Tuesday evening lecture with Andre Geim

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Tuesday evening lecture with Andre Geim
Graphene: magic of flat carbon
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Graphene physics explained by nobel laureate Andre Geim.
Keywords graphene physics
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and then I should like to invite Yonkers man to take the floor and introduced under guy thank you very much well it is of course a generator honor and a great pleasure to introduce on the guy I was asked to say a few words about them I don't think we need much introduction I mean somebody will Nobel-prize gets a seat printed out everywhere just to remind you he was born in at what time was the Soviet Union's stars and part of it near the crocuses from which he has his hobby of being a mountaineer this season is an indication in Moscow sees this provision gone market the old ones between you may remember the guns Moffett effect which sometimes famous then moved to the West later this post office in England boss Nottingham and in Copan after before he came as a collaborator off the mark too high to make that play in 90 at that time was 93 I think he had a but I remember when he came 1st visitors we had a committee and there needs to be chosen as you know and that is a person who likes to be rather provocative likes to have jokes which partially go on your expense but not in a way that makes you feel bad and so there was this this committee and there was some sort of we didn't know what to choose some people say Well this guy really Saatchi's we should take a minimum price and other people say Well maybe not the genius at all you just as is falling for these jobs and there is no content until all I was for the genius spots but for it to be sure I telephoned around 5 people very renowned in the field 3 voted for the genius and voted for a person who just shows often doesn't mean anything I'm happy that we choose the genius I think lives you sometimes you have to follow the idea that will give it a chance you may be wrong you may be right if you're right you got something and we got some so I'm very very pleased to ask you to please its to include a R hello everyone it's a great pleasure to be here and the during the last 15 minutes I feverishly saying What should I speak about so so I decided to change my election completely because it was probably after a couple of drinks you have they didn't actually I think we all switch to something else was good it's no longer magical the new this is a very but here it was so call UFO finds OK I'll I'll give you what I was speaking during the Nobel lecture it's probably better for before after dinner so so your Majesty's Your Excellency is only joking so but that's sort of during the last 3 months with terrible actually OK I wouldn't be here but critical as saying that so I don't recommend you Louis experience but OK it was really working on new breaking experience and so many things to do and some people don't know probably so few of you who has never woman global prices case they probably don't know that after December within 1 month you have to provide your election solemn words in writing it's like a PhD sees itself as your autobiography and some people people try to simplify them of the task and you look salutes mobile memoirs the news clearly sequel simplified of them you don't want to do the same so it's really busy and so the 1st spots if I remember this talk is about my Noble Prize lecture story behind them maybe it will be good for busy students are also opposed books presence there
Cowell developed the and so on my storylines starts with my PhD in 1987 and the only thing I like to mention about my peers today is that its title investigation of mechanism of transboundary workstation in metals by colic resonance must know that sounds exciting I have to tell you but it was as exciting as it sounds now so the about every cloud has so long as you can and so the message goes both ways Malta only for students but also for their supervisors after you got so I got my Ph.D. I salt water should I do holiday and that I wanted to do something new at at the same time possible we share taking into account facilities at that time was an oxymoron and so are still hard looking I decided to do have to study the system which is presented here which is a superconductor which projects and they become a genius magnetic fields on a small scale which was experimentally New ounce reasonably interested system I think that few people in this audience :colon banal know quite well this research it it was OK it was the best what you can you can you probably comes through with those facilities so the message probably some of you should take the way below the it's much more rewarding when you find any new experimental systems than when you're looking for new phenomenon in a well-known system because your genius ideas that would never to up pursue predict but when it's a new system of there is a guarantee that something new unexpected would turn that lets moving quicker further so I moved for West tells you all the media with 5 tables of the aging that's 1 of the major effect will I answered that Dr. job market in the West and the Act managed to find the the position of those who produce the message take away never give up and even at the age of 60 With your research last looking pointedly remarked that some people in the audience that had happened so the subject I studied during those years