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Masterclass with Alan Guth

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OK with start dabbling in there
and you just feel free to interrupt if you think that this is a summary babble that there be more interesting than what I'm actually babbling about and so what I want to talk about will actually be pretty closely parallel to the talk that beginning tomorrow and I didn't quite see how to avoid that but but tonight will hopefully be more detailed that and maybe with more background so that suggests that he should not feel any obligation to come to my talk tomorrow unless you think you'd enjoy hearing a summary of what we talked about tonight so I did get a some given title from tomorrow's talk but not for no good reason really the inflationary cosmology and eternal inflation and the multiverse Will with topics and trying to discuss on the opening transparency here we have a picture of the plunk satellite which supplied some of the important data that will be showing you later and also the bicep to telescope which also supplies very interesting data that will learn about sometimes soon whether or not it's actually meaningful and talk about that in the case start to get started and I want to begin at the beginning and so on the starboard hull saying a few words about the conventional Big Bang theory without inflation adjusted their will to help make it clearer where inflation fits into the picture so the conventional Big Bang theory is a theory that the universe as we know it began some 13 to 14 billion years ago and now even think we know this number pretty amazingly accurately about 13 . 8 2 . 0 5 according to the planned satellite people billion years ago now I qualified this by saying as we know it because we don't really know that 13 . 8 billion years ago was the beginning of existence and factors maybe even good reason to believe that that's a false statement and the statement of the summer something happened 13 . 8 2 that could cost 2 billion years ago the concept that we call the Big Bang Tao and it was the emergence of our universe from an initially hot tents uniforms the particles the don't know what happened before that there may have been a significant prehistory has not made a comment about that a little bit in the context of eternal inflation which will begin to later In any case at approximately this time and the region the universe there were living and was apparently a heart dense uniform soup of particles state netted a cartoon image of some of the big bang as an egg that exploded into empty space that cartoon images entirely wrong so if it's something that you thought was right change your mind but there's nothing illogical about the big exploding it's it makes as much sense as the conventional the bank .period logically as far as I can tell but it doesn't agree with what we say because when we look around the sky what we see is roughly speaking we average over large regions the same thing in all directions while there was a that exploded you'd think you'd see something very different if you look towards where the explosion was looking up at the direction of the egg was happen to be right where your center then you expect things to look the same in all directions but that that would seem to be highly improbable that would be living right in the center of the medical egg and so the assumption is that there was not an egg but leased in the context of conventional cosmology will come to inflation later in than the context a conventional cosmology the only way to make things work out was to assume that from the very beginning the matter filled the space not so there was an explosion and everything started out infinitely dense in this conventional Big Bang model and then expanded outward Abboud expansion is uniform and all all-consuming filling space with space itself expanding to let the density of particles I to go down this conventional Big Bang theory I was a few things that describes it describes how the early universe expanded and cooled and by the way it really is very straightforward and simple to calculate the details of that expansion and calling all it's really assumed the conventionally Bang theory is that the universe is filled by a gas of particles and the earliest moments that Kassir particles was really just a black body radiation and that the force acting to hold back his gravity and for almost all the equations because knowledge you can actually get away with modeling it as Newtonian gravity although the professional musician relativity so really is quite straightforward and simple theory and and all details but the model also describes how the light chemical elements formed where things get to give me a bit more complicated the point here is that the model starts with the universe being so hot that even the nuclei of atoms would not have been stable so the nuclei that we see in the universe I have to have formed after the Big Bang now In the earliest carried wanted were thinking about this back in the 1940's the hypothesis was that of the chemical elements were made in the Big Bang and people like George down Martin's collaborators were trying to calculate how that can happen and they became extremely frustrated because they could not figure out any way that that could happen antenna that they were right now where everybody believes that most of the chemical elements that we see around us were not produced in the big bang but rather will produce much later in the interior of stories and then those materials are actually space when the stars undergo explosion then the heavy elements were ready to collect and to later generations stars and so was systems like our own solar system since then most of the chemical elements in our solar system we will believe were synthesized some earlier generations star that exploded but we still believe that the latest chemical elements and show just means hydrogen helium and some other isotopes of lithium but with the letters components were produced primarily in the Big Bang and we can use standard knowledge about nuclear physics plus this picture that 1 gets of the expansion rate in calling later the whole universe welcome but all those things together and make actual predictions for the balances of these like chemical elements in about 5 of them you count the different isotopes and that it should work very well so this was always 1 of the the big successes Of the conventional Big Bang theory that completed the abundance is of the like chemical elements finally the Big Bang theory can describe how the matter in the universe congealed to form stars galaxies clusters of galaxies etc. and this is something of a work in progress but however progress has been made and I physicists and I'm not really an active this morning cosmologist and astrophysicist crime demonstrated understanding of the details of of galaxy formation the always mine computer and people's line of sight as I closing them away from the mayor look at the big millions of readers and again
