Lock-in Thermography

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Lock-in Thermography
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Finger protocol Cut (gems) Photographic processing Hose coupling
Capital ship Ford Focus Ford Focus Photographic processing Photographic processing Throttle Camel (cigarette) Throttle Ship of the line Chemical substance Tin can
Finger protocol Coating Photographic processing Photographic processing Coating Tiger (cryptography) Printing Substrate (printing)
Finger protocol Rolling (metalworking) Image processing Safety lamp Rad (unit)
Tin can Book cover Firearm
Finger protocol Typesetting Ship class Commercial vehicle Glass Glass Firearm Material
Loom Spaceflight Glass
Optics Cardboard (paper product) Optics Winterreifen Cartridge (firearms) Pressure regulator Electric locomotive
Lader <Verdichter> Optics Outsourcing Winterreifen Safety lamp Electric locomotive
Spant Tool Spant Hull (watercraft) Single-cylinder engine Single-cylinder engine
Turning Gentleman Gentleman Hull (watercraft)
Hot working Spant Ship of the line
Widerstandsschwei├čen Spant
Widerstandsschwei├čen Molding (process) Enlarger Wind wave Compound engine
Molding (process) Material Compound engine
Ship of the line Material
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Vacuum pump Coating Packaging and labeling
Finger protocol Hot working Vacuum pump Image processing Packaging and labeling Coating Ship of the line Florett
Roll forming Tool Cartridge (firearms) Spant Image processing Single-cylinder engine Florett
Typesetting Spant Single-cylinder engine
Roll forming Tool
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Optics Separation process Optics Tool Rutschung Electric locomotive Material Screw thread
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Airbus A300 Commodore MAX Machine Image processing Ampoule Mazda 626
my name is Tudor cut from Decision Systems and I want to tell you what we have done in the last 3 years and clean for yield project we are mainly responsible for it to the development of funding from parole process and a couple infrared system for the localization and of electrical to defects in organic devices what
is this just substances that the main focus of research assistance to manage it's a development and manufacturing of infra testing systems and measuring systems we have now more than 200 high and inference systems and the market said company was founded as a spin-off of the University of London number from from the Institute of Applied Physics In the year 1999 we have developed of most laboratory in line for a testing system for silicon solar cells In the year 2006 Siemens venture capital and Siemens technology of accelerator required by by a minority share of camels and soaring in the year
2011 the Freemen based Californian company Systems Incorporated to acquire 100 per cent of soaring Tin village and in the year 2000 certain Tamils origin which was renamed envisages Systems GmbH so Maine on the
goal of of the whole clean for you to the project it is the development and demonstration of Hollister concept for the detection inspection cleaning prevention and repair of defects and contaminations in organic and organic
affordable Tiger modules and again this devices are deposited on flexible substrate by wrote rule coating and printing passionate I want to tell
you today something about someone for a basics a politics looking tomography principle I give some looking tomography examples show some examples I want to tell you something about the new high-speed infrared camera system which was necessary to develop and some project and I want to show you wrote roll process and a credible infrared system we have developed and in the end I tell you something about how we process images that is repaid Salazar for for repair is able to deactivate the defects
To 1st I want to show you that differences between was a bold arranged and assembling for is a whistle-blower range or also incident shot were also called near infrared range between 400 nanometers and to micrometres you normally only have reflected radiation coming from the sun or coming from lamps or something else In the summer of infrared wavelengths larger than pool 3 micrometres you have decides to reflected its reputation also since summer radiation of objects itself coming from the surface and this summer radiation is what we normally want to work recalled here it
is shown in the 3rd column of summer radiation at room temperature as a function of the wavelengths what you see that is that at
wavelengths short of novels free micrometres you too would have any summer radiation and it started approximately Street micrometres yet maximum at approximately 10 micrometres and teal green and red shown under the cover other wavelengths where commercial infrared cameras are and we the reason for that is why between green and red they are not aware that is
that's most of the infrared detectors are developed for military reasons and the atmosphere of the US is a highly absorbing between 5 and 8 micrometres and for that reason that also no infrared detectors commercial and will these wavelengths where Will you was in this project and detector which is sensitive isn't green area between 3 and approximately 5 for 5 and a half mile from it normally this
