said very important she element in the car but the EU's head here they might call so on
the left the sea and air carbon phase diagram 1 the Red Line calling indicate here this boundary between the Lord the boundaries of the stability and you can see that when I had to make to this calculates rather phase diagram for higher making its contents on persistent sense that I see that they're lying this like goes down in other words has increased stability range of fossilized and that's why we call manganese also the right stabilizer and so that is an important point according to the problem Back on they run the got single finally Phase I grabbed my arm the center of the then maintenance will stabilize also my relative to but but what will be the effect on the transfer patients well I feel that I need to look at transformation kind that Texas so here we see .period on the right here this PT diagram for a steel that has been near new tech toys compuserve so that means that when I cool Austinite and I will form basically for a lot less than a year 0 . 9 provinces this diagram around you at this point that is part the composition most of the transformation that we get phase diagram tells me that I should for trial you take toys since time turns out that's so it is very slow reactions most of the transformation that you see in the phase diagram and the diagram rather is the the problem this is due to perlite formation this is the transformation I more very low profit per cent of many of the transformation starts at around 700 deg C that's C that's correct so it is for what he said about half of the year that yeah the transformation starts at around with this and then have increased in the kinetics of the transformation of the title of the stored order and reaches a maximum of 6 what happens now and I increased according to 1 . 2 2 . 9 per cent and you can see that the stability range of vehicles the increases would to stability range of the also increases of the transformation starts at lower and lower temperatures and that's 1 thing not only does this but which also happens is that the fanatics in general are the delayed the transformation it takes much longer to stop if I have half a per cent of my takes 1 and 2 seconds at 6 7 degrees to get her life formation started if I have about 3 per cent of manganese it that it takes me of between 100 and 200 2nd get that from the so there is a pronounced fact of manganese on the transformation in the sense that it delays the transfer and this phenomena that characteristic of certain elements have delayed the start of the transformation of Boston far-right also relied this process most make decomposition being delayed we will relate this later to the concept of apartment buildings that's right but what about silica and silicon accounted for 1 thing is an element that In contrast to Boston to magazines it was a very different if effect it stabilizes so when we had the silica began to fade near new tech toys composition what we see seeing is that the the temperature at which the transformation will start think that means we reduced the size of the policy of stability we have an element that is the right stabilize but also like 19 and then we see none of that is that so 0 . 1 per cent of silicon this was the 1st edition and 2 per cent of silica the here I seem to rather than to the lady the transformation and have transformation that Best certainly in this temperature range this thing so
what is happening here as well Silicon being the far-right stabilize it will accelerate the rind formation and it will accelerate the information during her life from and also when I have Julio had for told Variety formation little compositions composition which less than the sum of compensation of about 2 . so it also has be interesting characteristic a lot because in certain states we are willing to use this property the silicon is an element that this is not the presidency earlier this month Gold into this is the time that's 1 thing it doesn't it doesn't go of those assault tuition to set this thing and property of silicon it's that it is it increases the carbon activity in some so in the end here some data for far-right and you what is the change In the carbon activity when I am similar amounts to cruel Molly Nicholson when I had silicon phosphorus I see an increase in the activity heart the fight had more than enough From what does that have for consequence was very important consequences because In many cases the addition of selected will result in eastern Russia of seven-time world at the time the reason why this happens is believed to be the following so where we it was illustrated on the figure in the right hand side of the slight so when forest say we form a little bit of sin the use of 75 In the in so because of summit that's all the petition to fight those solvents and entirely original soluble and sometimes it gets expect risky gets expelled him expelled out of this so what would you say is that there are around the small the statement by I will have be Silicon concentration profile that look like the increase the silicon content increases toward the phase boundary segment what about this mission OK so this facility now what is the consequence of the this high Inter facials :colon concentration well the following In order for the same entirely to brawl I need to have ,comma the few the center now diffusion controlled by concentration profiles actually it's controlled by the energy profiles controlled by activity but if it did so if the carbon activity profile is like this will get a lots of carbon toward In .period however In this particular region around the person I have a high solids and this results In an increase of the department activity around this statement particles and this increase can be such that the there is no carbon activity gradient anymore around 2nd time in the Senate by particles cannot so in other words and this is the more efficient silicon we have in our steel so silicone has been the In addition to being ferrets stabilized it also has the characteristic that presses similar formation 3rd stabilized and suppressing Simone tight formation official I do have to to say that elements of phosphorus and aluminum are also also have this problem and I have been in certain fire alloys called cast parents and silicon is expanded to promote the formation of Rafael Rondon said colored this property of silicon to suppress Carbide formation the steel industry the storytellers cast-iron columns privatizing properties of the referred to as a graphic artist from so right so it's the inflections of other elements such as tequila taking interest