that's out of the way what happened next which is more relevant to where I'm going in what the conventional Bang theory does not describe there is nothing in there and all of that the conventional Big Bang theory actually gets along but there are things that the convention would then carry out really says nothing about so 1 crucial thing is that there's nothing about what caused the expansion this conventional Big Bang theory although it's called The Big Bang Theory historical accidental reasons I guess is really only the theory of the aftermath of a bad there is nothing in the scientific version of the Big Bang theory that even attempts to describe the bank itself it describes universe was already expanding uniformly and cooling and just describes how that process continues it also says nothing about where the matter in the universe came from under the theory assumes that all the matter in the universe was there from the very beginning I think so for every particle in the universe was we state precursor particle that existed from the very beginning I just say that the the bank theory says nothing about what then why already happened before so there's a lot of open questions there and it's basically that class of questions where inflation could step in office impossible and service that will be going next what's that completes what I want to say that the conventional Big Bang theory :colon pause to see if any you have the questions or comments OK onward to inflation so inflation is a modification of the standard Big Bang theory now as I said I don't relate to the Big Bang theory gets wall there just some unanswered questions associated with the period so that all mess it up and in fact inflation does a good job of not messing up the conventional Big Bang theory inflation really just provides a aptly called but to the conventional Big Bang theory helps to set up the initial conditions that to make the Big Bang theory 1 previously had to simply said on that episode particularly low inflation can explain how would I like to call the bank of the Big Bang that is it can explain what propelled the Big Bang what drove the universe into this period of tremendous expansion it does it in terms of what I like to consider a miracle of physics I knew inflation and by the way as as resting on 2 miracles of physics and by a miracle physics I know what I mean is a fact about the which is subtle enough so that I was not taught in graduate school but an important also that really does affect the evolution the universe as a whole and the 1st of these 2 miracles of physics is gravitational repulsion decide the gravity is not always attractive and according to news reports gravity is always attractive most of us think of gravity is being universally attractive but in the context of general relativity gravity can behave repulsively and this has been the known facts since the advent of general relativity you might recall some history here within the year of the time when Einstein invented general relativity he applied to a model of the universe I at this time Einstein was convinced that the universe was static as well as everybody promote terribly good reason but it's something that everybody believes that going back at least as far as maybe going back to antiquity and have no evidence for a motion the cosmic scale some people just assume that matter was just distributed uniformly and ecstatically throughout space but when Einstein tried to build a model of the universe based on that hypothesis and in the context of general relativity he faces the fact that gravity is attractive and that meant that if put in an initial static stayed with distributed everywhere some space all the matter would attract all the other matters and the whole thing would collapse but this is usually viewed as also being true an attorney In an attorney at the discretion of boundary conditions are a little less clear and maybe you could easily a out of it I don't know of any consistently of weaselly have agreed on himself considered it and did we love I never convinced himself they said if you had a completely uniform distribution of matter on any given place the who knows no distinction between that direction in that direction in that direction wherever you look just matter and therefore that we no direction for the force of gravity to .period I know from our point of view I might mention that this it's not really consistent with what we understand about Newtonian gravity and I think he's going to see that is to think of the plus equation description of gravity that is injured and use a gravitational potential additional equation on the board and you can introduce a gravitational potential fire and then equation With greater gravity is desperate fines equal to something like 1 swap IG times world mass density many of the factors ,comma models this year but have write that's probably right nowadays no 1 was right that you could have a static distribution with no forces no forces means Pfizer constant means just where vital Euro but that means this equation can because USA knowing your masters the universe of talking about so sad University believed certainly 50 was found way out I think it is too with most other formulations of Newtonian gravity as well but in any case but general relativity most closely resembles the platonic way played in general to the partial differential equations Major-General was equations so I said had the choice really the places where is staring face telling them that he could not have a standard universe "quotation mark that we just stay there I might mention by the way that the answer to the question of what direction points I think I can get across at this point it's so related to the Hubble expansion pattern the Hubble's law says that if we're here all the other galaxies are moving away from us With the velocity that's proportional to the residents so the velocity pattern look something like what I'm trying to dry here but now that picture of course makes it look very much like where the center of the universe and therefore everywhere and ways Moss were very special but you could probably believe me that if we were instead to assume that we were living on the galaxy there and there but we wouldn't you everything from the point of view of this galaxy here and I think of all the velocities as the losses relative to that galaxy and while the person living in this galaxy considers himself addressed this galaxy to be moving to the right person
living on this galaxy will see himself as being arrest in this galaxy moving to the left and similarly honorable these would be transformed and Newtonian context which will stick for now although the losses will be modified just by adding the velocity which is negative of this velocity to the other velocities similar personally this galaxy which say and we knew that you find exactly the Hubble patent centered on galaxy so the Hubble expansion parent does not pick out a center if all although matter in the universe is evolving according to hobble expansion with losses being proportional to distances and that pattern looks exactly the same day every single observer groups and acceleration of work the same way if we had this uniform distribution of matter and you asked what direction should hide accelerating the answer would be that you get to choose your quarters system you presumably to supporters in where you were not accelerating we then see the other particles Switzerland toward you and even that pattern looks like your special you're not if you transformed to any other downstate you discover that every galaxy it would look like you're standing still and all the other galaxies are accelerating toward you and that does not violate the summer 1080 assumptions Newfoundland back on OK so gravitational repulsion exists and I got this because the accident threatens my story but when I say I discovered that his static universe was unstable I started out the possibility of gravitational repulsion to get about that problem and he had to do something that he called the cosmological constant would use an extra term the equation that describes how gravitational fields were created and with this extra terms he could build a static universe and what director-general is doing was invoking a repulsive gravity and if that term was put in with just the right man to Einstein discovered that he can have a static universe where the extra repulsive force that he added to the cosmological constant but what exactly balanced the ordinary force of gravity so they can have a static universe laughter from the very beginning the idea that gravity could sometimes act impulsively words realized maybe nobody did pointedly to also take another little members here to talk about the cosmological constant as I mentioned from the point of view of Einstein and this was just actor term in the equations that describe how gravitational fields are created the modern .period you go somewhere different but now we look at that terms and say that that's exactly the terms that would be there if the energy density of the vacuum was not 0 but was positive and so we in fact interpret because much of that way now