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Tuesday Evening lecture with Leo Kouwenhoven

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I so those were the prizes so thank you very much Mister Decker that was a big moment in this evening them you know how it continues to new particles they will be shown to you tonight held in front of you long predicted last year discovered L B 2 presentations Mumbai they'll :colon Mister Meijer really does need an introduction and the 2nd by storm Bean fell but we had to work convinced to come here because he gets so many invitations but he was willing to do that to so that 2 representatives of 2 communities but presented 2 new particles to tonight and we start was Leo the I invite you to come forth few yes my around and To name 2 physicists at the bottom ironic in that period the 2 names for 2 particles my around 4 million and this exposed and both these 2 particles were predicted for decades ago at the heart of in the 60's and the my arrival already in the 3rd the the 3rd decade all searches both particles were discovered In the same year 2004 the year particle physics friends we couldn't physicist not get to discover a particle very often but it did you really have to claim Hicks in the same year as admirer please I'm here at the battle right my around battle so this is I hope this is the right thing to so the powers of search for a bit my round was right away sponsored from the beginning by phone and like to actually acknowledged full for their support over the years and all still have something in your life and they form Alexia who is from before was actually everybody here we all together form form so I like to thank all of you and actually bring out a toast the also that I hope also 2013 would be a great year for physics cheers Maloney set itself a little better because and we all know sorry yeah yeah yeah so we all know that the vehicular discovered in this the area and is locked LAC accelerated the radius of galaxies about 10 kilometers and if they had to do something in order to reach very high and it is necessary to properly the energy skillfully collisions is of order falls no for this signatures to measure the life around affirmative signatures we actually have a different set of we were using a small amount of steel device with a radius of about 10 To compared to the earlier the better 12 schools is meant to slaughter the but even more important for more relevant answers the energy security were probing for them ironic was very small so we actually have to pull down the center to very low temperatures and probably at micro collectibles so this that is taking orders of magnitude different from the Hicks case so as the next set went up to the highest energies for the mile runners we have to cool down the system probably at the very low 2 pro-peace to make heightens for the Hicks that there was a large international collaboration is I believe thousands of contributing scientists the design reality constructed reality also used 42 positioned thousands a large numbers city more than we have here today Our team for them Ramos is actually quite a bit smaller as a CSC all 6 authors on our started with 2 legislators who enjoy official knowledge also said his in our collaborators from 8 overs lost are and park but is actually an advantage of having such a small team because I could take the entire Out of the beers at a cafe in downtown and on this day Nueces celebrating who haven't been made this year but came economy to try to make a slight changes yeah so this is not a nice celebration what are we going certain that we actually did detect you know the right particles were Hicks people actually have some recent while the hits experiment claims 5 Sigma accuracy but they have article In terms of percentages it's 5 or 6 nights so they're very Shh activity also gives you a number From ironically text in a similar number hopefully all the known as Axelsson with absolute certainty that's the
accuracy to which we can claim that we have detected my around for a meal is pretty U.S. you see maybe it's in my run I have 2 entirely different experiments at the Hicks broke the fundamental particles in our universe and the Our motivation for them I run for a is actually computer it's our wish to make it ,comma computers and my analysis of the plane's controlled but it's funny writer that of particles could have some significance for computers sapping their wallets defining what is in my run firm assessing not so difficult my around for a is affirming that is equal to its own and In terms of operators what you see is what you say is that the operator to create a particle is the same as the annihilation of borrowers you can say that to create a particle it's the same operations as to create the empty pot the same but to explain analysis or to explain its symmetry I should say I the best announced that I had sexy half-filled glass because we know the health till last possession saying as a half-empty glass and I can actually associate the particle with the field part of the blast and yet the article in the Hamptons In his analysis and you may forget silly actually works for you this analysis thinking this analogy in mind you can carry on article is is suppose I would lose you you can always fall back on this powerful class and follow up on the story so please don't drink a glass completely empty but you could at least have failed so we had definition this definition immediately applies 3 things this is a situation of particle cannot that energy cannot have charts and cannot speak as if it would have charged the antibiotic would have the opposite spins and also for the energy and and and state seoul these properties as he's been in charge should be equal to 0 the next thing you know a lot of nothing before an important particles In fact I would say that it's the tunics the 3 thousand nothing and just for the sake of tonight's event and a comparison with the Higgs particle elected Renamo particle just for tonight just forget about it later on but just for tonight I would call it the next the next and the next but have extensive 71 the advocate for us but it does pose a problem how do you actually measured mix what kind of detector to use you know that actually find them ironic if you take when it finds admirer of interaction and it happens that is a very good question actually there is also the reason why