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Abandoning perfection for quantum technologies

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I mean everybody now we start a serious part of the evening apparently task is up to me and it's a great pleasure for me to introduce said the adoption of this speed up tonight ,comma data along with the commencement of businesses and actually is 1 of the most successful commencement this is that we have today he pioneered the use of Johnson's been based on a computer the name so much disputes on Tuesdays at went to analysts talk about and they usually don't state of some of same mistrusted plants so that's basically data has been has indeed played a major role in career and you can see also sampled strands from the early years where he studying management systems and some small mammals magnets when he was working on the and talk to the single-screen Regina work on Maloney will tell us about this I didn't this museum the canal and 82 than he worked for 10 years at IBM and 92 the obtained professorship that use the constant problem and during this time in the Santa Barbara idea the very successful to date and this is divergent the most of us section on now you years ago he decided to take up a new challenge and he joined the brand-new Institute of molecular engineering has in his hometown of Chad no to characterize this research is difficult but I want to point out 1 thing estimated 2 things and I and Arabic connected and that this that throughout his career and it is still now is research is really characterized by very strong this year and a constant search for new opportunities I have experienced this firsthand myself affect my own career has been influenced a lot by the decision I will tell you how to it's about 10 years ago I was Indiana might be and I was looking for opposing positions so I is that there allowed to apply for a position and analysis time and date that just observed this being all that and I was really a major event was 1 of the major scientific discoveries of the year 2004 went there early 2005 and I so maps and I basically found what I expected you know very successful scientists also very very sad that's in crisis that's lots of lasers and expensive migrate and optical equipment also duties imaging of spins semiconductors that he was strange and besides all the fancy and there was 1 can its face the tucked away in a dark corner of the latter another 1 BC students recounted set up very simple set up few lenses small later and it was a small sample president explained to me that this year there was assigned to the image a single electron spin and will attempt to solve what else can surprising so told the solid was a diamond in the election was held in place by the platinum diamonds coal mine and the center now at that time there were very few people that actually interested in these centers and I want to make a public confession when I 1st heard about experiments on these centers How is not particularly exciting and it's a confession from me that you you're here in the international lines so after half a year I decided to join Islam and started bozo and this is 1 many astute and with the with the simple somebody actually laughter and David fighting to take over its research and on of it that I thought about it and that India did take over that research and it turned out to be the best decision I have made my scientific career because right now in the centers are among the best constant ,comma systems we have and all the experiments are being done by really I think about 100 appeared on the books in the world really at the cutting edge of London signed an engineer not that it would not have been dated you stated that the centers and of course he was already looking beyond the themselves maybe something even better for having known as stock you will tell us about something and you buy a direction in which looking for and the center like the fact that different types of 2 so it this uh followed and the introduction because of individual explained to me everything in much more detail than I had just told you I would like to invite to come on stage to the lecture and by telling him that I'm very grateful and program meant as well that he went all the way to go over to his lecture was local data with the few will will eventually emerge although about understood to be introduced as a serious review but the couple's also adjusted recalled Mister spintronics that we could probably do that but they keep the top bigger thanks a program committee intervening a great privilege to be here this evening and besides foundation for all as greater great honor to address you after a lot of of after dinner in the wild also special thanks to all of you for hanging around after a very exciting and interesting disintegrate presentations grade science of adolescent course role through the 1st set this is a free dinner I learned so OK maybe not so surprising but would like to the next 45 minutes his talk a little bit about as wobbled mentioned earlier thought they came as a great surprise to a lot of it's changing the way we think about technology was to think beyond today's technology and think about using the facts or problems of materials as an
opportunity to build a new type of technology because of what degree of freedom so there was Estonia yellow of a lot of this area to try and really think about a new class Electronics based on the stand electron on nuclei that could serve to operate either with or without a charge based electronics and 1 of the things I thought it's useful to point out is that this is a challenge has been put in front of a lot of us for over 5 decades I think a lot of you may have seen "quotation mark from finding which is remarkably prophetic and a bit humbling to show that he challenged a larger audience in America for the society in the late 1950's group like this 1 to do if you think stability curious requires no larger than 100 Adams microscopes and review them machines that manipulate them and service involving quantized energy levels and it's remarkable that need besides engineering communities in the world braces and overly met these challenges head and the last thing that he offered as a child the group was going to use quantized states