the the cosmological constant to us is synonymous with the vacuum energy demands that and vacuum interagency clearly does exactly what Einstein's cosmological constant did I what I think is the difference the reason for the difference of perspective by issues that Einstein was ultimately a very classical physicists and from the point of view of classical physics the vacuum is just empty In vacuum is just empty it seems inconceivable that have a non-zero 0 energy density or mass density but from the monitor point of view I century-old aware of the vacuum is not in the vacuum of a quantum field theory is a very complicated state which quantum fields constantly undergoing oscillations of all sorts due to essentially Uncertainty Principle built into the dynamics of the field theory but we also know now that there's this Higgs field that has a non-zero value throughout all space so that was a very complicated state and there's no reason anymore to think that the interagency the vacuum should be 0 attack would seem rather startling for the and into the vacuum want to be 0 I'll be coming back and talk more about that a little later but did so because of Ontario there's nothing wrong with the vacuum having non-zero energy density and the gravitational effect of that is what Einstein called the cosmological constant we discovered that actual effect of a non-zero recommended me yeah In the course ,comma although the he still goes to but again now that I am to be coming back to that good um the back but I'm assured of pre-opening tonight but but but then they did you a partial answer right away we would say that straightforward calculation of the energy comes as spectacularly wrong selling the basis for that statement but the right word those not calculation that estimate but we do not have calculate that answer so when we say that what we estimated began number that's while wrong that estimate could you on the run and hide it depends on Britain come out not spectacularly wrong depends on those cancelations between huge positive numbers and huge negative numbers just happening almost entirely for reasons that we don't understand how this possible there is just something that we see no reason for but so was the possibility that fragmentation not excluded by what know although there certainly are problems associated with aging pointing out talking back to I will tell you himself will come back to talking about the fact that but any other questions OK and so on so that more about gravitational repulsion of the key origin of the idea of gravitationally Tolson in the context of general relativity arises because in general relativity not just Marston cities as an attorney in physics that create gravitational fields but in general relativity and Matanzas commuter presented densities because the whole to square but addition energy-densities pressures also contribute to the gravitational field and that's really necessary for the role of the statin variants of all thanks others so unambiguous pressures have to contribute as well but it turned out that pressures contributed in a way that you would probably gas if you guessed a positive pressure which is normal pressure up produces an attractive gravitational field which might think of as a normal gravitational field that works the way I would guess that most people would I would guess but the but that means that if you could have a negative pressure that would produce a repulsive gravitational field and fact is exactly how repulsive gravitational fields arise there are some negative pressure negative pressures can exist Michael deception of blood of opportunity that have Her created a perimeter just 1st give you 1 equation here for a completely symmetric universe which means homogeneous the same in all places an isotropic the same in all directions for a homogeneous isotropic universe Everything is described by just expansion of such a thing as described by a scale factor scale factor just has the property that the doubles means the size of everything has doubled and that scare factor is this equation
when the right-hand side is a term proportional to the energy density ratio of mass density and determine Washington pressure I would portion pressure is divided by square indicating that has the look of relativistic corrections which which is but what the equation tell us said that parliament pressure that McMaster cities and slowed down the expansion of the universe that Monestime means that the acceleration of scale factors negative it's slowing down both the pressure to be negative it can overcome the mass density and other changes on the whole thing and in fact if the energy is dominated by the potential energy industry field there the pressure has a unique value it's minus wrote on the square this negative of the energy density and if you put that into this equation you'll see that at that give your negative term which is 3 times as big as a positive terms reversing the sign causing gravity to become repulsive I I didn't have a slide justify this formula but I think I can do it on the screen I think maybe it's worth doing said such important players that I know of 2 simple derivations I'll show you both and whichever 1 appeals to you you remember 1 of them is based on our relativity where I want to imagine is a stage there were just the state whose energy is dominated by the potential energy of a scalar field so what they consider a state where there's a scalar field with some potential energy function which and let me imagine the potential energy function like that of the unique minimum there at non-zero value this is just a toy see or feel the thing about but allows us to construct a state whose energy consists entirely of introduces your field and therefore to be dominated by the introduced field it's a state of type 1 thing about the important thing about that state is this completely Lorentz invariant scalar looks St. all observers as with guarantees so if you were moving at some high velocity relative to the observer who do this plot using the same naive scalar field as he sings that reaching the same stage and that means that the energy movement with a asked to be Lorenzen Wright because the state is 1 tonight so as to observers removing a different color velocities if 1 sees a certain momentum cancer that investing the same management attention he said and state and there is only 1 cancer that's invariant under influence boosts and that is the magic cancer itself so the claim is that Lorenzen variants implies that the energy momentum cancer continue past a vehicle to a constant at times in special relativity while the court it you the special relativity metric on In New New depending on your signed conventions something like minus 1 2 0 0 1 2 0 1 2 2 1 0 0 0 2 2 1 now the space-time terms of the are under pressure and he 0 0 is the evidence of the and this formed says immediately that the pressure has to be just equal to minus the area today and a simple as that so you get exactly this formula pressures minus the events of the last of the country's square yes so this side of the matter yeah the sigh cancer does matter is it's still true that people miners were as he scurried away but the monkeys Peace positively case Rose has the opposite side so far as this gravitational Paulson's concerned it's had negative pressures that create gravitational ripples so it's only when Rose positive and he is negative you get gravitational repulsion the signs of the other way around if Roe were negative them .period positive and it will contribute to the gravitational deceleration to the provisional tractors yesterday it turns out observation was that the evidence Iraq intends seems to be positive and promising universe so but it would have been just as logical as far as anything we that could be the other way around that viewers could have been decelerating due to negative acumen militants OK so it was argued the 1 I argument number 2 is a conservation energy argument for unanimity that believe that it's OK for space to stretch a release for a region with a scalar field and to change sides but will you