organic devices have on both sides plastic floral or glass for example has it's a problem that is transparent only at wavelengths to work toward a half Mike read and at wavelengths longer than 2 and a half my readers it depends on the sickness and of the type of the class and I know it approximately 5 micrometres the glass anomaly it's highly absorbing that the company up for that reason you normally have In that reflects the way you measure we have simmered transparent material this means you're more-or-less looking onto glass office and see
only a little bit said electrical activity wise behind and sustained is also was this plastic foils few shown for example
is PTT politically in terror collide and he also received between 3 and 5 micrometres but the trans mission is to bending Europe depends on the sickness of the Foreign Office and was about to plastic this means is also not really a transparent coming 2 the
main .period what we are doing we take the proper the lead detective was in for a graffiti the summer regulation of electrical active defects in solar modules cells and also organic entities and under electrical or optical at excitation
these if you have any short circuit board and the like .period there on these electric defects generate normally and some of the additional summer graduation and Macon local temperature increase the range between 100 micro Calvin and 1 calorie and the temperature sensitivity of nowadays state of the art infrared cameras Is it a single image is between 15 million Halloran and 20 Milliken and that is not in all cases good or sensitive enough for some electrical defects and for that reason we look at the EU's looking tomography or in similar cases and simple ever itching to increase the sensitivity to approximately 1 million and for 1 2nd
measurement time and to approximately 100 micro Calvin at 100 2nd measuring time what is
so look in summer graffiti set up you normally have an infrared camera different
computer with software you have an excitation sources can be an electrical source normal Baltic source or it can be an optical source like a ladies on laser or hemorrhaging lamps and you would normally excited was a rectangular shape to the signal the sample and with an infrared camera you would detect House assembly was reacting to these excitation here are
shown to a typical
and infrared demography testing systems from our company and normally in the solar cell world say it distinguish between Dr. looking democracy the LIT the Swiss electrical excitation and I LIT for illuminated a look in some more graffiti which works with optical excitation I
always look into summer graffiti principles you as of already is said you were excited was in rectangular shaped signal and you multiplied the single incoming frames by weighting factors and that typical and look at 2 for looking tomography uses the Whiting factors signed and co-sign and use some all these single incoming frames up was assigned and also you at some all single incoming frees up was a co-signer and then you get tools primary look up in result images 1 is assigned correlated image and 1 co-signer related image the problem of
these toward images is said to
have still have mixed information you have and those images we have information about some local dissipated power and also there's information about time delay and this means how long it takes from the excitation to the reaction to surface of the sample and you have to Split this up you make 2 words simple that Moscow calculates calculations and in the end you get a look in amplitude and the look in
phase and in the look in amplitude all information about how strong and defectors this means it is director a directly proportional to the local dissipated power and on the other side yes the so called look in the face and this image is only but only has information about that time delay this man how long it takes from their excitation to the reaction of the center here
is a shown up from a loss of still looking summer graffiti sensitivity
normally you always try to have a good signal-to-noise ratio because you're dealt signal which comes from the sample from the device and you can changes you must live with that what you get and for that reason and you have to reduce delta T noise much as possible and Fidelity noise depends on the energy D stands for noise equivalent temperature difference of the infrared camera and a single image but it is also dependent on the frame rate of the camera whom the measuring time and this means if you want to work sign and line system where you have a very very good sensitivity already after 1 2nd you need a camera was very very good this means low
energy deep well you and also was the high frame rate here a
7 or until October 8 parallel connected to electrical resistance
was different resistance well used and so yes it is different have different amounts of local dissipated power and that is you're looking in amplitude result images shown for the different measuring times and what you can see is after 1 2nd you already see certain