for new types of information processing units is the late 1950 s so it is remarkable and we think this moment in time but I think a lot of us are familiar with your user lock-up under a lot of it gets pretty warm as he scaled down the future skill today's electronics and resistance grows the heat dissipation of today's materials as his formidable you 100 walk walked processing on Intel Pentium chips and 2 and 4 court processing 60 megawatts the opportunity leader this extraordinary power density and is hitting the limits of were materials really can remain Boston we have to think about what robust really needs any of this is that the Google searches alone for using the portability wants freedom to both of you were searching every day about herself many working cattle that have because it's a lot of power I think about it every time you see how wonderful you actually are so this person perfection here has really driven our technology and the fact that we can crack so again with really unprecedented precision and parking is an idea of the late 1980's make free interesting plot where he look at the number of Adams of material used to hold a bit of information as a function of and it's amazing how misleading collapses on this curve because the Pentium 4 chip sets and is the point where we really didn't have countable numbers about it's just another classical technologies and I'm sure we'll have a way of dealing with it but it begs for women who want next and how can we scale so the cost of building technology to a couple of other members I think a pretty impressive in this from Intel I'm out there was Senate clearer 5 billion transistors produced every 2nd undeveloped lots so that's 20 million transistors per person on the planet every year so that's a lot of stuff this being recorded so we have a great fabrication facility craft materials we can make small systems we've really hit their stride perfection to try and do this with skin defects as possible to make highly conductive circuits with transistors operate high-frequency working very well because we managed to loss of impurities and really make high-purity state system but we take a step back it's pretty interesting mankind in general you know has been driven for a long time to compose perfection and water but his environment will women as well I don't think that it's interesting that this part seems to find a particular news it and if you look at a lot this example of hedges and you look at the right if they have a mangrove swamp because the nature has a different approach nature actually embraces disorder imperfections and actually creates a very sophisticated architectural by defects imperfections that surround it makes you wonder were really taking the right approach to that of a large-scale if you look at all electronics technology again we see how orders imposed upon circuits on the left we look another Pentium processor and you see this nice rectilinear pattern might have circuits with 2 dimensions and also known 3 dimensions were we have pretty efficient machines work at level 100 watts of power yet again nature takes a different approach right we have a three-dimensional computing architecture our brains that embraced over aspects of disorder and managed to do fairly advanced and processing information and pattern recognition at much lower power which in some sense the president also frustrated so can we do better cameras have used a different technique to think about next generations of technology by copying nature may be embracing a lot of things that we tried so long to avoid the worlds of science and technology and for a lot of us at the end of the day that means you have to build something happening here theory look at supposedly experimentalist conscript so if you look at the life skills of material starting center centimeter length scale will receive the anomaly here scaled down from the leader would be either be scaled up to the mark on scales and look at factory pollen but added 108 scale of viruses and that other viruses and and we scale at the end it was interesting we get is very small and skills as we have to redefine what we think about order and disorder at the landfill that leaders the alignment of displaced within a single had dramatically changes the property material it takes so little the impact significantly held material behaves in this landscape so the rules are different and Rose what we think about a robust technology different and we did that know you're still .period mechanics tends dominate and disorder changes everything it changes all aspects of the system when doubt this large-scale but it a problem so historically it's
been a problem so historically people shied away from building quantum systems because it was deeply believe environment have big impacts .period systems it would generate uncertainty irreproducibility it how would you ever know their quantum system that can really have a reproducible robust technology that is the quantum world how can we really be sure that part of the issue is that it was difficult to do some very simple experimental tests and real materials to save in fact it was a big problem history so what is the vise squad verbal suspended electrons in our technology electron hasn't been as well as the charge is by its definition of what mechanical object and the problem was always thought that very tiny changes in state system would grossly impact the output that is you think about some solid structure for some of the initial tried to look at a very very time change in the environment at the maybe this will be helpful to government agencies tiny changes and the impact on the system would have great changes in the output something that will look the same result as saying that the very different so this was a concern anymore I wonder how could you Texas so all of us know in case of magnetism that you have expanded again .period upward at local level of single particles as they can also be the superposition of states support mechanical right there soaking up regarding the superposition that mechanical state that we can prepare relatively easily in solid state materials and then do some fundamental test but the trick is To do this at the level of a single I tried to do a very clean stuff that's what a