are summarized in those it was quick to live in fear of white linen different subjects that moving from place to place actually really helpful each time you move to another let you live subject usually 2 sometimes 3 so let's really broadens your horizons and very quickly 1 story I like to tell you was the 1 on the walls in Nottingham and it was my 1st visit to the best of the K 6 months for experimental is extremely short periods of completely unfeasible to start a new research directional studying new experimental system so and you can of course I have to do something which was already available was my costs at the department was essentially in a draw as well studied done and dusted system but what is as we sold youth experience getting something out of nothing more works for some people birds dropping for all the people is the golden markets essentially so yeah I look carefully at those devices and we managed within 6 months cake gets results enough for a couple of fees area of west of Seoul the experience I used to tease my current younger colleagues say 1 late can't start complaining then
OK well samples the North will become the etc. The project is that I philosophy philosophical remark mostly sludge that samples only polls books is the students dependent on the circumstances it doesn't work usually brought the case there work and I say that so after 4 years of postdoctoral researcher I and most tools my Megan as an associate professor we use in the group of young case on and the 1st scene walls finding research Nisha again possible but something different from other people on after poking and different research directions I start doing what is called mesoscopic superconductivity is was a really tough 1st 2 years and the young kids didn't make them easy for me and that yeah but eventually it worked out well and we stopped publishing papers and generating results and that it was it was so groups such as well there was a spare time to think about something else lists called sometimes Friday nite experiments people the coins at 1 of those experiments was done on Friday nite I don't remember last month I don't and they claim that I invented this list may I don't remember these ideas are frankly speaking about case alleges these legends so here how it comes came and people the young cares counts of those big magnets Asian magnets which was famous for the facts so that they not so produced not so I feel what's requires a loss of electricity and then we all sorts what to do with those of those magnets I was doing this superconductors mesoscopic superconductivity research which require really really tiny filled there yes and I felt guilty actually from not using those facilities or maybe just beyond has made me feel guilty I don't recall with a list of these but said as there will always thinking what to do with the those facilities and what is I usually put it a competitive edge although the facility is the only thing I found that those magnetic fields were in the room temperature wire so how to use the use of this room temperature environment so I came across with something which is called magnetic water I don't know whether you know this but if you say she Internet you can have a find a variety of small magnets which is claimed that if you put them on your portable water taps or on my on your yeah whatever near your cattle that there will be no Khalsa the nation and that anything like that it's really a case show consumes all the world billion-dollar site throats you need to repair those to you some evidence is very controversial I have nothing to add to this comes from overseas so far because I spend probably many months in different attempts to to look at this moment about but at the moment I have no idea about the case and whether it works or not at all OK so but idea was that asks this phenomenon allegedly works with small magnets why don't we use our asses Austin all of 20 tesla magnets and do something really strong with more water may be Khalsa nation would just disappear immediately some held for Dutch commonly would be would be out of those magnets so we so we have put forth a magnetic fields and another 1 Friday nights I did this very unscientific experiment site for water inside the magnets and I are really people recently started asking me Why did I do is I have no idea it's so and it's really so on scientific grounds so also you know when you do scientific experiments you need to put that in some nice so colossal ought to you Paul put a lot of census about around and see what happened is but that was just pouring water onto you expect the water would end up somewhere at the floor here but instead instead of water stacked inside the magnets and blamed for half an hour just in all parameters and so on will find we did find what doesn't play with did find out that's he it
should away there is a beautiful that's happened when unprepared talk so yeah water is a beautiful phenomenon I invite you to want to look at those images at Highfield magnets alleged sightings in Manchester it's really you watch you can watch it for Maine isn't our themselves it's various Europe Utica effect and how was I told the ball the influence of physics on medical sciences so this is really sort of a surety phenomenon if you angry look at the water around the house and so we would sit at the literature and found out that we were so the company 6 years later before because this has already been reported by French people who said that by means of a strong income a genius magnetic field they have succeeded in levitated at room temperature moment Natick materials it use it and it was not levitation it was actually 15 compensated gravity nothing was floating around us found out but what you find in this a letter to nations that in fact something missing here which any experimentalist can immediately say what is missing missing is any graft or any illustration there are no figures some syndrome that so I the outlets that's so let's face it using grants so weird I realize that we need some emphasis and the ways that wouldn't apply
