# Scatterometry

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In his lecture I would like to introduce you to alter colors cut 3 for metrology inspection of surfaces my name is to run .period an associate professor in applied physics at the Delft University of Technology in Delft in the Netherlands so far so I like to talk about the far fewer detection which means that they have an object shine a light into the object and look at the scattered light as a ski area see in the scheme so
Zapata ever diffraction grating some of you are familiar with it which is a periodic sequence of flights on top of us on the surface and if you have it light shining at a certain angle you see they scattered light as shown here by de Roche there is an equation which relates to the period of the periodic structure with the angle of incidence of delight and the angle of incidence of scattered light which is the 1st this year order the north scattered and the higher orders which will be the 1st to 2nd under orders and the relation easing this yellow lower the square which relates the capital under the sign of the single incident and the sign of a single scattered the water of scattering given by and the wavelength of the light so can learn by
looking and measuring the scattered light Is that a effective signal depends on the incidental light properties and the physical properties of the grating self the lighter profits can be the Waveland then Wolfensohn as the polarization of the state of the lacked the physical properties of the meeting I'm more related to the geometry of debilitating the burial to the height of the saddle angle of the grating and material the greeting self told that if I don't use that automakers that we can all the by the study this scattered signal from this data and 1 sale is given by this picture and here we defined a period which is the minimal use switcheroo repeats over in this place we have the height of the grating the critical dimension which is there with at the middle of the structure and assigned all angles left and right which is given by S W 8 1 and acid everywhere 2 so if you have this baby the altered the disagreed the height and assigned all angle I can say I can't characterize his greeting and these are the parameters we would like to retrieved from our measurements scatter at 3
is already being used in optical lithography we think audience light so the idea is that you take an inquiry into light source which is this skin matters I dislike about their polarizes sometimes there also you shine a light into the grating and you look at the detector playing this scattered light why this technique is using optical lithography that advantages are is a very fast technique In nondestructive because you want shine light into the this contamination free it's an expensive there's no really need to know the fractional units and can be integrated in the fabrication process so the
basic is that I as I showed you the annual fees and this is important and scattered angles will depend on the properties of the grating so what you can do is to shine a light at the different angles and look at the scattered light also at different angles In his way I can get a lot of information by looking at the intensity of the scattered light at several directions and knowing the properties of the incident light polarization in the the properties of the incident light like accordions and the angle of the surveillance of the incident light I can then tried to obtain the information of the data so the idea is that
you have a great team and you bring to the meeting this year .period and you want to know how would his this grating as compared to the nominal related to what we would like to have printed maybe they are not exactly the same so the idea that I can make it take experimental data about the elimination the optical NI I can also calculated the same thing theoretical so the been mental data is the wavelength of the light to the incident fueled the anger the sedans and the type of detection that I do and then I measured intensity at certain angles then
I can also do some simulation so that I know what's in a number now but terrace of migrating that I had written on this way 1st and I can't calculate what would be the everything would be perfect what would be the scattered angles in case it is at several scattered angles and then what you do is you you Yukon Territory the simulations and experimental results and then you what to do is you reconstruct the gating parameters and then if is not would you change a little bit to the parameters and for optimization and will team up until you achieve the best match between the simulations and spearmint the the parameters that gives the best match on the the parameters of the dating or looking for work all this is
already a technique that is used In and several law purposes photography and what do you like to introduce a year now Is that too is a coherent case will now you have quality and the lighting said equal here tonight so we take it a laser and we foreclose the light into disintegrating the indicating we were talking about before so when you focus the light you will be paying also deflected field also like capped 1 of the nation's denominated life back into the detector what Ireland advantages of using Cordiant lighting and often the inquiry light is that you have you are more sensitive to this meeting parameters that can be seen in this paper but by all mile Gulati that is listed below this year so you are more sensitive and you are also since to the face as I was playing so what is the