the Meyer a formula was so far not detect it's so I was actually To said the similarities between the particle and demanded a total lie about at line around the predicted his particle in 1937 was a big success he immediately got a professor dropped in Naples but some modest success and everything the bodies maybe for psychological reasons or maybe he didn't want to live in those years right before the 2nd World War In Italy and was fastest Italy and Sunday succeed in March 1938 he was done and everything and everybody and what he did was he took a boat from Naples to Poland people saw him buying a ticket and he went on to the boat but I was the last thing they should people solving since then marched to 38 also demanded that Maradona has never been detected anymore researchers have been going on for both the man and the particle and this is a search for the man she loved the so that you see him asking Did you know we're still looking for him but we have signatures on the show some signatures of the particle the Myron affirming and at the end of this presentation I also want to show you a glimpse of man at 1 of my we'll service signature of OK so mild-mannered predicted his particle and he was thinking about particles that now live freely in babies bottles like and since then have been searches for the Myra Oliver In large scale in Texas facilities and this is a picture of a underground a lack South Dakota and United States and is reading this year exceeding the tunnel you see a train coming in for that sets the skill of the latitude on because of this whole thing here and that even at this is handful of locations worldwide so far there has been no positive signals of a my around for a new course my around 4 nothing latest results are 2 0 such it's a difficult to find no ironic in the possible at some point after all these decades it becomes worth thought while too many consider an alternative approach so instead of looking for free and my around us maybe make for constructive a mile from you what by adding things together make a particle that has all the properties said satisfying my around equation Miss Augusta I think you can call it minor so what can we do
it that with that idea and we can reconstruct and my run child at work well that isn't very simple suppose would like to construct a particle called the trade and what you do is you take elementary particles wagons you connect them together he put a monorail in very heavy trade what is important to realize about Jay-Z's the wagons are not completely frozen the internal degrees of freedom of the train is 0 the latest in a long move it only to trains that can move as a whole and for simplicity we can just forget about all these many wagons we just talk about the train because that's the only thing that moves so there we take this concept and make the online run from in a similar way but the product about for retirement yes we can so what they do again we take a role in this in this case the role of electrons we put them in a very stable one-dimensional life orange circles are electrons they feel the wire completely except for the left for the seat on the very last for the particles antiparticles repair my circles in this case are electrons in the empty circle is a whole the absence of not oppose it wrong with the absence of electoral that's called a hole the comments metaphysics we can move all these electrons fear please move over by 1 seat it's a small change for each electoral body doesn't it fills up seat on the land but simultaneously it opens up a seat on the right so small step for each electron just 1 seat more Wannstedt over is actually a big jump for the whole it all the jumps completely over to the other side but you go ask again and again Henderson as you see the whole is jumping back and forth the let's begin sales at the wagons and train was also here forget about all these electrons just focus on what jumping Hall and jumping whole it's about jumping back and forth between all from what we can do something to be at 2 locations at the same time it can be in the superposition has also a case of the hole is actually on the left side and the right side simultaneously it's suspicious composition of the whole being left and right so on economic transformation might change of focus and all of us think about the jumping Hall back just wanna now focus on 1 of these ends state the last on all the right In the end it is also against and also superposition but spacious EU position in this case supervision of 2 particles it's position of electron and the whole so we've made a transformation of a jumping ball back and forth to assume position of 2 particles is an article which is assumed positions of the whole and the electric and similar on the right side so here we are back the lower house of plants but so to its unions helpful have entered and then this is we know the health of less is the same as the half-empty glass also my house filled circles there must be my that's the proof Hey if you want to make more accurate then that's a definition that them ironic indeed was so position of an electron and all that has to be in order to be a mile around the city and exact people also positions so that sets the factory one-half in front of it has to be this now in order to get this factor would have been frowned give connect otherwise the superconductor that provides that imposes actually affect will have and he has applied magnetic steel the superconductor in the presence of a magnetic field and magnetic fields breaks time reversal symmetry and that together then you can show it means to and states in the correspond to the around liquidation of particles and this is our construction I think it's a brilliant construction but how to create how to construct Ireland from before the only submit that I think of this construction at 1st it's actually work that has developed over the past decade starting with theoretical concepts from Alexi the tiniest in 2001 there was a very important improvement by John King John game was Spanish-speaking here last year I hope you remember John translation from these theories to proposed revised index tests his views were made by our own Parliament and his group light so including ultimately of which is that the spice but that work latitude to specific recipes in 2010 the 2 papers from which is side but also from Florida falafel opened that translated the debated concept in very specific recipes for how to make how to construct and my 4 and the pictures that shown here is just a cartoon translation of the Hambletonian so that you can find in these 2 so rosy as other recipes it takes another wires actually were already working in 2010 for some years on semiconductor otherwise so we were ready to enter the field so we put talk to our collaborators in I tell them this about simply sounding rockets and decided to roll inherent in the 9th semiconductor non-aligned facing 109 immediately amateur and length of a few might what we do to make it is wise and dealt with we take life just read 1 by 1 to break it off and breaks off at the stand at the bottom where it is been we take it and put it gently on substance
