Introduction to the Clean4Yield EU project

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Introduction to the Clean4Yield EU project
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Madsen, Morten V.

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Finger protocol Spare part
Ford Focus Ford Focus Bending (metalworking) Screen printing
Finger protocol Photographic processing Finger protocol Photographic processing Substrate (printing) Substrate (printing)
Vacuum pump Substrate (printing) Printing Glaze (painting technique) Printing Substrate (printing) Wallet Stream bed Vacuum pump Ship of the line Verkapseln Material Glass Rail transport operations Material Verkapseln
Typesetting Vacuum pump Ballpoint pen Food packaging Pen Substrate (printing) Towing Printing Multiple birth Printing Substrate (printing) Multiple birth Cartridge (firearms) Throttle Material Glass Water vapor
Coating Connecting rod Coating Rad (unit) Clothing sizes Substrate (printing) Printing Printing Substrate (printing) Fitted carpet
Sizing Wheelwright Coating Spare part Vacuum pump Clothing sizes Printing Substrate (printing)
Hot working Coating Machine Material Sheet metal
Typesetting Unterseeboot Coating Forging Machine Material Substrate (printing) Material Scrap Chemical substance Substrate (printing)
Sizing Spare part Coating Presspassung Clothing sizes Material Water vapor
Coating Wheelbarrow Coating Pen Water vapor Cylinder block Material Water vapor Substrate (printing) Casting defect
Coating Connecting rod Hot working Vacuum pump Coating Nondestructive testing Last Spare part Sedan (automobile) Caliber Single-cylinder engine Material Material Verkapseln Last
Finger protocol Typesetting Vacuum pump Photographic processing Photographic processing Glass Florett Substrate (printing) Aircraft carrier
Ford Focus Ford Transit Substrate (printing) Florett Substrate (printing) Aircraft carrier Finger protocol Roll forming Photographic processing Glass Book design Glass Pelzware Last
Fulling Directional control valve Volkswagen Santana Photographic processing Negation Material Ship of the line Kette <Zugmittel>
Tool Vacuum pump Machine Train Reel Substrate (printing) Printing Couch Substrate (printing) Sheet metal Silvering Roll forming Spare part Tool Glass
Finger protocol Vacuum pump Coating Presspassung Tool Ship of the line Glass Ship of the line Printing Substrate (printing)
Chemical substance Vacuum pump Narrow gauge railway Coating Electric locomotive Printing Chemical substance Substrate (printing) Photographic processing Piston ring Vacuum pump Ship of the line Movement (clockwork)
Laserschwei├čen Hot working Photographic processing Hot working Coating Food packaging Machine Molding (process) Substrate (printing) Florett Material Substrate (printing)
Finger protocol Polymerelektronik Outsourcing Tool Mechanical watch Hot working Finger protocol Photographic processing Ship of the line Ship of the line Vise Substrate (printing)
Chemical substance Polymerelektronik Coating Electric locomotive Chemical substance Substrate (printing)
the handle and my name is too young to party I'm working for the whole center which is a part of teen audience in mind will in the Netherlands I'm going to at 2 % you of all the European project Kingsley use which also works to words and naming high-yield wrote to all production of printed electron
but 1st a short introduction about center "quotation mark center is an independent research institute which has a reputed parents it was founded by I make their in Belgium Valentino and Netherlands and its operational since 2006 right now there are approximately 180 researchers working here from all were 28 nationalities will however be also involve researchers from the mother organizations and we also have industrial residents and academic residence the focus on relevant topics like electrical power and flexible electronics and also on lighting solar displays and health care out of their supported by by a strong ecosystem by all global industrial and academic partners and are embedded in the high-tech region in I'm they also funded by local and Dutch governments and at the bottom of the screen you see on the sum of our applications inflexible lighting flexible displays of OPV and also flexible electronics the Marisol
center located to the call center is situated high to campus which was initiated by to site is shared by around 135 companies and more intense thousand researchers the organizations share but let facilities and norms of Mormon 25 thousand square meters footprint all all
voting for yield but the title states already wanted this project is about try to enable high-yield with production of printed electronics for some
effects of the figures about the project the project is funded under the theme F P 7 and impede the 2011 under development of moms give detection and control techniques for larger substrate DEC project title contamination and defect controlled for increased yield for large-scale cultural production of opinion audit of whose consortium consists of 15 partners from the 7 countries and the total project cost is about 10 . 4 4 million euros funding by DEC of 7 . 0 6 million EUR whole center is to coordinator this project no
sure look on 1 example Pt currently if you buy in order to discredit the prices are still very high around 10 thousand EUR per square meter there made on rigid loss and and the use of operation technologies that you have a huge loss of materials during production a vacuum and that review processes are expensive and time-consuming and a lot of rare materials are used the future of wallets as we see
it as a bed of scrummager should cost less than 100 EUR onto substrates should be flexible and the production should utilize most of the material for the loss of material should be reduced to a low of below 5 per cent on the list should be be achieved by using .period printing processes using mainstream heroes and also using thin-film encapsulation if you look at
premium all the module efficiency is still not very impressive before around 2 per cent on the production scale armed currently for product pro ball PG paid 20 EUR under devices have rather short lifetime also the production yields are low on Monday the yield of packaging process by elimination still on the low end site however it for the future we want to achieve 10 per cent do efficiency on production scale be looking for less than 50 cents brought costs and we want to have to extend the lifetime of the loss of not more than 10 per cent over the shelves and always in accelerated test Of course we want to have a high-yield production will come back to this in a moment and we want to use iron barriers you want use .period printing methods we want to avoid using IT will and we want to produce hydrogen free but if we no