topic and the reason that I think this is a fun topic discussed and I think we should be encouraging for the experimental and awareness that is essentially a story was told in a series of accidental observations less and 1 of the 1st surprises in mid-1997 model was alluding to earlier is that an experiment that is simple commercial wafers of gallium arsenide having people here than gallium arsenide a U.S. Gallimore side always referred to as the material of future an the 4 experiments the magnetic ions into gallium arsenide and that was a simple control measures to take out the the guidance look at commercial wafers just purchased online of gallium arsenide eliminate these waivers for the polarized pulse of light above the bandgap semiconductors that generates been polarized electrons a perpendicular magnetic field just watch process but at how long these puddles of coherent states should last as expected they would last long at all that would Danish at low temperatures is that based on the doping density these waivers this spin lifetime the coherence time can the very short quite long or very short based on the complete surprise manages commercial industrial materials you could generate quantum-mechanical states in this case billions of them and they would persist in our only with the process would be part of a small voltage across this way for you could drag these puddles of quantum states 100 microns associated material the and this really caught people's attention at the time because at that time the 1990's the future size for electronic technologies were couple like lots so In these commercial includes you could create a transport and readout quantum-mechanical states just plain electrons land sales much bigger than that features lots of people began thinking of maybe it's not entirely crazy to think about the quarter degree of freedom as doing something of that temperatures and then just by looking at different materials by going to wider bandgap systems all this says it was moved to an temperature is controlled temperature and unusual but still commercially available materials things so I'm going to try and you have to work Gallimard truck this is the kind of Natalie there so galley might try is a very important technology material is used a lot of solid-state lighting at this time of and gallium nitrate was 1st thing made was riddled with defects threading dislocations that was really about the tactical word is really a crappy material and some people were using it for much but despite the fact that it was really filled with the defects had was able to generate a sustained extremely robust Quantum incoherent varied mix of products so it has realized he still didn't understand very much about generating airplane with quantum states and standard semiconductor research was a very exciting opportunity and more
mortgage loans from governments around the world following that this issue at the end of the day you need to be very clean studies you'd like to actually look at fundamental properties of a single quantum state 1 electron isolated and start to see really what can you do with something like the sound of is so the parties could you find 1 the dynasty in millions of homes and manipulated exactly the way you want with a great deal of precision and a high resolution denouncing Charleston from a lot of us and that's what their arrival mentioning in Denver is very kind words in the beginning can we do this state systems word again you probably know that the bill factor for the next generation device technology need to invest about 6 billion dollars so you better follow a lot of computers Friday during invest 6 billion dollars in recouped about and it's getting harder and harder to justify that and I think a lot even reading the news it's harder and harder for companies to build these types of absences because it's not obvious -dash recoup its investment it's a lot of money so what you do so as Ronald mentioned you look at different materials and 1 of the most interesting things that came up a number of years ago was actually material has been around for a long time which is assignment and is fellow around for a long time for a lot of reasons but having the purchase it on a command more than that understandable you will be purchasing indictment of excuse slide flashy prettyimportant so diamonds said historical pretty expensive system from the earth and that things have changed were recently because now it's possible to grow guidance emphatically and when this being a which is going on a number of magazines start to toward about what you could do and wild actually the time pretty interesting article in pointed out the fact it was possible that at the end of the day we have 5 dollars a carat flawless diamond made in the light of the bodies and synthetic diamonds about a transfer computing too there is an additional works by Neal Stephenson and energy reading science fiction about how it died in this technology could really change so people really to think about different materials and then go diving with chemical vapor deposition techniques large crystals it's expected the president is going to change substantially separate as you've already purchased diamonds well it's not really for those who are going to purchasing diamonds the alternatives you can grow large gardens surmise that images taken from the Carnegie Institute in the United States for the distant rendering large diamond synthetically for making high-pressure starts to look at financing scored so you know you can really be quite beautiful materials now and that meeting also dealt them differently much like semiconductors are doped with electrons in this case diamonds have different colors centers which means you can endure the situation :colon survive and you know that during series and very good at making and the name them with names that also tend to inflict higher prices on people but against the dangers adding 1 more diligent died and raising the price so it's remarkable business canary diamond until with nitrogen blue diamonds available and there were more defects generated in Dallas for a property of the purchase called black guy Minnesota riddled with defects and also the most expensive so what is about these defects that makes him so interested in what can