and the wider to see here is colorized greens it is substance and his blue substrate is actually a dielectric insulated only underneath the insulated hope you can still see it you see some metallic strips already buried inside a sample inside such and these are our Kate from reapply voltages to the gates we can this said electrostatic potential landscape in this region of the National life so we have not to change or to make it to break my today the wire on top the maker of electrical called back up here that's gold it's a normal metal an electrical bolted down here in red that's a superconductor and this superconductor is made of niobium titanium nitrite as a superconductor developed in a group of 10 parts like mail a very good because it it's very strong superconductor and even persists in the Heineken if you and that's exactly what we need as a we have our systems and under the right circumstances by playing and feel we hope that at these 2 locations we will find our my at the end points where superconductor overlaps with the Non-Aligned the Internet we have normal elections normal circle and superconductor we know that collective actually Paris In Paris that we know as Cooper pairs so how is the center of humor but that was the answer so how the hell here we send directors electron note toward some ironic in such a way that by interacting with the another victim ironic it converts into a pair of comparisons of and we have a full circle and we have a house filled glass so how can that need to fuel 2 2 full blast at this point you have to realize that the powerful blast is actually a superposition of a full glass and an empty glass shown there as soon as the saying it takes a full part of my promise to the position then it can bear up under cover and interdisciplinary and in that case we can detect little current from sending in electron it takes a full glass from ironic bears of as a bear and continues the issue of a signal India an electrical signal you mentioned so we try to it's also showing a little animation what we've done here is 1st show you what you should expect a 0 magnetic field went on my there's nothing there is a lack of coming in from the goal it shoots at the superconductors but there's nobody to and this is about so
leads to electrical measurements and what you see in this draft is the horizontal axis of the fault that when the voltage equals 0 give energy equals 0 so this is 0 energy then measured the conductance is a derivative of the current to the voltage please see that this is combatants near as small entities 0 energy is strongly suppressed show that the lectern indeed did not enter the superconductor it's reflected the next thing is to apply magnetic fields in such a way that actually introduce my around these 2 endpoints 1 of at the at the beginning also the In this case refers to withstand the electrons at fine energy To the wrong energy it cannot interact my run was my rounds at 0 energy and it has to go back if you
just now that the the energy so now we have 0 energy the incoming lectern can interact with the mile-an-hour take full blast of the around pair up and the consequent bearing superconductor that contributes a little bit to so that's the proposed mission by interacting normally I consider my run and we can Texas clearly are again the
same person at 0 magnetic field where you see a suppression Of the conductance near Small Entities near-zero energy have no current flowing right here it was expect that if you apply magnetic field introduced the that near-zero energy should actually be an enhancement Of the curtains then you can go in and lead to lose access so we take these curves as you see here but now start to increase the magnetic field we get a sequence of traces that some .period we find them near-zero energy indeed the peak starts to appear and if you're trying to blast completely I'm actually help you guide eyes these are the pigs what it's all about so I think this circle of peaks that you see near-zero energy these objects of the world are energy but maybe even more important is that if we change magnetic fields here for about 100 militants of the really tests on the big stage at 0 magnetic the I guess you all know have a little magnets and if you bring another matter close to this magnet is smaller than that lectured get some fine of energy difficult to find it somewhere 5 so just observation that our peak at 0 zero-energy stays at 0 energy although achievement and feud over a large range immunity applies that underlying particle it's not like that it doesn't change it's not magnetic it doesn't change the present magnetic field next is to take 1 of these cursory have peak is at 0 bias and measure the elected field so we change the electric field will that moved in them to depict the final To see similar graph here animals have died here I Nunavut 0 bytes he these chases and not taken different electric fields and the people stays stock complexities at 0 energy it doesn't move so is measurement immediately adviser the underlying particle is also not electrically charged to change electric fields and if it's electrically charged it would move to find anything that doesn't do it so it's not like charge so there indeed we have demonstrated that they can it because nothing had no energy it's said 0 no magnetic moment and no electrical charge and the 3 candidates optimistic forgot a lot more measurements