difference enough so we don't have just like shining 1 angle what we do is that we take the the incident field which coming From the left picture you see skimmer schematic and you come within days midfielder focus very tight to 2 to the debating with Lance and you take that reflected field there with the speed the walls of the left and that was to assist in the game what you have is a area where is the reflected field plus what it comes From the debate and the information from the so you was again the same parameters I introduced before which is the height of the gating debate yields the 2 side all angles and the critical dimension and what is also important to Europe will be what I call bias which is their positions Of the foxes because it focused fields With respect to the lady because of folks in the field is very small and you can scan as competed for example semantic with respect to the great scene which was saved by as equals to 0 but I can wander over to the right on beach to the left in this way I can say that the bias is another number 0
I am not a finger like tool to introduces the overlapping apparently there because as I said you have a corner flight incidental to the meeting and you take that back into the detector planes and you'll be just 0 cool flights and that the 0 orders the day before the vision that doesn't come from the grating will be just so inform the field uniforms circle of light and the contributions of the grating will be at all the angles and if I take it out making himself a certain period capital Monday and I know the and all of the numerical opportune off of the objective that is focusing the light and I smelled the wavelength of the light given by His moment that I can't predict where the position of the scattered light we'll be with respect to this year called off busy order and that is seen these 3 pictures the law in this city the shade so is the aft underneath the ones is more than 1 I have several orders of integrating went after parameters between 1 and 2 I have 1 orders those 1 and miners 1 and they partially overlapped with busy order which is the center circle I the case often effort didn't you I great Beard is very small so all the contribution of them Of the gating will fall outside of the CIA Of the 0 order that is given by the black circle for affidavit untrue In this case here we're going to consider effort between 1 and 2 which means that at a mine detector plane I have been 0 order completely and partially poses order and the miners order overlapping with 0 on knowing the nominal
parameters of gating we can do calculations of what we would expect to see into the far field and here services there are complications at the different and biased positions means different position between the focus feud and great thing when you have a polarization the polarization is that of the polarization of the incident light spiraling out of the roof of the grating and here is spotted the to their face Ford team and for the TM polarization the improvisations is again it perpendicular to the grooves 4 7 0 biased position which I will show now so this 1st Meyers
position 2nd biased
position 3rd for so this way I am removing the bias and you see for each biased position I have a different far afield do it again see that they are not the same and this is all they're reaching formation we have order to ready to the parameters of the grating so
here it is experimental set up and basically you have an optical fiber the light from the optical fibers coordinated and focusing into the structure and the structured and reflection is taking to the CCD camera witches scheme applies in there there is a
little more experimental sat opposite of rumination branch in order to be able to see the data to see where the structure the basic principle is the laser Fox into the structure and taking them deflected field into the CCD camera here's what
I real life is using clean and is the experimental setup a showdown In this crawls
up but you can see the objective of the light at the moment the writers focus by these objectives on the need to is the dating and this can table which you will take care of the changing of the bias in the position of the grating with respect to the light feud here just to
show Is there a picture Of the merging of the grating so the ladies this darker square into this fall and In the right side you see there is more spartan being faultlessly to the In this scheme under shows the 0 order reflected In the plus and minus 1st your seaweed attacked this year called of the 0 awarded which has a partial overlap with the 1st and 1st of plus and minus border and then
chose ulcers ,comma take country is Candide action of the
yet Societe here again a variant more scheme showing that rating being scanned 100 focus fields L 42 skin position you have a certain the field at a detector which is showing their rights to 3 pictures and on the right side of the the door of the user is light is Donna debating
a construction why we take speeches for several buyers of system and then we look at the best match between the simulation which is hard in respect of the nominal parameters of the and apart matters are what I talked before is the height alleviating the PAD the critical dimension and the buyers position and then you compare you compare measurements so as I what as the measurements and the simulated Ontario got the best match
so here is a mail when you run this rule change and find your optimization so you get a series of experimental data and then the simulation which show the best match so here you see that the left side and there are several scam positions for the simulations and on the right side of the far field for service compositions for the Spearmint and you see that's the match pretty well for the 2nd parameter set of this is grating when the difference between simulations pyramids minimal then say OK we're conversion to the best parameters for the grating and here and we show for example what a CFS means Cordiant for years Catherine at the SEE EM this is the scanning electron microscope AFA atomic force microscope he is all there an independent measurements and on and you'll see that the parameters we find are very similar to the parameters 5 founded by all the inspection techniques so With this way we can say that this system "quotation mark yet for his captain 3 we are able to retrieve the parameters of negotiating with a very good accuracy now the next the