guessed so let me magic for argument to that I have a at piston chamber with the the potential energy of a scalar field of greater than 0 inside and uniform and the energy being 0 outside and again Sheffield have mine could be 1 very much like this except I guess I'd need for it to have a 0 someplace so I have potential and turnover so this is the outside this is the inside those that values the values Scoville inside that values the values fulfilled outside and now I advance myself what happens if I pull out on his list in Geneva but if I do that it will cost in large volume Of the region inside I don't know for normal gas or something like that if you a larger volume the energy density would go down but for this year feel they can do that the university is here the only way to get to their is to somehow Tomilova over this barrier maybe some classical Boston come push it over there but they just sitting here I'm not going wait long enough at a time coalition with its longtime I stuck here and in no way intended to go down that's the situation I want to imagine that the Schofield inside the boxes sitting at this local minimum of potential energy function so it cannot go down and so when you pull out of the Pistons the energy density inside the piston chamber remains constant but under the volume has increased so the total area is gone out what's
happened happened hello well terminology can go up some put energy into it and what that means is that in order to enlarge this volume up I would have to put energy and my polling forcefully outward on system to only way it can acquire the energy needs of volume to increase at a fixed energy density and if I have to exert a force deployments Western that means that the pressure gradient pushing interest words we have your pressure outward outsiders just as good an ordinary empty vacuum outside the region with the negative pressure inside at to balance due to give us that force which is needed for energy conservation and could be quite simple but I still won't bother writing them down good right and then you get exactly the way that we have won the screen and we will get back shortly still there of how so
it's another argument which guarantees that any positive energy density in a scalar field I have to be accompanied by a negative person of the same magnitude exactly the same magnitude you can't people happy with those arguments so negative pressures exist General 77 negative pressures produced gravitational Paulson television would also exists and that it is in fact the secret behind inflation high inflation proposes that the current expansion of the Big Bang was driven by the repulsive force of gravity caused by the negative pressure of some scalar field the new get the same because it's the energy density Rose amassed today also this as I can tell you that the pressure is equal to make an innocent civilians here either a melody as a grow when actual maddening but so that the matter and I'll be honest I'm a little mystified about how these arguments contends are different and give the same answer but it must have something to do with the consistency of physics in the 1st place yes please even if negative rhetoric and today it's also is moving later "quotation mark everything is that's right all this determine here's the acceleration not the sign of the velocity so it's like they're throwing the ball in the air grandiose calls a downward with the ball go up or down and scented with universes they could expand or contract and so our universe happens to be standing and if you ask what is the effect of this repulsive gravity fever starts out static that will cause it to expand the universe started out imploding it would cause it to slow down its implosion and all the back and I will always cause expansion in the future but it's is an acceleration so it's similar to throwing the ball in the air and does not determine the loss of a OK to continue and so there are basically 2 kinds of inflationary scenario is the sum of both based on the idea that gravitational portions caused by potential energy of a stellar field the earliest and simplest is what was called no inflation might wonder why new inflation was the earliest of the reason is that old inflation didn't work I won't discuss that now madam Porter and so on no inflation assumed that a potential energy function were still feel that looked something like this with 1 way closer resembles a potential function quality in the wake of the Higgs field of the Standard Model particle physics and he inflation occurred with the skillful perched on top of this plateau His state that sometimes called the false vacuum but the entomology this word false vacuum is In the context of a quantum field theory that vacuum is the state of lowest possible energy density as you said there is no good reason for that necessarily be 0 but whatever the state of lowest possible energy density is a quantum field theory that defines vacuum this state where the scalar field is perched on top of a hill there is certainly not the vacuum because the scale fuel can roll down the hill the bottom where the potential energy is closed lower but the assumption here is that the amount of time that that takes is long by released early universe standards so temporarily this your field stuck at the top of the hill visages doesn't have time to get down and that is that temporarily this acts as forward the state of Lowe's possible energy Hensley says a temporary vacuum when the word false and false vacuum really means temporary vacuum so efficient stomach with the case the potential energy and skill feel dominates the situation has drawn and will continue to dominate until the skillful rolls off the hill and the assumptions that that takes too long for takes a lot longer than messages in things happened before in particular inflation but so inflation occurs while the skeletal list on top of a hill dominated by that potential energy this 2nd scenario here called chaotic inflation invented by 180 in 1983 but is a little more subtle the scalar field potential here is a much support thank could just be a simple problem potential that goes like em square dance where it is just a free field theory that's a possibility here and inflation takes place while the CEO field is high on a hill willing downward and what then they realized is that starts at high enough on the Hill you have a long enough period where the energy is dominated by the potential energy for inflation happen then when they got here which the bottom of the hill inflation yes OK that's an interesting question they and the different possible answers the original answer the 1 that was discussed in papers about new inflation assumed that the universe was in thermal equilibrium at very very high temperatures that we no longer necessarily feel comfortable assuming there was the assumption that and even of the potential energy function looks like this at very high temperatures this could still be ephemeral equilibrium point the miniseries of theirs the laughter but once it's cold so that there no longer thermal effects then yes is terrible to roll of the hell and was