chromium any money so 1st of all to grow quite wide-ranging spectrum of affects the lives of the of what happens to so here 1st of all we have in effect crawled on the they started right thermodynamic stability and it also has an effect on the decomposition of of so that's something he did so 1st of all to chromium editions we see in general there is no if we had a small amounts of chromium small amounts of chromium the program can be had actually also stable I'm not very strongly as you can see that it's also stabilizer in general the effect of chromium from limited and kind chromium concentrations found on had 4 the Clark the effect of chromium however important when we look at he died so when you add for instance here's deal we will put on the left lower side of this life 1 per cent of gross after ending up to 4 per cent of problem we can see that debate transformation that's what addition reactions the will talk about the details the is that moved to the the breast cancer which is also very important is that the perlite transformation strongly support it these to diagrams on last year calculated "quotation mark the yield steal our steel the engineering still we see that as we I had chromium question of their right to provide transportation I but an extension of the late-night tried so let's have a look at this diagram in more detail now this is common still With . 4 % commonly called the students and nearest steals 1 . 5 manganese so can also and it's got a little bit of molybdenum and this is continue schooling transformation diagram of steel and we then have no chromium and this year we have transformation region for the 1st polite and here we have may 9 transformation a right so we know see what happens to this season diagram I can see that the very and cement transformation not surprised the lady whereas the the nite transformation is slightly expanded 10 chromium as I said has a tendency 2 partition of the country we you have to put we have to say if you think about that I've already told you that the chromium is 1 of these elements just like petition and that this phenomenon petitioning to 75 time temperature and so let's have a look at that in particular for from we look at the still the area which contains 0 . 8 cent apartments with the technology transformation but you get these were like formation and so these are the kind that instituted to diagram for the the formation of the alliance and for the think 1st line start the transformation and the height pro-life that loads of the isolated and if we now the the partitioning of cornea petitioning coefficient of at different temperatures and look at what is the region of the world in this statement by a different country we see that the offer like that before that close to 750 billion partitioning is equivalent to about 50 however as the temperature at which will carry out the transformation 2 is decreasing we see steady drop of this petition that means that at 700 deg C petitioning is down to fight and that all 5 600 it's down last year 2 and a half or and in the May 19 during the May 9 transformation
the partition coefficient is what there is no part In equilibrium the partitioning of chromium too statement I should the action very long the order of 30 240 the increase was lower than that in practice you see a very different picture and music of course is that partitioning requires fusion and so on lowered the temperature is but which will carry out the transformation the less usually the last coefficient is grown in hands sold the Lord of partition so petition is a something that just but that the extent to which it has it takes place in the hands of the the condition in which the 7 5 4 declined the temperature and time molybdenum is also an element just like chromium strong former a list of 100 per cent correct the general far-right stabilizer said earlier in the case of chromium very low concentrations in binary Byron cruel system "quotation mark it's definitely a Boston might stabilizer in an so molybdenum is an element that we very often used in making steel and in the the earlier part of the lecture today that legitimate on both units at the transformation controlling elements so with molybdenum we see In a fact that's similar as appropriate that some calculated the the diagrams we see what is the effect of going from 4 . 5 5 carbon steel going from 4 . 8 belonging to 2 per cent Monday would you see here is that the and that her life transformation are clearly the lack of fanatics the composition of variety of provide breast whereas all the debate I start temperatures reduced because of the 1st the kind that you are actually slightly Inc so the effect of knowledge additions it's that generally considered the ladies diffusional transformations appendix penance the indictment diffusional transformations that are decomposition mostly competition reaction leading to variety and all her life bread and lets and you will have some of the right hand side and see what happens to the engineering steel . 4 per cent for everyone by the police at the manganese Excuse me when you increase the molybdenum content tenfold from all over 4 . 