question is what happens if we have I am not a very nice to nominal the new beacon on the wafers just like I showed before but we just haven't known periodic isolated structures on the sun's surface and would like to see whether this technique can be used there so the idea is
that I have what show he lighting on and look at the scattered light when sample is being scanned with some isolated structures on this is 1 of the Gauls publicly for you project which means you have a role With a plastic where some contamination can be there the idea is that as the role is scant under the Fox field where there they scattered light can be detected and we can all some information about what is coming under until the unlike contamination hours more particles this solution here it means that would like to to look for particles under the 592 down to 100 nanometers right to the fast also known destructive to the foreigners and almost field measurement for the same
technique explained before heavily laser focus lighting to the surface and look at the scattered light the idea is that the year the question the main questions we had a showing that we have periodic structures and the works for periodic structures what would be the performance supporters is isolated objects for
years again has being mental set up that we have done is basically a similar set up we have lights now for Alesia 400 not only terse Anderson focus into the sample by the objective of very high medical picture . 9 and this character lighted calls to the detection and data processing the white light illumination is again just used for emerging purposes to know there where we are in the sample the sample that will be scant why there looking past the insisted a camera or detector signal to
prove their working principle we have shown some of the samples which is which artificial contamination also poised to In spheres almost silicon wafer the mean diameter pulls 100 200 400 and 1 thousand meters and sample is only 1 particle size the idea is to really see whether we can see all those particles 1 by 1 In this case the substrate here roughness is the anonymous theirs this was just for the approval of principle but we have also shown that the plastics which are much more the rough surface is a technique also works so again we have
to rely on simulations 2 what to expect to see and whether there to see where do Is it possible 2 marriage it is as no particles coming under this stoppers fields the the simulation is just as we take the size of the particle the material the Service Trades properties and we shine a light on several angles and stimulating this focus field and look at their farm fields so there was a
few feasibility studies To see OK what kind of signal and what kind of polarization states we should where there is more or less sensitive to the polarization states so in their plots on the left who you see this several combinations of polarization states the combination means that the polarization that the balls into the rejected and the 2nd was a polarization of the detector range so I can have for example leader polarization and cannibalization so cannibalization until then Lance In cannibalization onto the detector bench I can for example circular polarization and linear polarization at the detection I can a veto polarization which is our and polarization didn't direction so each 1 gives us Saturn differences in our absolute differences in the power as the particle the World Bank In scandal founded is focused fields and showing plot so you see that in the 1st thing we hope will be here odd is that polarization is very important depending on the combination of polarization polarization 2 issues we have about their differences this signal modulation will be better
he also we show 4 for the combination leader positioning monopolization after the detection this is the buyers and the left Is there a rule and they're being barred there is a difference between simulations spearmint for certain articles size so far particles 200 meters and the none theirs so received that simulation spearmint really agrees with what we see in the laboratory so
this is actually the speedy mentor parties want to see system became of the far
field deflected from the surface containing the particles here shows a shot to wearers executive in the center of the article and if you subtracted normalized with if you do doubted particle you see on the right side this tool type of love area which is the contribution of the particles into the far field if you look at the at the end result means that there is the simulation resulted is that's the quiet to match so what we see Spearmint matched with their what respect for for example here is the 201 meter this fear on the silicon With a polarization N polarization accident detection so then when you
move the particle around you see that's OK when the budget was faxed to approach you have to start having some signal difference seen enough in the normalize the power and there when articles is acting the Santa you have the contribution of nanoparticles away missing nobles out again to the normal 1 so here you see different sizes of the article the readies for foreign-denominated particle the means for 2 on and on the article and in rule for 1 of the nanometer particles To see that as I scanned the presence of the particles the sale under the focus field yeah this the difference in power which is measurable another thing we can also see is that for the smaller particles and on there the signal-to-noise ratio Saturn getting pretty low and then this it will be difficult to detect if you are in a very fast the scanning their positions so what do we look that also is how can we enhance the signal-to-noise ratio if you go back to this you see
that in most contributions of the article is in their outsides not in the center of the syrup all of the infection so 1
idea was to blocked the central part of the pupil of the detection and