simply has to raise the parameters of that that takes a long time by early universe standards and that haven't models were constructed and to get to the top of the hill that comes about by thermal equilibrium processes at higher temperatures finite temperature effective potential which is what coverage at finite temperatures can still just have a single man with the center even when the potential energy looks like this I now in there are other contexts I think it is and now it is most of us would be unwilling to assume that the universe started out from equilibrium and calculations show that it's not start out in the equilibrium it will not reach the McQuivey fast enough to make this work so 0 no I think the common way of assessing how this could still happen In the modern context is to just imagine it could happen random as if the Schofield had a complicated distribution in space Due to some random starting point we don't know determining in a submission to the universal just make things up we can make up essentially random distribution for the scalar field and all the places where the scalar field will be on top of the hill and those places can play 1 place Del and ultimately the places that plate will dominate that's not the way it can happen that's right it has to be homogeneous or approximately the scale of the horizon that time approximately inverse Hubble expansion well I think the real answer is nobody quite knows because nobody quite knows what random meetings but if you believe that the natural scale is the scale and I will is the only scale that's there then gobble scale becomes a natural correlation and it doesn't strike me as being so improbable that have a region of publicized that approximate homogeneous evidence crucially on here assumptions which we don't have to justify so I think you could easily convince yourself way and so we know people of commits himself both ways that act have thank you all 50 commits itself of registered question the other questions will get in my case going on but discussion of the sequence of events the scenario association proposes that at least a patch of this negative pressure and material existed in the early universe and if we had inflation at the end of the scale of grand unified theories which is isn't plausible but not necessary assumption on inflation could happen other scales as well of innovation happens at the end of the scale grand unified theories then the patch can be as small as 10 to the minus 28 centimeters which is kind of phenomenal that is the Hubble size that energy density publicizing the inverse of the Hubble expansion but now since any such patches fantastically large was inflation started the initial density of such patches of the probability that passions that happened can be extraordinary low the monsters to leaders workable because the places flight take over once they start so as long as the chanted starting and that's interest my way things enough to make the model was totally viable yes the use the to like of part of the deal with it after but you know what I mean is that the energy density is about equal to the 4th power that energy units were it's God's 0 1 still and so the agency goes like the 4th power of of an energy that's because 11 is the same as adverse energy despite its power yeah Texas age moreover P and so on so 92 the 4th power is the same as energy provider and that's waiting community of Europe attendance 16 year energy density the order of 10 the 16th unique to the 4th power get so if 1 assumes that such pact exists what is woven soon and then the gravitational pull propulsion created by the negative pressure becomes the driving force behind the big bang in that patch of space at the bank becomes a local feature of global feature the patches driven and exponential expansion and for grand unified theories numbers b exponential expansion time constant is about 10 to the minus 38 seconds answer every 10 to minus 38 seconds the little patch grows by a factor of Willie 2 . 7 it also think of is doubling since wrong or a magnitude things but so the patch has to expand exponentially by factor released 10 to the 28 to become big enough to create a observed universe which means it has to be the order of 1 centimeter at the end of the started at 10 to the minus 28 centimeters and requires a 65 time constants in his work at the logarithm and it's also about as 100 doubling times between the contends of government contracts than time constants and if 1 has that much inflation which would produce an entire universe from this initial tend minus 28 centimeter patch and few have more inflation is probably OK you don't have to fine-tune anything here I was just a minimum amount of inflation needed that created the universe no inflation ultimately ends because the scalar field eventually rolled down the hill In these 2
models in this model the scale undergo some kind of fluctuation and all down the hill is modeled on downhill to begin with so much does roll down the hill and you come to a state which is no longer dominated by the potential energy of the scalar field and then the gravitational repulsion turns off and inflation turns off and at that point the energy that within scalar field gets released and gets released 2 other particles this particle colliding with each other and they hopefully rather quickly produce a I have seen the hot soup of ordinary particles which was exactly the starting point of the conventional Big Bang theory so it is with the people ends and the main feature begins that is the conventional Big Bang Theory begins built out of the particles created by the energy of the scale of field that had dominated universe during inflation the standard ,comma knowledge then begins they might just point out here and somebody my size handle them at the bottom of that there's a qualification associated with this statement the scalar field actually varies in space and what happens is In a capable placed inflation 1 and in a certain amount of time but those the other places where inflation might be continuing and that's what ultimately gives rise to this phenomena of eternal inflation which are becoming back to so eternal inflation happens because because this last statement is a little bit oversimplified many questions you hear different yes but if you just look at the scaffold at 1 point in space you'll eventually see it will to the bottom of the hill and inflation land at that particular point in space this year I think of every point in space but will happen at different times at different points in space I'm so that a given time the picture is a little more complicated than the Stetsons makes it sound professional and in some places below be continuing in other places and the phenomenon of eternal inflation which will discuss the issue says that fact for many models that inflation is always continuing someplace I never completely hands and will assess how that happens exactly a little later you we will have always have this a good question has the
usual assumption that underlies the initial conditions here :colon assumption we don't really have a theory of initial conditions of the universe so we really just make the prophecies that sound plausible and a plausible hypothesis that's attached to this picture is that the still feel start that some random configuration have a start and surrendered invigoration you argue that there be some places with the scale sometime and held and will be those places that will undergo the inflation and that's the origin of the word chaotic here actually How can 1st to the initial conditions that seem appropriate to this potential energy function while the summarily period of the initial additions here with 1 of his being thermal although it can also be Katich sir students which which that's right the inflation the delegate to be just 1 inflationary patch in fact looks much more plausible that there would be some number of inflationary patches and we will do that and it's 1 of the course but there could very easily be others and talk later about the multiverse American it's very possible that there are many others maybe even in a number of others Oh yeah ,comma but now important feature that makes all this work really it added his region is inflating if the emergency went down by the fantastic factor by which the volume increases than they really nothing there by the end inflation would not work do but the fact is that a fantastic amount of expansion is going on expansion by at least a factor of 10 to the 28 linearly and that means the volume close with the queue allowances and 74 or something like that the program that affect something like that of Nadia so it's crucially important that the agency does not decrease by that factor is that it does not have a lot of this expansion is going on the Internet users secure fuel was in fact not lower at all the and that seems to violate conservation of energy this is how much more energy the Schofield at the end and we had at the beginning and the the claim is that even know you have vastly more mass energy in a stellar field at the end