we do scientifically these materials that are readily available I'm afraid to talk about so today's silicon technology is based successfully and 2 states to choices transistors or the offer did so you have a 0 or 1 using really perfect material for the electron charges and scattered in its stable of the device for alternative to think about the fact that materials materials filled with damage these defects were you trap electron so it's hard for you to move off the device but what you can do is the latest in the electronic you can .period discipline in different directions and you can see the power of this idea that you think about as thin as a back to where you hold the base and that the head of the spin move all over the place freely like Eric trace out the surface of the and every point out that fears data .period and you can read that it means that a single electron spin control vast amount of information not just as what but as much information as you can read on the surface of the year so it's a very attractive idea to have another type of variable and technology they could have big impacts not just in quantum processing but also storage sadly approach them well you get this environment and you look for defects are wild some of students work on making this foreigners just as the Golden Globes so you take a diamond either natural violent or 1 that grows emphatically and you start to look inside the diamond for defects and if you look inside a diamond we know time is made of carbon which you can see here and blue livery nice lattice there could be some periods and which were shown here in red and once in a while the other missing ,comma out more vacancy which is the usual of glowing which is near 1 of these insist MySpace nitrogen and the so-called Mycogen the center of the wobbled alluded to earlier times when you pull out the missing Adam headed distort the loudest critic type of molecular state that holds essentially a single electric and electronic begins the process of hasn't been that can move at a certain frequency they you could
manipulate other multimedia was lying or by applying magnetic field promotions like that you take advantage of it and you very nice quantum objects on the desktop you can play with something that would be very difficult to imagine you're just a decade ago so this where we like to think about these materials very differently so we like to think that the Sandinistas like people it's the defects that make it interesting that some people more interesting than others but was not about be found so I apologize I have just a couple of tactical slides and nephew spots your notes later but 1 of the things about systems like this that nature the very kind to us and created electronic system would bring much like a track that so we can follow in the footsteps of what a lot of fantastic ,comma physicists doing over the last number of years looking at individual atoms in this case you can think about the defect is bringing out trapped misled us and the amazing thing is shown in this diagram you can simply illuminate this material with light at wavelengths that takes about the excited state and the system will simply relax myself about a stable state into a ground state that has repeated over and over again ,comma cycling transition ends up with a spin polarized electron this and includes and all that stuff with a 5 and a half electron-hole bandgap which means this is very robust temperature 5 media is a very big temperatures feel so that's amazing to take the diamond is eliminated and polarized lighting and a polarized electorate that is the 2nd magnetism he typically play was inspired magnet frightened so who is a matter of fact tells us you applied magnetic field to suspend system lifted the generously that's the system supporting stand up and then down with America in some materials like dozens other internal strife in lattice that the string of material that the generously for you so it's another remarkable thing you could address than states without a magnetic fields and you can manipulate the spend up and down with Michael which in this case 2 . 8 gigahertz microwave radiation which is pretty close cell phone frequencies SOS very accessible relatively straightforward to do with this means that you have at the diamond or it could spend apply microwaves to play with it and then you look at like the comes out to weeded out of beautiful clean simple the Test of basic quantum ideas so what you do you go online and you can go to companies like Sumitomo Electric and get a piece of diamond thin film of that put under a microscope objective said laser light in sky and injected around the image like the 1 in the upper right here so you bright spots the bright spots of these individual defects and you look a little carefully the image there response line around as they were spotted the effects below the focal plane so all over the material so you can hold a microscope objective over just 1 of those defects and as we look at this image unless I see there's a green laser beam that's going to be objective as exciting as the fact animal like that comes out in red is little prepared single photon counters if you have a single object using a single photon that Proton has decided it's going to get 1 detector or the other but you know it concluded both at the same time the correlation studies and you can proved yourself that in fact the photon as to choose the center it's a single object using a single photon but is of a single suspect and a way to be sure the single span to apply this gigabits radiation makers then flip between up and down with a white and usual expelled done just with a wife and if you do that you get data like this 1 that shows the change in the luminescence slide as suspenders between up and down so the folks for those of you who do electron spin resonance this looks just like he Assad but this is a pretty big defining moment in our field spintronics because this is something that people trying for decades to measure singles then at room temperature with no matter and do about 20 minutes and after these materials now enable you to do so that really change the landscape of thinking about stands for both quantum information processing for possible memory applications and maybe you could use quantum mechanics as the basis for a new technologies for processing as receiver sensing and also provides for images this is not a picture Ronald for the beautiful for models I just emphasize again that all this work is done when temperature that's a big change in the field so