longer on what a printed on it or OPV looks like yeah deserve both devices used the same type of steps you have a substrate you have to put on a law barrier layer which protects the inner functional areas against oxygen and water so many half-year multiple devices later layers in a very simple case 3 will be enough but in a more advanced devices that can be 10 or more in each of these layers is between 10 and 14 under nominee just and then on top you need to have another protection later against water and oxygen and also for mechanical protection on that
actually process will while the answers of course money if you can do to production of these devices by wall-to-wall processing you can save a lot of production costs you can grow a process of high speeds over the high throughput you process and a large areas you can use printing and coating
technologies which already known from the graphical industry they can actually murdered hundreds meters of men in Berlin at the end of the very large substrates and of course a process is easier to scale than
a vacuum system on a flexible substrates have a lot of advantages as well there they said they're flexible you can do it in any size and shape they're not fragile you can have from transparent or part their light weight and their low cost compared to the last
now what does the courting process in a Perfect Murder look like but I don't just add your raw-materials than you do some quoting magic and in
the end you half perfect devices Hunter person you just coming out of your machine well unfortunately it's not that easy if you compare but she
she versus the world will process that she too she processing has advantages if you have any bearing a process something going wrong you just take the defective half products out and your work all year is not entirely the cumulative while processing the processing itself is very efficient however the overall he'll depends very much on the cumulative the yield of the process steps to be cost-efficient your all process he needs to be above 95 per cent and that means for each process step period needs to be above 99 per cent so you need to have a very good process control as an example
of the cost of ownership calculation done for OPT of course that the numbers might vary depending on the process and the design of the device and maturity use wherever usually the main course of world protests are the raw material fixed and machinery costs are ever minor compared to this and the only way you can save really on a production costs is to reduce to scrap costs as such all right Watford says needs to be bit of 95 to 98 per cent production you to really be cost-efficient net means a set every substance use it needs to be above 99 per cent for example if you have 10 process steps in each of these steps as 95 per cent viewed the overall production and will be only 59 per cent
there so what are the challenges of fraud through a production footprint is actually well 1st of all try to apply very thin layers in the nominee to scale quite large arrears substrates and 190 requirements for these layers are very stringent the existing courting technologies which have been developed for different applications in the past but are driven to the edge of the state of the art and even beyond the processes are less stable and of their prom complex additionally the latest a deficit of aerosol very sensitive they can easily be damaged by handling of the particles and in general any presence of particles of contamination according defects in Paris the functionality of the layers and therefore often resulting device on for high-yield production and sufficient device performance only a very limited amount of particles and affiliates can be accepted
so what typical product defects related to the year so any time you have a defective product it's among new product on each process steps can introduce defects and quite different effects at the same time as well for example product defects in the fall unfortunately can be reduced efficiency None uniformity of 2 devices which needs to secondary problems in order to get have Dhakal black spots Albright's also it has the run course and and OPV you can have a lot of factors In general the barrier can be compromised water leaks through which reduces the lifetime of the devices if you look at a
little bit closer to recording defects and contamination defects I have here an example of the world will cortical act on the left side and it's also quite a collection of things which can awry for example behalf of imaging 97 barring and streaks may indeed fitness of your active layers varies and therefore the brightness and color of the resulting device Mary's then behalf the dark spots where particle blocked the lights they have scratches then all materials is left very of create shortening device Oregon you Gregory has been light up with under general particles are a big problem in these kinds of devices depending on the size of the material properties the legibility of the particle and dislocation in the particles that they can have quite different effect on the device performance a little more
fuel of a few things of which can Of course that can go wrong caused by defects in contamination so if you have a particle in the barrier layer then the barrier will be compromised water and oxygen can leak through the barrier and it will affect your device on the long-term you will have an accelerated degradation of the device to half of the reduction of the active area requires material gets disabled by the incoming water and oxygen and you have a growing black spots and you ever decreasing efficiency if particles just laying on the barrier in will block light and again during the active area is reduced but in a way that you will see a black spots and competing you have an active area if you have articles indeed light-emitting later or India for directive later then again you will have increased leakage currents you can have excellent accelerated degradation if there was in on the throat you can have it again increase leakage current shorts degradation of the very long