you have the beginning is still all consistent with energy conservation and this is where we need another miracle physics I told you earlier than I do inflation is resting on 2 miracles of physics has of the 2nd miracle elects on is somewhat surprising but actually obvious fact that the energy of a gravitational field is in fact negative sale what is going on the union while expansion taking place it is committee be related in some the to this picture here for the custom of the test the energy of skeletal was constant as the volume expanded with the energy came from my point out on the distance and the question is in the universe What is the analog of the mechanism that pulling out of imparting ejection energy and the answers as gravity and that gravity can you that precisely because unity of gravitational field is negative so if we look at the overall energy balance Of the total energy is approximately 0 and stay there that is the problem and use your field is compensated by the negative energy of gravity to the turbidity universe is constant and may very well be exactly 0 because many case incredibly small it's whenever started with this tiny patch the scientists schematic pictured as saying the landing on positive energy that's in the black plus a lot of units in the red and up to something which is if 0 River close to 0 know you might be surprised by my I tell you that the energy Oh gravitational field is negative slide that
attempts to explain that in the context of Newtonian physics His by means of a thought experiment so let me take you through the rest the thought experiment is to imagine a shell of a spherical shell of matter and its gravitational field which was lined up in the gravitational field lines as you hope you know the gravitational field Schiller matter outside the shell is the same as that of all the natural concentrated at the point particle at the origin of the same total mass the discovered this I am inside the shell the gravitational field is exactly 0 yeah perfect cancelation between the matter in different directions to inside the no fuel lines because there is no gravitational field inside the shelves so To make my thought experiments were want to imagine Is there a tie ropes so error every little bit across the surface of this hemisphere and tie those ropes to generators and then I will imagine that this year's made of something soft like body so it can collapse under its own weight some gravity is pulling Europe and I I regimes ropes so that I can extract energy as collapses as a collapses of polls on the votes generates power by turning the generators and what they do is they will let it collapse to a certain size and stop the whole thing so this is the final size this is the final picture will go on from there to there are in the process of 1 from there to there with extracting energy motors produced energy was that light bulbs on the size of the pictures so energy had been extracted from the system but now must look at the difference between the initial state in the final state of the simple geometry makes everything very simple outside of this .period line which is supposed to be the initial radius Of the spherical shell outside the hardline nothing is changed reducing turning gravity here so the revocation of that site just given by the total mass so no change outside of the diamond mines inside of the final solid line it's 0 at the end was due at the beginning so no change there either the not a place for the gravitational field has changed it is in this region between the initial position this year and the final position of the CIA and that region there's a gravitational field at the end of a while there was none of the beginning so if we now think about the overall process here what we've done is we've produced a gravitational field we've created a gravitational field in a region where previously was 0 everything else is much the same as attractive energy so by producing a gravitational field you can extract energy and conservation only makes sense in that statement if the gravitational field actually has named and that's a result I might then quickly saying that you have to argue for a lot of things and psychologically to that but the 2nd argument is to think about how you calculate the energy in called the old electrostatics and of course proved love electrostatic attraction repulsion is exactly the same as the law of gravity in this form to Loris where force but that she is assigned different attitude to positive charges repel 2 positive masses attract so united calculated the energy called until by calculating how much work you have to do push charges around to create an electric field that standard calculation and glasses on that same calculation exactly works returning rapidly but the signed difference at the beginning just follows the calculations if you assign difference at the end so for electric field you discover that the energy density is something like 1 of the In Epsilon modest that depending on the distance he squared his constant positive constant prompted to build squared 40 Avenue good too times little G squared compensation calculations and rejected the special case so the thought experiment outside the area turning additional field of unambiguously negative and that fact does carry over into general relativity of the awesome offensive but about exactly how you define total energy in general relativity provocation we can define it carries through and so is negative and that's basically how inflation works In Paris the universe undergoes this humongous expansion during inflation more and more positive energy is appearing in the form of the stellar feel that fills the space but that's OK as far as conservation areas concerned because more and more negative energies appearing in the form of the gravitational field that feels that same region OK on the now thinking that earlier any further questions yet by on the whole sensing that I will be positive contribution the beginning of contribution no need to like I guess I'd have to say that the sector orphanages is more complicated than that that statement and people who worry about entropy in the context of gravity do you have advice and you go way of talking about entropy of gravitational systems from what I understand if I have a system imposed by horizons in this event does not arise in Multan plating that allegedly is a piece proportional to the rise area similar to black holes plus the field theory and should be of everything inside including the radical aren't there clear evidence linking up against and that it should be certainly does stay the same or increase during this process because I think it did not immediately did not violate the federal through amendments patents technically no and in fact this inflating exponentially expanding space isn't that precisely the family equilibrium state In the thermodynamic sense the state of the bottles of chemicals and some Caribbean state if 1 imagines that this positive vacuum energy is fixed so often takes the part that really fixed in effect which is summit inadequate stable state In play the status stable state any question there is also states How well with the I love this is not quite sure these were normal expansion Paterson much of right it's certainly see now I will personally see now really obeys the same dynamic says the early universe inflation universe is accelerating the telling of this document is there so it's accelerating just like the early universe and energy conservation the works exactly the same way and there's more and more in more more total dark energy as the universe gets bigger however there can be accounted for by the capture gravitational negative energy and that fills the universe Tony raise the same now as it was during reports now there's a splitting contribution to order a matter which has to be factors as well the best-actor incorrectly total balance but yet still have actually have finished my description of what inflation is I now want to change gears and talk about evidence translation itself will be moving to a new topic here me for that reason policy for another minute see if you have any questions the units was to clearly understand how inflation works yes the the it was a mail order form on the way which the World