we all also the United doesn't play again in year of shells all you waited so it's really although strawberries and tomatoes and whatever you can put inside all floats inside the magnitude stable levitated inside and so many of my colleagues young kiss on the lips of Australian jobless problem came with brilliant ideas will cells we should put inside of the nite so eventually we still argue whose idea was that so we pulled the frock inside it's actually a very tiny fraud and it was very difficult to put our without any
joke right I have to tell you that I have done many experiments in my life and this was 1 of the most difficult experiments have because businesses sell they should never ever be biologists we deal with that said balls and they do not stick to the fingers and they do importantly they do not share of it I the Rockies really you have to put it deep inside the maddening stunts at that precise position and it doesn't like to go there and so on if there are animal-rights activists let me assure you love
approximate wife that spare storage area that's that's for sure and it joins the it's a fellow fraud saying the medical department where their life the so I always so elects a lot of publicity using that Noble prices is a lot but actually the frog was even bigger 1 Everything went from Nice to completely ridiculous and yes it was fun and we enjoy this for some time but so there is a serious lying behind this is that the kind of this noise what happens after this frogs the perception of dire magnitude is it has changed completely it's no longer perceived as incredibly small phenomenon and that in many textbooks you will find this book I'm often matters conferences but people think tank I know you well I don't know anything about drafting but you'll through locked II I if you give lectures you know Co it's important people think I start my lectures was shown this frog and students immediately like to know what hell of frocks Come Fly so yes it's only after there was some educational outcomes not only from so hear the message to take to look after whatever facilities you have in your lap look what competitive edge will layoff or whether you come around a little bit sideways from where the mainstream uh research the Agrarians through and even nation facilities may offer some say something competitive and nice and the like experiences a is very important for me personally not taking myself too seriously after winning the ignoble prize as well I hope it will help me to survive the normal price too yeah I moved my ranch in mind Chester and there it's an interesting experience frankly speaking in the media may be formed other people can get some wells come over its owing to silence and 1 I was a proud the owner of the New Deal activated elapse start-up of 100 saddles and no central microphone abrogation experience and or what I could do I could apply for grants and grants at that time were and still are due north very competitive level in the UK something like a small version of European Research Council and yes I followed the same routine which Ireland team In my medium and establish yourself set up facilities was stopped using my prefabrication from Arusha and doing what we were doing announced important new was started generated results and the results broad grunts and grounds brought on another level of results on another level of results it's a channel reaction essentially so that by 2000 on-stream no 1 believes me that from us and we get a well-equipped lab essentially a new center weasel lists or if you would have needed at that time and the still it works fine it's not you know erasing costs to be proud of it said draft calls which works really really find and makes many many devices many people have racing horses and nice fabrication facilities about our work draft calls is really useful as a message to take away their probably especially for young researchers that I kept seeing this attitude many times they have brilliant ideas come to a new place well all right now I'll have a genius idea at all a right to grant will wait for was the time when the weather clears the student and polls local to come and that will start generated results don't do it's immediately grants better we apply always off to what's it's much much actually safer to apply for was already done so try so again with all facilities facilities in place and we and I believe it was also the lights on form program which is actually didn't care much about what you have written and they're the same system responsive mode the European of sorry in the circuits of this Council in the UK and they don't care about much what you write your peer referees they look primarily on your track rackets and that money is given to people who can delivered efficiently and who work cost without slicing through more important than a proposal which addresses some someone immediate