for those of you who purchased the diamond and those of you who were clearly afraid to admit you had purchased a gun when you go into a store that is typically has a value based on the foresees the color of the diamond it's clarity the carrot the cut Boston-based technology what is a different set of CDs where Parisi how coherent the state how well can we control it can be communicate from state to state or over global sense of states and can be coupled to the real world of different ways and I'm walking through some relatively recent expelled results to show a lot of these results the pretty surprising it turns out that the the defect systems have remarkably long coherence times they can be used but because you have a high degree of control you can communicate by them and you can coupled and in a way it's settled a bit embarrassed to talk about some of his work here because I think that if you're familiar with the the extraordinary accomplishments in this area that going under last year's Adolf dealt with withdrawals group there really been pushing the sides closer closer to practical technology really extraordinary expenses so what are the things that were overly fond of interim researchers can we think about looking at the physics the fact that we will have a technologies someday and if you look at how the world of semiconductors technology has developed transistors they have to be with bids the build devices and very specific locations and that stardom industry is to make a bunch of holes mosque should I answer those holes and put opens in words like through a mask so we did the same thing we made masks on top of diamonds the contents of managers diameter and 1 set these to commercial companies that shoot nitrogen alliance to be sold in our case tried to systematically damaged materials create these defects and the participants in various specific location and if you go through a process of doing that to this commercial adventurous it's about a couple they turn around you do this and sure enough admittedly not in a successful way but you could make a variety of 1 2 or 3 stands in different locations and bigger I can actually build quantum states on the demand and for those of you the technologies for the cool things about this is that there are very few examples of the technology world where you can build a system from an individual electron stay in the top left another review To the macroscopic less-skilled tens of microns all on the same chip set so you have an incredible length scale that you can be and operated think about architectures of new types of technologies from individual electrons that Adams tens of microns for large-scale metallic systems but all of single level it's very very unusual to be able to do that yeah so what can you do that when you get a couple of unquestioned from technology so every time we tried by you and your Pentium chips knows a couple gigahertz 1 to with 3 gigahertz but then you don't see much change and I want the questions you might ask is how fast can you move a single so that's an interesting issue technology because loss of techniques to see how fast you can bring charges on transistors but they candidate to tens of thousands of Georgians not what it's very hard to find examples of single charge electronics the logic it's a very difficult thing to do but here we can take a piece about that yellow chipping C put I how small way guys structure dismayed made with taking platinum gold open environment try makers expensive possible take a single step that system in there and see how fast you can regulate and it turns out to be played very very quickly hundreds and hundreds of megahertz with no problem gigabits no problem and there is an example of 1 such spending in 1 of those wake got structures that was controlled lesser Davies the middle strain it's a very interesting results that's entirely useless device but it does tell us that you can move the spread between up and down on the same time scales that's in today's sp Rand Technologies a missile overlapped so it's also very interesting result right you can have a quantum-mechanical object without moving its position right change quantum state on the same time scale that's not state-of-the-art charged acknowledges that the level of an individual electron persons tens of thousands so it's not crazy anymore to think about developing "quotation mark the mechanical systems based on solid state materials that could be used with very different types of
functionality that is where 2 other examples I want to talk about before you do this and applications about what to do the things you could do with a system like this and with the so-called nitrogen vacancy centers everywhere you have electron spin you have 1 of these bycatch endured it's not like you a nuclear state so if you can control the interaction between the electron spin a single nuclear spin the core at all you can think about that nite and Adam as a single quantum memory and nuclear memory nuclear stands have very long lifetimes compared to electrons that's because not many things bother nuclear state it's pretty stable but not very long lifetime and physics most of us know that there's a high-profile interaction the couple's electron nuclear spin so you can control that with electronic gates you could actually transfer the quantum state into the Coronado come back later extracted connection single out of memory when a single atoms I mentioned earlier we have a very high density of storage so that's the idea that you have a single electron spin blue right next week you know by definition there's a single nuclear spin purple and if you can control the way to talk you have a local memory and up so that was done and that it was done in the sense that you could actually demonstrate taking some of these large arrays made environment by putting in defects to 1 we tried with information between the electron in the nuclear spent and this state and the bottom left shows the electron spin lifetime highlighted in