I at all the will tonight is the key You're absolutely right so people have considered inflation written by state vector fields and then the trick is to recover Lorenzen variants because the vector field it has a non-zero expectation value throughout space break Sorenstam variance let's say have to somehow arranged for for its variants to be restored at the end of the patient and are models that claimed he knew that but nobody here is that they had not really caught on except among their own authors and I think the reason we haven't icons and they do require a fair amount of fine-tuning of parameters to arrange for a ransom trying to do just restored at the end of broken throughout the process of inflation yes it is there that he the principle is there also inflation was I guess I'd say it's almost completely unknown and there are there are some papers that proposed sketchy theories about how the universe could he created as a quantum timely event from absolutely nothing but we don't really have a solid enough theory of quantum gravity to put teeth onto that kind of a theory and in fact the series and returned to work are pretty old papers actually papers from the 90's yourself I think nobody really knows had even approach that in the context of string theory the newspapers and talking about real artists summit possible gravity and on and on you know I I think so far at least nobody has really come up with a convincing model has been banned by convincing at least consistent with the laws of physics in the field of any real evidence that happened however OK I think it was never break at a quarter to mine where only 2 wins away from happening just don't talk about my 1st piece of evidence for inflation and that was on the break I well let it want or have reversed his shipwreck but with further virtue that I thought about it is the large-scale uniformity of the universe handicapped explained before the break exactly what what situation has the universe when we look at barge things in Abbeville although planets in nearby stars in the nearby galaxies looks uniform in all directions but this uniformity is seen most strikingly the cosmic background radiation which is the left-over heat from the Big Bang itself there really is the furthest thing that we can see the cosmic background radiation photons what we think of as being released at about 380 thousand years and there were nearby released is that before 380 thousand years of history of the universe universe was so hot that the gas that filled the universe was a plasma rather than natural gas and plasmas it turns out are very opaque to radiation said during the planning phase the photons didn't go anywhere at any given instant the back by radiation was here and at any given instant that sort removing its alive they're constantly colliding with the free electrons of the plasma and changing directions and his constant change of direction and there during the whole 1st community have nears the photons of the cosmic background radiation essentially went nowhere but according to our calculations at 380 thousand years universe cooled enough to neutralize the gasses accident became a neutral gas like the areas through which is highly transparent about arms and a it's a bit of a jump to go from there room to the material that fills the entire universe in cosmic distance scales but infected and at the same conclusion but that once the get Schweizer really does become transparent so that the photons that we observe today the cosmic background radiation were for the most part last scattered about 380 thousand years after the Big Bang the distance traveled straight lines ever since and that means that when look at the cosmic background radiation were essentially saying an image of what the universe looks like at age 380 thousand years just like those but raise travel for my taste your eyes tell you what my face of flight and what we see is that the cosmic background radiation uniform and temperature in all directions to an accuracy of about 1 . 100 thousand of incredibly accurate so interpret this as meaning that the universe was uniform its temperature and presumably mass density to an accuracy of 1 part 100 thousand at least as early as 380 thousand years after the Big Bang and the question is can we understand how got be so uniform but now saying the beginning that if you won't use assumed that it started out completely uniform No problem you can assume that if you want will not have started was state form but if Europe I would like to entertain the possibility of not assuming that was completely uniform from the beginning that you can ask are there dynamical processes that could have made uniform and the answer is that without inflation it would require the transmission of energy and information as well at about 100 times the speed of light to smooth the universe out by 380 thousand years after the Big Bang if it did start out its moves to start with so within the context of conventionally then theory if you want to be able to explain the uniformity of the universe you can't assuming that you cannot violate speed of light and so that's the problem sometimes called horizon-problem horizon referring to the come on set by the maximum distance that light can travel up until given time on the whole the horizon distance and this horizon distance prevents the universe from becoming uniform by 380 thousand years unless you just assume it's time that way and that's the problem that I will tell you after the break that inflation salts but now will take a break it was all about the understanding so it was like this I tell you about how amazingly you want to respond to the kind of background radiation is central to the directions want to houses which gage activity during the 1st is that farmers and temperature and probably also the thing you want to work about is the only thing that so I have to the universe is a made users during the time the problems just half and I told you that the context of conventional theory utilization know it establishment it was the cause of the fire transmission there they should be allowed to find a way out of as guests it's around problems on the way it the essential our invasion services to the history of the universe this very short but dramatic period of exponential expansion in that he said he following worst backwards in time going through the period of inflation contracted this is the main even more inflation in the region is going to this university it was vastly smaller than that the moment and that means that during his Roland Mouret section there was plenty of time for that region the beautiful by the same amount money the fastest that while there in the field of moral lessons learned in the last sentence that I don't want to formally
established this kind of correlation
inflation-adjusted structures that region up to the times of the late last nite encompasses everything we see
observation universal produces a universe of homogeneous which is what's needed the sense it was monitor