3 per cent what happens for the next time you can see that was the site this season's team diagram take a school transformation that right can see the region called for like the I'm going to the what happens now is my among them this year corresponding this library can see how strongly the variety and provide transformation far west and the late-night transformation is so that's us school that once lined here stable Austinite at 900 deg C In cool this down to room temperature using this calling right when I do that you can see that I will form a variety of her life for life Britain alike and most of the transformation will be gone will be gone before if there is any thing 4 however if we now the ad look at the same element now with added which saying where I can see now that Microsoft structure of very different because this same :colon rates have now know her life own publication and higher Lycra structure will be on the elements of importance is they were also warned of a few words about world because it's also 1 of these elements have been very pronounced effect on the I formation this is the phase diagram the influence of phase diagram part based on the new conceded as you add my name to the line of boron when all hold 2 per cent of people in way that's the 20 years of the World War II 50 ppm when we see that we also want stability is Jewish soul foreign obviously an element that is fair I stabilized but what does it
do and why widely well this which shows you the impact of small amounts of this particular micrograph what you see yes the effect of 20 ppm of foreign was on as cast Microsoft of carbon manganese construction steal the contains thing the and since the original Allston lingering boundaries here the only when you have the also to variety the transformation of the variety is depleted and to bring them like and these nuclei role and and eventually you get the entire structure .period volume is transformed also like to now you can see here that there is absolutely no offer information about instead we have a very large also far-right grains inside the mosque so the nuclear nation of far-right is that also denied called writer also my brain foundries is suppressed this is 1 of the major effects boron has it in steals and it's going often use boron steel it's too that really suppression of far-right mediation and this is illustrated here for this summer teachers she diagram wanted to teaching diagram "quotation mark steel carbon steel pot .period 19 per cent ,comma 1 . 6 innings in which we have now is that we at 35 ppm of more so originally the transformation will start at say if we're looking at 6 thousand 560 degrees C today In takes solutions 10 seconds when he said it takes less than 20 seconds to start if we and the ball rolled in at the same temperature the transformation will start that's something like 20 about 50 per cent of wasted time and it will take To be completed a much longer time also very pronounced effect of the on the transformation good so I would have tried to show you have to know is the fact that key elements such as the only and knowledge what has all the transformation used in many of its fields as added following elements to achieve certain prices all promote certain kinds patients so that we can Microsoft just like but there are there we use a combination of following the formation rating To achieve property this is dog In particular walk so-called Michael Allen still very effectively microbiologist who just want to illustrate here what we'll come back to this because of the constant novel to From this later stages when we talk about rummaged can as well introduced this culture so In the steals as I said when I introduced the following elements we add small amounts of Michael Allen which typical microbiology British steals or will be fighting in the what happens when I had the a whole year well when we had a nice old here this year we can surprise the phenomenon of great crystallization and that allows us to Due the decomposition of Allston I'm not from the crystallized what went wrong strain on engineers in the field of Italy's steals like it's really like to to use the word has taken hostage this a way of life what and that has been back on the transformation of instance here show did a schematic of the TCT diagrams for old news construction of steel and which 400 ppm of which see the storm transformations transformation reactions composition reaction of occurring at higher temperatures but for a shorter time but that's 1 thing that happens another thing that happens in these deals is the following Is that In this way is possible the precipitation reactions but also defamation and answers "quotation mark transformation and transportation that's very interesting because it allows us to do what's called thermal mechanical processing of steals to things particularly bring find like this so what happens if we look at the it in the steel reform of the EU's Carbide's precipitates look at the static precipitation of their Carbide we see that it takes at around 900 in the range of 2 thousand 300 takes about 100 seconds to start precipitation of denial hardware and the precipitation is completed after very very long time at that temperature however if I can do if I can the form matrix and measure the precipitation kind of tactics of Union Carbide what I see is that the precipitation sink temperature range is now for Internet and 900 degrees it takes 1 2nd model 100 seconds to start and it's completed in less than 100 so I get a tremendous the increase of creation of right the growth rate of the petition which some of the so let's talk at this stage lecture John the next thank you very much for your attention
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Modern Steel Products (2014) - Alloying elements: lecture 2
Serientitel Modern Steel Products
Teil 2 (2014)
Anzahl der Teile 31
Autor Cooman, Bruno C. de
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 3.0 Unported:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/18326
Herausgeber University of Cambridge
Erscheinungsjahr 2014
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Technik
Abstract A course of lectures by Professor Bruno de Cooman, of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Republic of Korea. This comprehensive course leads the audience through a large variety of metallurgical aspects that influence steel products.
Schlagwörter The Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology (GIFT)

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