social needs and promises that we knows what what social needs so again we have some Friday nite experiments in Manchester started sinking what tell we in which direction to poke also lists research which was more and more sleep and I came across once was a paper explaining how these magnificent animal climbs walls
and yes I was amazed how simple the Macanese behind it
so essentially geckos are covered with tiny head you know atomic force microscope that it sticks to the surface many of you would know so each has sticks to an opposite surfaces with a mine you force but there are billions of those had someone they put together work together they create a formidable force in there new to the Rangers essentially enough to keep those geckos so on top of glass ceilings sums the count only clients Teflon I really so it's for me personally was important that it's some migrants slice of those in the statue was holding the geckos feeds on the list is exactly the arrange enables the wheezing mesoscopic physics why don't we try to mimic sounds the idea we we tried it and dates it's rather successfully in a sound that he did work some crowd the did work it stick to opposite surface with reasonable force and it's never worked as well as a real get because after few occasions and the material completely deteriorated after learning how to do it said a public stance I will sink into port 1 of the students outside a window where the piece of these jackets state but said it was a simple estimated show that's the the smallest student was to have so we limited ourselves to a demonstration with with a small toys it's still not a commercial product because it doesn't really work as well as as Jericho because the structure has to be hierarchical and it's too hot to do with and our facilities but people reported progress and it's a very important area rich use material but preparing my mobile lecture I actually compiled the list all the Friday nite failures those in mind again and those which shares were among Chester and only after combine compiling this list Leucadia let me give you an example there was a magnetic water several times again with your roommates and the 9 million was so let's oxygen would go through high temperature superconductors failure and that several of us OK but the list was only about 20 have also 20 there were around story which is you can say for all you can say jackets tape on granting were successful which gives you an unbelievable success rates of more than what 15 % in addition to the success there were near but I have close misses or near-misses and that for example of the view and 1 let people claim room-temperature superconductivity in and analog which
involves some iron and Austin and so I asked for those samples but from within by any sign of anything down to 1 calorie above them a a few years later came the snake type superconductivity out the cell was surprisingly close to lows sneaked died I still think that there might be some inclusions of superconducting material in that in that samples we were provided and so on so there were a a couple of near-misses sounds I still trying to mull all this experience why I don't think that my ideas were any brilliant there were pretty basic idea so I think it's tells us an important stories and when you try to poke in a new direction which is maybe with an extremely basic idea who and where you don't always know what to expect so that's chances of finding something new us North Aceh Little has generated perceives that's my only explanation so good luck to all of you trying and now I so now I come to aggression after will last and described how weird it is essentially which used story in itself so In brilliant ideas cheap they are essentially S. Coleman and dust realized ideas are really what we're looking for so I don't I didn't have any brilliant idea that time because any idea what's however however brilliant Council held from the previous knowledge and was many smart people around let chances of that it has been done by someone else so important to try to try was your form facilities may be many years after someone tried before and never looks through the literature looking through the literature is detrimental I know many PhD students who were so promising researchers said that so
brilliant ideas Sunday I have brilliant ideas I go too little to to the library to look at what has been done after few months of
surgeon in literature inevitably come to the same conclusion everything had been done before so they say Wow let's start nearly 4 surge and least molds continue the case so but I still try to realize that uh what's latter to these Grushina research what was background Tadeas 1 of those was metallic Telectronics essentially the story goes as back as 19 0 2 what people let me before story let me explain what people to trying here essentially you get 1 matzo and some other Mattel here that insulator and another muscle he and you try to change the number of electrons in of the Mattel about applied voltage and that was idea saying already more than a century Charles Morton who was a father of Nevill Mott who a normal prices 2 years ago was given that appears the project by J. J. Thompson who was and Noble Prize winner and the discoverer of reluctance to look for ways to Norman 102 years before they looked on they did find because very simple estimates tell you of the maximum concentration of electrons you can put this down to the 14 it's only candidature managed to put 10 times more electrons there to see what sort of phenomenon that could arise from from that