also some very detailed changing angles and know whatever you think you could possibly pass on his mind on the firm we tested and elder tests where the pointing and my so that may indeed detected a firm as the big question what I can say that many 6 3 but the data reproduced we've at least 10 devices and handled in a 0 by speak that they all work in the same way and also the date the reproduced by other groups articles have made similar devices in this city the same ticket 0 behind so they produce no if it's not 1 experiment mixes conclude that we have a mind on a further Israeli this whole set this combined said of checking magnetic properties properties also angles etc. etc. This is combined said that makes us to conclude that it's a minor or at least so far as inconsistent with anything else that people of so it is something that looks a lot like a minor and I would say it walks and talks and looks like for this not enough to the final conclusion or you could ask the West could you do more or we could check its DNA and the DNA Of is my around for Alexi very special the DNA which show you're not abelian statistics so as not to be incentives we all know about statistics so we have we think about
our all the particles benefiting 2 identical particles and we exchange them than in the cases to particles offer meals you get a minus sign for a combined you do the same thing but now proposals changed and you get a plus and so far all particles that we have in states in here known among the other box Jeter its proposal but Our my runners are actually not a treaty machine in the majors confined in a smaller dimensions 102 d and wanted to be you actually had a lot of options to also have other types of statistics In this case if we want to be able to exchange to my runners around each other we would not just get a simple Minds of "quotation mark would get a different kind of face sector that is it even matters whether we go clockwise or To some brilliant people I thought about it and that there a despite thinking about it and in the context of information processing so if you put a whole row of my around us next to each other the start exchanging in the role different particles the that what you effectively do this year adding no complex space sectors to your system and if you do it right you can actually to no simple a string of beads into something that is more complex you can process information the fact that you did is processing the information in this client away of using specifically do not believe that solely have to do is write your algorithms in this exchange gage what it called grading gate you you have what's called a topological quantum computers some of these ideas for a large part put forward by lexicon -dash also Michael Friedman actually came out of Microsoft these people were working at a research station of Microsoft in about a decade ago election some there were still there the thought of using topology it as a resource for encoding information and hopefully in a much more robust then ordinarily quantum objects the Microsoft as very generously also supported our research and just the fact that they know they support fundamental science but there is really worth a little acknowledgment it's courageous so we had headed the signatures of the particles what I right after this we know what he would do next the mistake on the non-appearance so there's only 1 thing left the men so the men at a down disappeared in cities Texas some people know that their weaknesses they say they were my mother's best friend in the fifties in Argentina not witnesses that said that they lived together with my around in some remote monastery somewhere in Italy so there are many different accounts of my around but that what maybe he was living also after 1938 but no real evidence now we found some real evidence for the men my on the day that our paper published 2 of the Solid of paper that published the also
now has the cover Of the science journal Of course to get cover what you do is you do you use it in a whole bunch of different versions in the versions was this is real devised polarized scholars and real device but in 1 of the students also madam artist impression and an artist oppression even including little squares and rectangles and blocks the chickens here there may be making another the structure of the metal looks stupid but I thought it was looking stupid and I was really thinking while you're out there must take this 1 but you know the result is that you can see that the art director of science fiction 1 on the left what the art director of science did not see is that we actually planted a little thing about me if you look closely you know where to look because you look from ironic must be at the end of the line all so that's why you have to look at this and I can help you live it that
refusal actually you do see a little picture of the man my around and we found actually so we we went on to on the Internet to to see who is this guy and
indeed no it resembles my rather varietals earlier this tribute To the mood the whenever I want to thank you all very much from the complete is due
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Titel Tuesday Evening lecture with Leo Kouwenhoven
Untertitel Particle physics on a chip; the search for majorana fermions
Serientitel Physics@FOM Veldhoven 2013
Autor Kouwenhoven, Leo
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - keine kommerzielle Nutzung - keine Bearbeitung 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt in unveränderter Form zu jedem legalen und nicht-kommerziellen Zweck nutzen, vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/18036
Herausgeber OpenWebcast.nl
Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM)
Erscheinungsjahr 2013
Sprache Englisch
Produzent OpenWebcast.nl

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Physik
Abstract Professor Leo Kouwenhoven has led the FOM focus group 'Solid State Quantum Information Processes' since 2004 and is well known for his publications about the Majorana fermions. He works at Delft University of Technology where he also gained his degree in 1988 and his PhD cum laude in 1992. After his PhD he was a postdoc at the University of California at Berkeley for one year. He then returned to Delft as an Academy Researcher at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 1998 he became a Professor of Physics. Kouwenhoven was also visiting Professor at the Physics Department of Harvard University for one year and in 2007 he received the NWO Spinoza Prize, the highest award in Dutch science.
Schlagwörter majorana
fermions

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