resisted having 100 micro what dissipated power but maybe you also already 50 micro wants but you don't see 2010 5 loss to Micro what local dissipated power and if you make this look in longer and longer and longer for that you you you come to a point where you also see these resistance is over assistance which have a lower amount of participated power in hearing this example after 8 hours you also see their resistance which only had 500 none what to local dissipated power so this means you can change the city a sensitivity of Europe look in measurement by changing or mom makes it makes you look in the measurement longer so what are the
basic features and benefits of flock in the summer graffiti features are tested looking demography has the higher sensitivity than every other summer standard methods and Duke also can detect local dissipated power less than 1 Micro you have a high temperatures solutions less 10 Michael Calderon and you can scale your sensitivity by a variation of the measurement time and the benefits you have now are you can detect up to now on discoverable defects you also can detect nanometer-sized defects because they have make the Due to the reason that Semel waves also all not only move of what's but also laterally and there is in this so-called somewhat safer enlarging of defects and you have also known variable field a few of your measurement you can make an overview of this Grammy meters and you also can make a microscope you was in its battle resolute from the
pixel resolution down to 1 . 5 micrometres it isn't fast enough that it is a nondestructive imaging methods and you also can measure from the central central banks here
are showed 2 typical examples also the silicon rolled on the left side of city film silicon material on the right side as a way for based on silicon material and you can really see very good where you have local short circuits in Europe solar modules Europe showed that
microscopic look in summer
graffiti at the image of a sinful silicon material and on the left side to seize a whole the solar modules and on the right side you see in is seen in for a normal infrared image and as an overlay of this certain positions to lock in amplitude and you really can see that you have a short circuit at 1 of these serious connection lines of these solar modules he is not
coming to work itself Ganic devices here is shown as a look in
amplitude and phase some of the infrared as evidence alleged image which we call topography and 2 of them and overlay between look in amplitude and the topography image and you really can see that you are in many many organic materials you still have a lot of electrical
short circuits here is
example of OPV years solar module from the standard Dennis Technical University in Copenhagen and the also or and so on the left side this season looking amplitude image and on the right side you see from the shirt from very very Bill dimension a microscopic look demography image was in respect of resolution of street micrometres terapixel and you see that you have short circuit directly at 1 of these lines in the in the solar modules and also
organic LED samples very have
problems with the short circuits and that is shown here in this example
no coming into to the clean for yield and decent years systems or is walls
to mainly in the work packaged 2 . 4 0 detection and localization and repair of electrically active defects for large-scale wrote road production of can make the devices and we should inspector "quotation mark 100 per cent of these organic foiled running was approximately 10 meters per minute and if we detect a real image-processing electrical active defects we should talent but I have to say the partner or office system which can repair these electrical defects and at the moment holds center and obligation I make these repairs in all in this project and to same make it mainly really are laser cutting DAT waiting in certain areas so what do we
need this fall this In line
with compatible infrared system and it's necessary to have a good spot to book a solution or images solution and tool measure was approximately at not more than 200 Mike from it was time for the 50 micro medicine from 1 pixel and foreign typical infrared cameras don't have megapixels for many many megapixels they are moment away level until approximately 12 on that 80 times 1 thousand 24 but the common form of is still a 640 times 512 and this means wasn't pixel resolution of 1250 from readers who haven't you get an area maximum area of 160 times 125 mm and if you have a role to allow for speed of 10 meters payment on this means 160 mm per 2nd you only have from measuring time from 1 2nd and this means you need very very sensitive infrared camera system and no there will be 2 possible solutions 1 looking tomography was a frequency looking frequency of approximately 1 making only 1 looking period also 2nd solution is making chest image as an average level in both cases you have to compensate the image mismatch we soft but because said this followed us permanently continuously movies and in the end you have to do image processing so
what others detector an infrared camera requirement for such a system you need the shortest integration time you need a high quantum efficiency you need I'm very good this means lower and it he did a lot of noise equivalent
temperature difference in your single image and you need to have very very high framework and it was for that reason we there to different types of infrared cameras away little at some moment on the world market or in the Midwest infrared 1 inhuman in 1 nite and 1 and city in that stands for my career cadmium telluride so we have