so if you compare this with the single atomic Alaska offered embattled it's stands to the 15 but it's really hard to make a single atomic usually it's 100 thousand some so phenomenon negligible and Stephen people try usually metals but the changes although although 1 % so it was an area going for 100 years but without much success of course at that time in during 90's I was in the Netherlands sounds like good couple of talks in Felt Forum by case Decker also many papers from other people and carbon nanotubes were very exciting news story and I was constantly singular can like sort of do something as beautiful as this as this but with a little bit different perspective or otherwise of the words the white due to be in the big Brother the finite story is that I came in with a cross with a review from Drexel houses from which I have found that will that it's really very little known with a bald graphite and must known about sin film of graphite a recent literature search at that time found few papers which political aimed metal insulator authorization Farah magnitudes superconductivity all the same time and that room temperature so let's completely persuaded me that material is worth studying so I gave to a cagey student projects he was my 1st speech to Sudirman Manchester to make grass field of graphite as soon as possible and then I promised him that we might study something interest in this matter so I gave a big tablets of a purely to graphite looks like a place few millimeters sake a few months later by .period comes to me and say I haven't done a great success I to this little flight and actually is the funniest thing that's key here really did start from these tablets and that's falling all the way through of course he didn't toward my sarcastic remarks that you don't need to start from a mountain together tiny speck of sand but Fulham which various didn't work well at that time OK so I look in the microscope of they this back and found that 10 migrants 10 migrants is too sick or to cold for anything and that In addition there can make a mistake gave him a wrong sort of graphite sir we cheer which Polish not let easily so that the II admits it was a it was entirely my fault he was a fresh snow Mojo sky with a nice fresh students OK with the with English difficulties and so that was what was the problem of case over here comes the call scorched state came around so it came as senior Paul's block was working on another project which was actually another complete failure failed idea of mine at that time was around themselves of yours New York Mets to-do list was raised by politicians as I suggested OK he once around allegedly from today and he brought a piece of scorched day with like somebody's which were all always much similarly 1 which is in the Patriots used those looks igniting a microscope actually won the you know yeah I declared polishing is that leaf scorch stayed because 1 you look so rules all optical microscope it's amazingly you don't need any facilities that's all you can do it that in your kitchen with a magnifying glass you look through those flakes here around those black sports and find out in the microscope but some pieces of graphite are transparent as we know it now transparency means that it's about 10 Wetzel my view that very same signal that you can make for any
other field so we pushed it further fairly took a few months quite a few months to 2 down with single letter which is really graph these and was benefit of hindsight it looks completely ridiculous how hard it was initially to get even small things pieces now we can get something like that which is which is they you see an optical media image on on oxidized silicon wafer there is a single crystal of carbon which is 1 millimeter lodge so you can see by it by naked tied more crystal and shows beautiful properties something it's all the same essentially the same scorched technique a little bit and tuned up to produce those of those those sizes and there yet from 1 and from there on we will 1 further so I like to make a note that's OK sometimes people say all they isolated as they discovered graphing and so on I actually yes we we did manage to introduce this simple technique we did manage to to make a reasonably large crystals Salford grafting enough to brutes bodies but if it will be just say sorry crap on the surface it won't inspire any further work it will go to oblivion OK so you see a small films of some sitting on the surface salt so what to do about ways of importance saying that we pushed March further which picked up by
tweezers picked up costed the that actually in this case picked up by tweezers care small piece always same
flights for them on books about silicon wafer which which was a very good idea find them fueled the facts make field-effect transistor and ways to speak uh make concepts to respond with a diameter of the sample here it is a cross section of a human hair and I challenged every 1 of you to go to the lab make seige sample was a with silver paint and we have reason to whether you can do it last actually very coy experimental skill was still treasure in some parts of physics research so Have we started it's still looking for all the properties of all those flights this was gratified moderately that's all it was gratified probably Kondracke class maybe city where a dozen matter surprisingly those devices lease looking devices not scientific at all they look pretty goods conductive despite sameness of all contacts working and we applied gate folded voltage to the substrate and did show already Super Sounds field affects more than I knew at that time anyone did before so that was sort of my eureka moment I saw what I is such an ugly looking device made from such it's a graphite already shows signs and what would we do you weary eliminate saying flakes and use our lists refute facilities so the arrest was a lot of hard work several months but actually it was so hard that it's usually work would do for many years but said we went down to a single letters and make nice devices and published in the 1st paper and interesting part of the story that the paper was rejected twice