yellow the record is the single nuclear after the information is transferred to the court and then you come back later and can extract so this was a nice demonstration that in fact is a proof of concept you can build a single spent nuclear devices it works really badly as a practical memory but more recent work while using a modified version technique actually took these lifetimes 2 seconds From now on the shorter time to these measurements and can prevent so we very much believe there will be single nuclear spin memory devices which can be used as a local resources for new types of technology I think it's hard to imagine just get 5 or 6 years ago you were asked to build a single nuclear spin subatomic memory that can be addressed with 1 particle people would think you were crazy and now you can do it on the desktop all this again just under any condition everything room temperature it's quite remarkable In this case this memory operated as speeds of 120 nanoseconds has a pretty quick device you can transfer information pretty quickly and taken so what else can you do with something like this I thought a lot about memory things about logic while being mindful that time because I was told the bar opens later that's how all of this work was done by looking at quantum states spilled inside a material that would have you taken out of the material and be able to move around and so a lot of people in the world and think about building quantum sensors so I'm a lot an image of taking some films environment that will bring sympathetically by chemical vapor deposition laboratories that the small pillars and over a wide range of sizes and shapes and if you look at the joint on the right story the SEM image of the rights of the drawing the lag and you can see that the small diamond dealers are weekly catch the surface with small polymer direct the idea is that each of these structures have you 1 2 or 3 quantum states in them you release them by prison ultrasonic cleaner effectively get a solution for the 3 filter paper and you end up with these little quantum probes each spend engineered with a couple of quantum states and we take these parades and used so there's a local government so what are people doing with these types of crops while a group of Australia has that's a beautiful much mention the bottom right where they actually put quantum troops inside of myself he was also use them to measure electromagnetic fields in the and is also very happy having consumed the dominant but told my graduate students appears perfectly safe to the guidance and simply doing fine and you better not here with me today 1 of the interesting things that came out of these measurements students were doing is when they looked at a particular set quantum probes every day this saw that in the way we were doing this mystical measurements that there was a little bit of about changing the frequency every time measured in at the end of a couple of months of looking this carefully they discovered that in fact the quantum-mechanical wave function is measured in certain way was incredibly sensitive to temperature so the students can said this is a disaster has a lot of beauty of physics is that 1 person's disasters another success stories in there that's not a liability that's our quantum thermometer and in fact it turns out the extraordinary legal thermometers there you could see apartment had 5th at room temperature just fine with quantum perks and when we talk to some of our colleagues in the world of bioengineering they're teaching us a lot right now about of things that the pointing yet was melodic biological processes and I I barely speaking to the edge of my knowledge here but it's very important to be able to do at that precise temperature measurement of very specific locations say on both sides of the cell wall where a lot of trust believed to be driven thermodynamic late maybe not with chemical potentials has been very difficult to do very good local managers scale for monetary so function lies in these outside the diamond
allowing them to stick in certain positions there's opportunity now to do very localized Natalie scale the monetary base of quantum state of a particle I think that the probe began a few years ago would never have occurred to any of us to use quantum states as thermometers but now there are a number of emerging applications were not bigger scale for monetary interests could play a very important role no 1 else could you do if you want to look at molecular systems outside surface and this is a topic that suffered debate by the number of people in this field of quantum information beginning to believe that 1 of the biggest impact of Qantas state-controlled and semiconductors may not be quantum computing but maybe quantum sensing the sense of dread the magnetic resonance imaging it would be nice if you could look at the individual proteins for example without the need of crystallization so there are a lot of proteins right the structure function relationship is poorly understood because of proteins that crystallized awfully nice in a perfect world In the future the principle if you have proteins in solution or a particular molecular species you're interested in and understand its structure at the single-molecule level using magnetic resonance images so that the daunting goal over a lot of challenges to make their work but in the last few years groups around the world groups here Stuttgart groups said idea Mahmoud and working with around our laboratories have been pushing to seek could you look at proton external protons with quantum products and he's a very small signals and I just 1 issue quick example that about a year or so ago I was able to a couple groups in the world were able to detect extra molecules nuclear spins of external molecules with these individual electronic states and more recently than two-dimensional imaging of single molecules at room temperature so that those who do magnetic resonance imaging this is not an awe-inspiring result perhaps as 1 of our program manager said after seeing this result we were really excited by it he said I the guy I'm quoting him it looks like a blog it does pose a nuclear bomb the average temperature with a 12 cm spatial resolution in Detroit squared vertical attitude so it's a big step