made the decision of approximately 3 years ago
tool developing toward new demanding one-eyed Comoros 1 hasn't detector was 640 times 512 pixels and the other 1 is hasn't lots of farmland was 1280 times 1020 form
and we have common parents to look inside the sensitivity of this tool you detectives were was our standard and demand monitors detected
and do what we have seen is that the new dimension when I detect was 640 times 512 pixels recall it here in demand more nights 648 high-speed IgE jazz and has the best sensitivity this means after 3 minutes you clearly can detect 20 microwave that and defective 20 micro what and who already can see a little bit of the defective having attended microwave and there is no better in comparison to our stand that camera we use we have used in former times and also better than us and you develop and Amendment both on the AT and for that reason we have decided to work failed to follow the approaching pool camera systems with this new type of detector was 6 modified attempts 512 pixels so
here is shown in an hour prototype in lot of that in world to row process and a triple infrared system and we have linear positioning system which is 4 meters long here you see approximately over 1 meter and there certainly a movable Chuck which can be be moved up to to 25 centimeters in 2nd and on top of these chapters in this can be any organic and non-organic solar modules and from the talks we'll we'll looking with this new developed an infrared camera and we can make both here we can make optical excitation was at ladies and we also can make electrical excitation was the Walcott's source water sources not shown in this image here is a
comparison the equation electrical excitation an optical excitation both measurements only to have a measure of many times over for a little bit more the 1 2nd and both our dog was simple ever itching and was compensating the image mismatch would you can see it as those electrical excitation use conceived more details it worked better signal-to-noise ratio in comparison to the optical excitation but set Baker advantage of optical excitation is that you have not to make any electrical contacting and that is for an in-line applications much better and for that reason we at the moment we have tried to it further improve said image quality of food the look in both of them the infrared thermal graffiti images was optical excitation here in the next slide
isn't comparisons between simple averaging was electrical excitation and was looking cinematography graffiti also was electrical excitation boasts measurements are only 1 2nd and now the astonishing thing is that the image where simple I can ever itching Hassan better signal-to-noise ratio you can see more details ,comma in comparison to the look in several graffiti image and the let us the reason for that is that that the term this fall material has a wearing very low that he contacted the team and don't fall for that reason is definite come so much heat within this year for 1 2nd and on the top of the solar module on top of the foil and on the left side if you wanna make if you make averaging than you is you already can climb up a wall pitch tool was 3 seconds before you start the measurement was a camera and that is not possible at if you make real looking somewhat graffiti he really did you only can apply this voltage during the 1 2nd you would also make the image will not
coming to work how we make
the image processing set import which comes in our normal infrared cameras was 16 bit or asserted to bid the image processor that converts these images to 8 bit images and on this a bit images he did can detect large or Poland like defects and here in the end he characterizes the defects he makes some concessions positions the area and the integral and that the integral but as the most important well you because it's integral of this defect is approximately proportional to the how strong the fact that decreases of 4 sophomores cell efficiency here for
example is shown looking in and it would image prior to the repair 10 and you can see in the middle 1 really dominating short circuit and in the surrounding approximately 10 to 15 smaller electrical defects if you
let if you let run Europe ultimately automated
image processing you would get the the position in the area and the integration of the defects and now knowledge it was said decision together with this obligation was responsible for the repair only to try to repair 1 defect this dominating 1 was in the will which was shown the image before in the middle and here
knowledge is shown to look in some the amplitude image prior to and subsequent tours prepare what you can see is a little more of dominating electrical active defect on the left side is not you can't see anymore on the right side and also some of the other defects I been Ireland weaker than before and on the other side you can see a defects which appear after this repair attempt however overall as the quality of the of the solar and it is also of organic LED and indeed is much better subsequently told the repair OK a little
salt and want to tell you today thank you for your attention


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