by nature I felt that it's still nice resolve but it has to be published in the high-profile John Olerud said it was a mistake the result was so nice that it didn't require actually a publication in the high-profile job that still before leaving this transparency or let me finish of this nature storeroom of positive Mills is somewhat too and
nature of Science
paper rejected don't give up its can still mobile prize-winning will pay but so why this paper turned out importance to the case yes SIC observational the normalized graphene which is incredibly I probably have transparencies why is it is strange and simple about what we have shown in this paper let you can control properties of the material just union are not off your poll data by applying positive voltage to the substrate we can make it nearly a matter by with a lot of electrons by applying negative gate voltage we contaminants into again and normal Mattel was a lot of calls all the way through semiconducting state where there are very few electrons around so for example takes a piece of gold whatever you do with gold seen film of gold by physics means physical means it will be still gold you don't change it from 1 material to another here just buy it you know not least some beep always electric field that allows use magic what is more astonishing it's the quality which observed that can't be predicted the woman with the strongest benefit of hindsight our single last word on or off substrate with all sorts of other debates and so on and still electron should through graphene-sheets without noticing all do around and list was incredible especially if you knows of the singer films you made the was are essentially we did have surface science but without any alt-rock height took that not 1 surface but to services and it was at ambient conditions not in ultrahigh vacuum and the yeah room temperature and so on and so on yes if you wish a K and drafting was found in a completely new incarnation of that time rather than at pieces of dirt on the surface it found itself as a brilliant nice nice
system was a lot of promise a few more transparency so I have to show be providing looks for this presentation I hope you more than so that 1 can sink OK single nice but the structures so simple so what can be so special above above gruffly graphene well I put a list of superlatives locates a little bit of sales pitch but behind the sales pitch you see that it's rather extraordinary material as well of course is the same as you can imagine I uh due to the city has a very large surface area of 300 square meters per gram and all if you translate in football pitches it can cover several football pitches in Manchester will always measure of surface area football pitches and people usually say that its strongest ever material ever mentioned it's in the 2 cases of similar to carbon nanotubes it's equally strong but could structures nicer so it's always shows that it's very strong its stiffest material with and diamond at the same time you're really surprised to see how stretchable and pliable crystal ways you can elastically tried to do this with diamonds stretch it a little bit you won't be any real and this is pliable and stretch it's incredibly doesn't crack March it shows record similar conductivity it but it's a lot of current density solvent times more than in copper at room temperature also nanotubes are another example because they're just roll of graphic it's completely impermissible in future income squeeze through Sabinal lattice it's not enough energy for helium atoms it shows ballistic transport a hundred times larger distances actually more than in silicon intrinsic mobility it conducts electricity there a big surprise and the limits of very few relaxed around state has lightest charge carrier areas along this mean for past and so on are case so I don't think that's a lot through on its loan or any material even where you can make the the same sales speech about about about how good material it
it's that most until the moment of and don't know how many transparency so have brought let me have a look and see you because well of him Seiko Co I have it's the it's all right