conductive particles may still have an effect even so you might not have a short leakage current inquiries he still haven't inactive area which leads to reduced efficiency and 2 black spots but if you have a layer thickness variations which is also a common defect and coatings is new half again influence on leakage currents you will have increased degradation you have different colors of light and brightness and Dockery bright or dark areas and you will have a reduced efficiency so what is
needed to deal with these issues in Wroclaw process 1st of all you need quality control process monitoring you want to know if something goes wrong then what is going on and you cannot have an industrial process frivolity process control you also want to have an instant response to coding problems you don't want to put hundreds of meters before you notice something is wrong you won't have an instant response because you cannot take out simply do reject or here you have to keep processing because we have a role of hundreds of meters of film you can just take out 1 piece which didn't work the 2nd thing is you have to actively controlled part contamination are however 100 per cent contamination free environment and substrate does not exist not even in the best teams so but also you have to be aware of it's your income era materials like the is often producing a dirty environments and the start of the dirty product and you need to clean Of course prevention is always better than treating so you want to avoid contamination to 1st place and defects so you need to know how to keep things clean after cleaning and how to reduce or contamination during processing at all to handle sensitive of damaging them and as a last resort for small defects to increase you accountants also repair soaking
Armageddon slightly more realistic of fuel on what the actual coating process for all it might look like he will have several steps you start to fall productions and from there you go to the barrier film deposition on then you will have the deposition of all your functional layers starting electrode contacts organic layers and define trolls and the end the half hours in the deposition of you're probably sensitive cathode and your final encapsulation there
and all the steps you want it you need to know doing to a clean any to repair Our doing inspections there should I do it how should I do it who are sold that is what this project is about on a distraught the target of the process for mass production both for oracular non-American processes mainly focus on what role but also we're looking at you to she'd applications but the final processor speed forwarded OPV is expected to be about 30 meters a minute deflected over 1 meter on the 1st required total yield of 95 per cent and so what are the
objectives of the completed project but we want to develop and demonstrate not asking detection and inspection techniques we want to develop highly efficient cleaning techniques we want to develop repair technologies and the repression techniques for larger substrates and in this project before costs on high and moisture option barrier films on organic light-emitting diode running types and of course the goal is to increase yields and offered to improve the performance of world raw produce devices but and in general
generally believe that the technologies developed here also can be used for other printed-electronics productions for the process
of specs for this project we have decided to go to also still look Oakland on last citizens especially all still currently made she she processes using glass substrates then there will be a transition phase that it is expected that the 4th and last book processed In the end of course looking at the formal and wrote to a production In generally looking at the Brookings unwilling substrates with up to 10 2 minutes substrates speed which is currently L a speed used at many research facilities there looking for 30 cm substrate that yeah said 4 people in various forms the focus on particles and defects down 292 and
approaches to unite partners covering each segment of the company by the chain from basic materials and technology developments or would to find the induces so as is already we have acquired diverse consortium we are working on the processing equipment development and complement processing this the University of Denmark Chino with the 2 Technical University of Delft but also of real equality among the people antigen films and Phillips and there trying
to develop the equipment compliments for the prevention of retaining inspection repair we also look development of equipment for full lines and look at product manufacturing so we asked end-users would you think is needed to develop program before the process what do you think is needed to afford having a cost-efficient processing wanted the features of the deal ordered OPV you want to have Indiana but
if you have a look short of the state of the art currently it for inspection there costly high and tools for semiconductor and display industry however even so they're very fast and processing may still require start and stop of the substrate misses something
which is not possible to production once the machine is running it has to run and it cannot stop for inspecting layers also many of these inspection tools have been developed for inspection on silicon wafers and loss in the substrates are quite different to flexible fare but in general the quarter layer thickness measurement 100 years feasible and observatory already L doing it on May 4 Singhass however that precision times around so if you want to do a general rule process used a lot of time and some over a large area and you just achieve an average value Silver this is not suitable for Motorola for particles according defects on when blasting films this state of the art is at the moment around 10 micrometres are if you want to go 2 smaller particles Bergoust needed on for electrical defects the inspection is well known that 0 it offline however there is no in-line techniques for continues moving substrates and for flexible forms if you look at cleaning again a large therefore is not in the semiconductor display industry for Richard sheets substrates and this is something which cannot be done for Real to Reel Productions so if you look at different options for Road King then you have contact cleaning of flexible substrates the state of the art was Iran part of the ongoing micrometres can be removed techniques and not suitable for sensitive surfaces and also not for erection processes and then of course there's the non-contact training of flexible substrate and they often are limited to particles larger than 10 micrometres or you can use a metal cleaning facilities however these have very large footprints and also for the