then see what happens all to the signal-to-noise ratio and what is showing in the plot on the left is that the eye changing how much I block the pupil From . 1 2 . 2 8 is the maximum and . 2 9 is a full pupils so you see that there is an optimal blocking so when I'm around . 5 I would have blocked it but part of the pupil which it does not contribute to march from the particle the contributions only from the from the signal without the particle In this way I can get a better signal-to-noise ratio because you could see the figure on the right you see that the blocking we numerical protrude . 5 the center Is there red you see that adult normalized power is better than for example the rule or did they for example did the black 1 which he has no bloc so knowing now the amount of blocking of the pupil I can increase the signal-to-noise ratio
another observation was that the city is not symmetric so if you look again and is 1 of this year
.period are 1 left and right but stopped them down there is not much information about the article so you got what you
can do also aims for use a sentimental detector why you as a
biological woes by I can shows the 2nd quadrant In order to enhance the signal that receive so it is waiting for example I can I can some of the top and some bottom and they could indifference and there's a particle walls like and look only at these differences In this way I can see the contribution of the particle directly by the differences in power between the top and bottom conditions and some signals that have been obtained in the land so the rule curve means that when the particle is scant In this article was exactly the center of the Fox spot so you see that's the car detector sees that the when there is no particle this is because a certain number when there is a particle then started going down then in the center of the article is semantic I have again the same as if we've no particle but then start going up again and pulls back again to the 0 positions when
the particle is not as at the past and that is at the center of the Fox Sports but a little bit to the right for example so you see there is the wide equals to 0 . 3 the Cedeno is monitored by still see the influence of the particles and again the same happens when 0 . 4 away from there .period forms for Michael away from the from the center of the particle I still see some signal sold there is the here we see that on the particles Barry I have a some Cedeno differential Cedeno and even if the budget was not as sentence of sports as to see the influence of the particles In the signal that too is measured and it is very sensitive I'm not there
on the possibility that we can explore With this system is about to the localization of the particles for some applications they want to know exactly where the particle and we were losing video polarization this can be very clear where the particle really is so are here we use available is initially his scheme is showing that lacked 0 called Blue Circle on a polarization is has the radial directions monopolization had ever made about actions so filled use this type of polarization a new incentives put greater polarization in to the surface take that affected field and look at at that with Alena polarized either at X x-direction or perpendicular to the wide-eyed and this is what we
see so In the last stop in Baltimore plots receipt when the party was and Samper With respect to the focus fields and you see these 2 lobs configuration which is cinematic when the ball organizer is at the x-direction using the 2 lobster risotto and when the polarizing the wide directions the lobster vertical but there's so as the particle is a slightly off-center so there is ample the needle the top and bottom blocks we show when you are only like 15 0 meters away from his new particle and then you see that's varies the imbalance between the left and right rolled into the Ford Explorers edition and because the chief tools awning X there why
misstated Morris as saying but when I achieved at the X and a Y and that a stroll in right top and bottom brought you see that both right and left to are top and bottom mobs change so we can localize not the how much is shifted but also how much is shifting X anyway with very good precision because he oversees on like London divided by 6 that precision that we we are St. Louis so here we
show shoulder plot the market just 1 line of his lots that Senate for different shifts of the particle so in liberal line you see when there is no shipped an article in the center that the left and right sides of the plot is symmetric they being 1 is when shift to by 15 only Paris and the red 1 when you shift by 91 meters the reason the maximum changed and if you just brought to the maximal as a fashion of the shares In here is the only 1 know 1 shift only for several shifted positions you'll see that the brought on the right and the influence of the size of the maximum as a function of the shift With assimilation see that even opposition accuracy of lumber divide by 40 which would be possible this way but we learned here is that it's possible to detector particles we have been successful in protecting the particles up to 190 meters and we also is also possible to localize the particles we have very good accuracy everything's being done we've always cattle meat there focusing light scanning the surface and taking them detection reflected light into the detection systems
yeah a lot of things there teams of the Cordiant 48 scattered several polls Knox's students technical support and also ordered that persons who have contributed enough to this work and also the claim for you partners and that you will fortify national support all of this work
Optics
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 Title Scatterometry Title of Series Clean4Yield eConference Number of Parts 21 Author Pereira, Silvania License CC Attribution 3.0 Unported:You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor. DOI 10.5446/18211 Publisher Technical University of Denmark (DTU), The Department of Energy Conversion and Storage Release Date 2015 Language English Producer Madsen, Morten V.

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