sokaiya so no 1 of those OK unique properties is the it's Telectronics structure it's really beautiful material two-dimensional system to start the case not not much time to to go into details slightly you give you adjust off idea so materials science usually deals with Izabel itself showed in the equation on the interaction was the crystal lattice in all materials if its periodic just described by this star here which is that which is a renormalization of electron mask to take into account the interaction was a crystal lattice there's been it's usually a separate degree of freedom and is perceptively as little as we need to know to describe most of the properties of material when we are still condensed matter physics is we're still not much worse than particle physicist because they pathetically earlier also use only very simple equation which is the limit when you can neglect set alternatives to the speeds when you can hear and neglect the Mosul fuel particles something in this case is the Durocher equations and described for described by that formula is there is spleens peonies 100 % coupled with your orbital motion lets blue world of physics don't tell this to science ministers here so where where where directly elects what was the idea I'm afraid so plus some interactions on top of us where drafting comes into place the character of the structure of graphene is asked to you past simple lets you can let electron waves completely Moulin Mosul's listed here goes to 0 soles equation becomes me making the Durocher question answered yes and what you have a piece of material when you can address some phenomena of quantum electrodynamics which which which sometimes called to agree to address different manner and there is material by led wrecking where you get to yet another equation equation where where it's sort of a mixture of those 2 lists 1 and this 1 it's massive but it's all diagonal question so the message to take away let's sense to graphene said radical physicists now have twice more questions to do with and they usually happy with this with this .period so let me give you an example of what comes comes through
this 1 1 0 for example is a phenomenon of clients tunneling so you know that you can't walk through the wall you know that if the potential well is narrow all yellows on electrons can tunnel but imagine a very large barrier and for normal electrons particle doesn't go through for the case of ultra-relativistic particles what ways with the street close to the speed of light they just freely go through the barrier without Maltese this barrier for writing students said it was known in the early days of relativistic quantum mechanics 1 Kaline use the Dirac equation to address those problems it was known as client paradox weary rearranged Lisa phenomenal photographing way become trivial and simplistic phenomenon and there were several groups tested and is that it's important to explain lists unique electronica quality of graphene because electrons Small Solar through any barrier they find there without much scattering and
scattering another example probably my last example the also gives the next 1 is very simple experiment it's so simple that you can do it at home to take care of that was you years ago 1 of the pieces of graphene was really small which you cannot picture here and close this call call here was a piece of rock so list how it looks like in microscope you see here light comes from behind a screen and let's 100 % transparency and even a single layer fattens actually give some opacity which you can just see by type and by a large increase physics is
groups that you can do something was analyzed in your results and we looked at the Spectrum and spectrum was flat essentially drafting has great power it's absorbs invisible frequencies nearly the same 2 per cent 2 . 3 per cent of flight and 2 . 3 % doesn't look a lot but when you compare this with Syria and translating jewel losses you find out that conductivity at high frequencies of graphene is universal in terms of the square where age which tells you that the best use the material is just given by the fine structure constant multiplied by 5 that's the real 1st to find structure consuls so what do we do in this experiment by
this looking through graphene would
probe copying of flight was relativistic like charges said and coupling should be described by coupling constant which is also known as the fine structure constant as simple as that and so I think OK said the 2 example is OK I don't know how many examples of applications I have on my computer but if I will be speaking above above-listed a 3 4 years ago I would certainly sky blue spots and as my excuse when someone from a former like agency counsel and asked What is this is a good example for I usually tell them aerial story what we was once week once with me I was and I want to tell you it now I once was left on the boat strategic plans that we were watching dolphins off of that time Dolphins I don't know have never seen before or after they were begging for human touch not for fooled not for flag just coming close to the bottom asking for 2 tabs on and they like that tons of course everyone on board loved it enormously everyone was well sort of all was aboard with emotions and there it was you can imagine romantic moment land a little boy and become shouts man can we in that it so till 3
years ago grafting wars like those dolphins we enjoyed the semantic no 1 and found them agencies and ministries asking us can we left so till 3 years later I can really case saying yes we can have a I actually tried once these joke in Japan and around so use although superlatives sounds of course you can sink without the use of the property and we can offer something you knew and competitive with all the materials so as 1 example which actually is very old example where came from the 1st papal passed the 1 we measured the ballistic transport high-velocity various seen Rafer scale synonymy the slices with salt about ballistic transistors very free very erratic transistors it doesn't matter that resistance doesn't change much only by a factor of 30 or 100 but import of the frequencies important and which speculated about a case yet individual transistors which