prevention of the semiconductor industry is now to target however be this is a facilities use expensive large high and footprints which are not suitable for all to production I repair is simply non-existent on process level for the address applications now what we're
doing in this project we are addressing all these issues so 40 particle contamination according the facts but we have developed technologies to reduce see partisan range from 190 to 210 micrometres using bovines in cameras and Saskatchewan tree and you will also hear more bodies technologies in the Ivory of DC conference and we have all worked on measuring delay fitness variation and the real quoting defects most of the fair accuracy of 25 per cent of the total thickness but we do this by using lines can again and also using ultra-fast symmetry and we also look at the end actually measurement of 2 final device quality Inspection the using what internal graffiti and light beam induced during which also the fervor introduced during this conference and additionally it was necessary to develop reliable electrical contacting system for moving flexible substrate the
inspection of electrical contact electrical defects depends also on the quality of our and your electrical contacting the 40 cleaning
as a center of most of the layers on the range of 10 movement last averaging around 109 meters so that is also the particles we're looking into you're looking for contacting for local and full area by using a techie role as technology developed the technique and also have developments these techie role to make them back from confortable to allow cleaning offices inside a vacuum chamber of the nanny have developed where local cleaning the few to snow which allows it to address the random contamination it still might obscuring a process so she can detect it's yours to continued and the also I have heard on the content-free full array of entertaining using their cleaning technology In undersides of this we also looking at chemical contamination in doing the this by trading the substrates before local on-demand plus small using about printing technology on the
prevention is maybe the most important work package here because we also want to make sure the soul generic problems so far there was very little knowledge on what is really a problem an owner Donald P. B. What are the actual reasons for device performers loss is every particle problem on certain particles of problems which signs which material so we try to actually had a loss of device performance in yield Judy actual defense In the devices on the debt of certain 2nd important step is to start to have a perfect start with a good base substrate so we want to develop a generic intrinsic meaning damage for as a base of street already using protective films to afterward to protect your layers for the next step by that you can reduce the cleaning and you also can reduce the waste and of course we're looking into equipment designed to half intrinsic cleaning damage reprocessing and they're working procedures and set the standards set by the semiconductor industry however that is not applicable for cultural processing Our ever so you want to avoid contamination demarche by machine and handling to reduce cleaning to keeping things clean To not damage and to reduce waste and
finally the also looking at repairs if you have already high yields on you have only a passionate defected can increase the yield even more by repairing so for example if you have a poor barrier quality that leads to shortening of device lifetime if you can find the facts and the event and you can repair them you can prevent this degeneration of the device another thing we were looking at was to devise of defects in metal grids under finally made the most important and most valuable won the repair of the defects in the actual device and of course
that this far technologies are not meant to be just so some of our research In the last however we really want to integrate them in the industrial and so we have asked the end users for their device specs and drove suspects you look at the industrial standards what is common 1 whole him things are done and they also want to make sure that what the developers feasible so Our end-users providers feasibility feedback and of course the right not looking at 30 centimeters 10 meters a minute but actual before the goal is to go to more in 1 major methods and to go to heart higher processing speeds so we keep in mind that whatever we develop also should be able to keep up with developments as processing select all the concepts developed Arab skin and fails to do an actual mechanical integration Of the tools developed in a project in existing lines and processes in the consortium we also look at software integration software user interfaces the think about feedback systems so what if your camera system to detect and affect what do you do with this information on the look at concepts to combine detection of repair so to
sum it up who gave for you aiming to improve the yield for world production of other organic electronics by 1st of all prevention by understanding defects in Devizes hold of what are the sources related to equipment designed to favor procedures and to develop our very I would start with the perfect may substrate
now by cleaning by contact noncontact and chemical cleaning steps before decoding To reduce contamination which would be harmful to the body detection for both prospects of monitoring an active process control is looking at particles including defects layer thicknesses and electrical defects and looking at repair to boosting yields of production even fervor by repairing metal grates by repairing a moisture barrier and by repairing finished devices but in all this we do for too long processing of flexible substrates of up to 10 meters a minute match speed and 30 centimeters that and I
thank you for your attention and if you are interested in the project and need more information than visitors and www . king for years about you


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