in resonance imaging a temperature at the molecular level it's there were close enough to the war would really like to do but given that a lot of this work has been dropping in just the last 3 to 4 years I'm pretty optimistic that people will become a little bit more cluttering the pulse sequences and with the molecular engineering people actually get this to work then I think when it does it will have a big impact since feels bioengineering the biochemistry 2 brothers the physical sciences so we're very excited about this direction they will see what the whole world gets whatever remaining of 5 or 10 minutes of got left I what touched on the subject matter of Ronald mentioned earlier solo this work is going with diamond in much like high-temperature superconductivity and other areas of condensed matter physics you might ask why this is working .period and I can't be the only material on Earth this works and our group but the ball the collaboration with the fewest tried to apply density functional theory techniques do a type of genetic screening to look at different materials some of the parameters and calculate from 1st principles it's impossible to identify different types of structures were people of about degraded defect you could also trapped electron and build quantum system and after running for about a year and a half at the touch of code president Waller group at Santa Barbara with some help from a student's predicted these 1st 7 different tourism showing you hear what was striking about these predictions that all these materials not commercially available and what I want to show you where the first one is silicon carbide and silicon carbide is a very well there are highly productive high-power electronic material that used a lot of avionics does use the hop-laden Silicon carbide centuries and it is that work that elevated temperatures and you can get large scales this material pretty easily and it's been a long history tried to make up non-volatile logic during the mid-1990's people of crafted pretty sophisticated integrated circuits and still do the Silicon carbide and 1 the attractions for us of course is that you grow tip and you're dealing with very small substrates when you see materials you can get for its 6 inch wafers and after those of the graduate students of review preach how much nicer this at 6 inches of material which is a few millimeters thick if you were to lose your sample sale the processing areas of the plane and that expenditure adviser we spent a lot of money and sample not not going better so there's been a lot of interest in driving high-power electronics and US President Obama recently announced a large-scale investment program 70 million may seem small but was matched multiple times by industry did approve several hundred million dollar program to push wide bandgap electronics for both photovoltaics and high-power electronics acknowledges that there a growing interest in systems like this and in a lot of areas so I mentioned you can make Pollack Tronics sold Carbide like a power loss that which you can buy online silicon carbide is used for members devices for making my mechanical actuators both for air bag when the systems for a mechanical sensors and again I'm sure many people here familiar the fact you can flash Carbide to make wrapping for what structure so it's a very flexible system and let assure would have to be repeat
experiments like talked about the last half hour or so In fact the theoretical calculations were right on target you could generate quantum states in these commercial materials some of its history temperature but the 1 other nice aspect of the states would you change material the wavelength of the light is used to play with them as all the telecom it's a dying of extortion material resistant to be manipulated telecom wavelength that the products are industrial substrates so when there is a lot of material lot of things you can do and silicon carbide has 1 other feature which number semiconductors have become too different forms called Polly touched that so having lot Polly type OK so you know it's not a social disease so Polly type means you have a crystal were the order of the XY plane is the same but if you change the growth conditions this the spacing can be different from Bristol to crystal and you can control that so build across were the access can have different spacings it also means that different bad debts which means you can build a very interesting structures at different wavelengths such as quantum wells of quantum barriers all over the same material injury recently some students who show despite our intuition telling us that materials like this should be terrible 4 .period information because the nuclear spends all over the material that should the fate these individual electron spins very quickly despite the spend lifetimes are extremely long yeah so we don't know exactly why that's the case but it's good news and this and that these different Polly types being that the can be made in different orientations and a lot of each 1 at his own wavelength each 1 can be driven quantum mechanically and the state of the writer individual electrons each 1 pointing in a different direction allowed each 1 addressed individually each with a different frequency all in the same system some showing this because there just isn't example of the wealth of finds that comes out of understanding of basic processes explore the world of materials and different handles to play with this prostituted and as more and more of this information comes out 1 more applications are emerging so I would end with the same water people not thinking about quantum of materials employment systems in the 1st thing and probably the most prolific thing you worry about this quantum computing in just 1 eye and I want to mention a few things so as some of you may not work in this field appreciate why this is so tantalizing White taking his individual quantum states that work at room temperature in semiconductors this session .period thing to be working on so for both of us to buy computers today when all of us who want to build a more powerful computer would we do if we take Intel Core I 7 CPU chip were pretty recent Intel processor therefore chorus of the 700 million transistors and Intel .period courtship plot devices to have double the power of that yeah you by 2 of them and roughly speaking when you bite to ships you put them together doubling number transistors doubles the computation of roughly this entirely accurate but is pretty close so that the classical technology networks now a quantum technology which were model to deliver I believe you said that over the policy would attend thousand quantum bit chips so 10 thousand types of transistors and would double the processing power of Europe Quantum ship all the need to do is add 1 quite bit not 10 thousand just 1 because the exponential nature of the scale and the fact that the state's entangled the Skilling is very different with a quantum shade so what does that mean that he took 10 thousand quantum the and you added 10 thousand more quantum that's right you created catering to the 10 thousand times as powerful so those of you that a lot currently looking at your life and you could you could you understand I did 2 thousand people I could do the statistics if 1 of you has an available you could tell us what to do with 10 thousand as it takes very very big number very good enough you depart number of durable items of the universe so 10 thousand plus just 10 thousand 700 million is a very big number and this is part of the excitement of working out a new type of technology like this it all the like Facebook so quarrel computers rely on the fact that information is stored in the relationships between the state's things entangled so adding 1 cubic doubles the number of relationships if your child has won new friend on Facebook you worry about it table talk the Bartlett so that the means that when you try and build these works every time you had a quantum state this network of quantum states to developing relationships that you may may not understand but there are a lot of it you can control this you're doing a vast amount of processing information ways of very difficult to do with our technologies today and that's where there is a lot of us are so excited here if you could build machines that really did have extraordinarily computation power you could think about simulating molecular properties from 1st principles you could think about designing Pharmaceuticals whose properties could be predicted from 1st principles by simply running his way functions to the system you could think about engineering new types materials would usual properties and could even think about impacts in areas synthetic biology so it's really fun to think about what you bike to such machine really did function and we learn how to program such a machine so there are a lot of challenges this field and there are a lot of there's a lot of
excitement so let we stop reading about what this means for all you students in the room I mean I think a lot of us believe this is an extraordinary time a condensed matter physics were seeing this change from the classical world to the quantum world that's readily accessible by changing playing with materials also saying a field suburban a inferior working really closely together I think an unprecedented ways really have to work together to drive his feel for were folly level where individual quantum states could be engineered they can be connected they can be manipulated with light with magnetic fields with electric fields with photonics in ways that are very powerful and I think we will largely unpredictable past when you look backwards president and I actually believe the future but it is an opportunity for what we believe is going to be an emerging field of quantum engineering and it's this unique environmental and 1 of things that by finding extraordinary in the Netherlands is how it seems to me as outside the Netherlands is sort uniquely developing this for various reasons and understand what we're seeing this symbiosis of science and engineering and materials science for me at university it's a very powerful educational platform for students won't the future looks very bright woman can be admitted to build and operate into water machines of the people in which few that the thank you also the former Fulham side in the world of the various small the good will the world and how we can exist as thank you once again toward the end and then there's a lot of us that they have won this evening they have to come pronounced the magic formula the borders open and thank you if it does it
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Abandoning perfection for quantum technologies
Serientitel Physics@FOM Veldhoven 2015
Autor Awschalom, David
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - keine kommerzielle Nutzung - keine Bearbeitung 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt in unveränderter Form zu jedem legalen und nicht-kommerziellen Zweck nutzen, vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/18035
Herausgeber Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM)
Erscheinungsjahr 2015
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Physik
Abstract Our technological preference for perfection can only lead us so far: as traditional transistor-based electronics rapidly approach the atomic scale, small amounts of disorder begin to have outsized negative effects. Surprisingly, one of the most promising pathways out of this conundrum may emerge from recent efforts to embrace defects and construct 'quantum machines' to enable new information technologies based on the quantum nature of the electron. Recently, individual defects in diamond and other materials have attracted interest as they possess an electronic spin state that can be employed as a solid state quantum bit at and above room temperature. Research at the frontiers of this field includes creating and manipulating these unusual states in a new generation of nanometer-scale structures. These developments have launched technological efforts aimed at developing applications ranging from secure data encryption to radical improvements in computation speed and complexity. This lecture will describe recent advances towards these goals, including the surprising ability to control atomic-scale spins for communication and computation within materials surrounding us for generations.
Schlagwörter quantum
technologies

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