would be very quick and maybe it can be used in your satellite receivers and so on communication style trends and it was very dormant area and silicate years ago the U.S. military decided that it's a good idea and puts a lot of money in the single-minded program to demonstrate the half Tariq transistors on sale in within 5 years I saw that was completely unrealistic but within a couple of years it's turned out that people managed to show 100 and now the rock 3 countries give credit sent it's already a wafer scale very easily with scalable and so it seems to be possible to do mass-production and frequency promises to go well beyond the original role all the U.S. military's young so we'll see it's not 100 per cent certain that it will go to the Tools sale but it looks pretty promising at the moment of That's so young you know and physicist and all the physicists around can tell you that chemistry is not our favorite subjects and that there about a year after seems to be too simple so what can in addition there so so slow so they couldn't do anything with grafting for so many years so we were forced to do some chemistry so you're not and so you can consider drafting some material but you can also consider it as a huge molecule on the SAT molecule you can imagine that the stakes in plotting chemical reaction but not less that parent was different sort of molecules on top like a material in surface chemistry but revealed reaction which means .period kinematics reaction so like the did described by this formula probably the most complex formula in chemistry I have ever read so we expose itself to hydrogen and make material which is called graft thing not very good 1 but let me give you an example of how easy it can work this is not a single a graphic but the collection of graphene flakes and all we did with our facilities is just expose it to atomic bite yeah the composure of this casino on by flew right and after few hours the composure you get completely different material it becomes transparent it becomes quite gaps semiconductor and the yeah it's used the chemical reaction completely different what is very interesting that it turned out to be chemically similar to a stable similar to Teflon and at the same time it's still not like Teflon it's as strong as graphene so called sometimes it's two-dimensional Teflon so currently the idea which actually has a Ruiz couple of companies who are doing Teflon cookware Istook I I don't know how to do it but as they want to put this material is a wheezing Teflon sometimes very excited if housewives would get the school can wear which no longer stretchable as it is now than rationing would really really more and more important than do Rockford reruns on the homeless all that stuff that I skied this while and my final example as a shown here is something which seems to be a really
come forward Raheen as that big applications so essentially its 2 . 0 . 3 per cent of life it's really a reasonably conducted and in addition it's flexible pliable and so on we get many many gadgets TVs computers which use a material called indium tin oxide which he's the brittle material becomes increasingly expensive it's still everywhere its function is to propose conductor electricity and laptop light through the screen and through your mobile phone sounds it's brutal flats the biggest problem solver idea was to use graphene instead of that and we just spoke fondly as we say demonstrated
1st liquid-crystal display pixel where in just the very passive role of conducting transparent material
and in as your watch transparency changes and so on we solved it
will be of no use but a couple of years later uh people scaled up production of graphene these days graphing can be like that easily scare away with even further with reasonable transparency and will then see and what is important it's becomes reasonably cheap 500 dollars per square meter becomes competitive with IT all 4 computer screens and so on so that might have been shown some songs graphene roadmap this is laying the imaginary scene how the scenes can develop ways grafting lakes back to 1st commercial applications in touch screens was in a couple of years it's not a done deal but silicate led very excited about but we'll see what comes out but also with those few examples I probably have sent you a message but I don't know any other material within 5 years went from an academic collapsed to an industrial and it's really amazing not only in terms of simple but beautiful physics it's delivers but also in terms what it can possibly deliver it in terms of application extensive it would contradict future I usually say can accurately predict only in the past and with this message let me acknowledge all collaborators work and especially on this occasion shipwrecks also in my other talk she was in the 1st place but I I had no chance to to change to change it and now will either young kiss my my my collaborators in and sent you very much for your pension rights including from out of my time thank you Bloomberg and and and so is that
lots settles very enjoyable entertaining there were a lot of lessons and was as 1 of thank you very much you and you and you and know you to don't need In this very little to add after this the bar is open the disco starts and those who needs little coins to be used in 1 of those events can get them in the lawyer I think I wish you a very enjoyable evening thank you for being here and we'll see you again 1 you


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