to relieve the strain that is that is that they're so that guests and I wanted out of trust in the I think I'm going to because it's straightforward yet but at the same calculations relates to the number of young features of radiation which 1 observes objects such as birds but it's so that problems because of lack the question of is why was the early universe of flat in the sense of you mentioned at the the time the general said I have a problem with that generally we assume that the universe is comedy is far from unions all this is probably the single directions to make assumptions that the Vatican City on face the universe on the rage in college and and let's say a little bit of a satellite there was the Jews In fact it was learned that some them are again was generally universe chairman of the last survey also suspension and that was all about the quality of the capital of America and yes the that is universal areas that was called credible evidence that the Democrats velocity is exactly the intensity of the University of Michigan lack the intervention was published in the slowdown our economy is back on the winning University and some of the more than 100 was come from measures was the result of this 1 was that the 2 of them were back on the universe I think all this is a case of beer is at work on a stable equilibrium .period translator led to last set on some the wings 1st were exactly what was stated at the end of the war just a little less than those that feature of the general I know that this a series of related to and alleged that great 1 on the ground was forwarded to the Nunavut which lasted about as we collapse of standard not later than close the ground that these many today is to stop the problem is underway and in and that is the real evolution are so they can number if you want the which by the way it was the beginning of the president used to wonder if the classical columns in the mouth of the was they had already lost the people wanted 15 metal places to be with the people outraged that that's extraordinary trying to find out what they said that I made were not so as as to what and and the university unilaterally I have universal final part of the dimensions of law of the land in the city of universal support at that time forgot to form so forecast Monday toward a united only in their universe has just this is the Lancaster and within the context of the conventional Big Bang theory that is not enough to drive 1st this special group known as the initial hostility good forest conditions have long used to question is what constitutes a threat to us to want to know that the news was that it was cheap 15 years later so sold Lane is implemented in the I don't inflation changes in the works 1st turned the Commission is repulsive that's about all you do not so during election instead of the label that is working on various issues in this election implausible incident was 1 exponentially last fall that it enjoyed by itself it once was pressed by the square of the scale factor is still active in the so that he could legend already has not just like it the start has been to attend almost anything other Ferreira reliance are some of the more information to drive people with spinal but any reasonable alleviation wants the applause politicization 1 of the factors that is driving the 1 essentially always told students at the University of lawmakers closer to 1 that needed to be based the operations of most legislation to stop at just the right time this year and was selected as fast as you can see the difference to the relatives of electioneering says that generically inflation always uses universally want that will make its 1st win of the season and so on vacation and said the University of that name now some 198 actually was operational problems too the 1988 Congress probably last less than 1 and as the time approaches the 98 Bloomberg said that you want to do what's right half of the observational as many as she had personal note in his name and that of especially when you astronomers have always figure section chief .period but on the condition that they should take that long and may not want to unfortunately I always changes in 1998 and that only the best the talks and on the little 1 . 2 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 1 and so
1998 it was discovered that the universe today is in fact accelerating
and the only way we know that happened in the context of general is to have a material with a negative pressure and this negative pressure materials what we call the dark energy and we don't know in detail what it is that even without knowing detail what it is by knowing how much the universe is accelerating at 1 figure out how much of it there must be in with a dark energy gets added to everything else that same come up with this wonderful number of amended in central exactly 1 this stock energy is most likely have for the most likely the simple theory for the dark energy is the 1 that I consider most likely is of the dark energy is just vacuum energy and that's certainly consistent with all the observations the fallback theory and there are more complicated possibilities with dark energy could be a scalar field knowing in complicated way the which has not won very pastoral scenes the time variations I but the simplest version is that the dark energy is just vacuum energy and I'll actually assumed that effort was the world we think the rest of the talks OK that was a comeback to dark energy that will this now is the 2nd 1 piece of evidence for inflation the fact that the inflation explains why Omega neural universe was so extraordinary close to 1 and even makes a prediction for America should be today have prediction that was wrong until 1998 but now is right on the money said that feels good yes sir 1st and that's right that's right upon results from CNN only had a can tell when a major difference in right right but that many of the same does actually have a fairly simple explanation good they're releasing the geometry what they're really doing what and when they come this number is triangulating where we're here looking on the bonds aside out to the was called the surface of last scattering which is sphere that surrounds us which is at just the right distance so that like that left it at 380 thousand years is which he has now so that's this year on which these photons that we're seeing in the background radiation were for the most part last scattered called the surface of last scattering but what we think we know how to calculate this is maybe a little hard to explain but history has to do with tracing oscillations in the early universe I wish you could get the dominant Waveland these fluctuations and that means that we know the wavelength of the dominant punctuation based on calculations so we have this distance and this angle and we also have a distance to the service of last gathering coming from fitting the dynamics of the expanding universe and that allows you to determine whether that triangles Euclidean triangle with angles at up to 100 agrees or not and the answer is that to actors and they can measure on the final of 200 million graciously dispersed also it is a direct geometric measurements half of space that's right there for the dark energy is and what they did not directly measure acceleration put you the dark energy unambiguously there really just measuring the total mass density and so the dark energy is just whatever you can't count for otherwise although if the matter will weather this year this measurement is really just a measurement still mastered the worst nonetheless effects on the continent background radiation caused by the other forms of matter so they they do not have a pretty direct measurement on the barrier and into the and the ordinary dark matter density as well to so even from the CMB alone you can determine how much dark-energy and you come up with a number that's very close to winning fled from signaling OK so this is vital to the success understanding America item 3 which is perhaps the most impressive is the small-scale 9 uniformity and that we see in the universe most clearly again in the cosmic background radiation I've tried to interest you and held uniform discussion background radiation is uniform to 1 . 100 thousand to incredible but nonetheless which was perhaps even more incredible is that astronomers divides instruments which can measure the intensity of the cosmic background radiation to higher precision than that and as levels of provision of better than 1 .period 100 thousand how actually sees fluctuations of the constant background radiation and the question then becomes so where does it come from the draft referred to as rebels along the almost uniform cosmic background radiation ripples that just the amplitude of only about 1 . 100 thousand Of the total intensity of the radiation now in the context of conventional cosmetology there's really no explanation for the uniformity in the 1st place and similarly no explanation for the limitations on uniform so in the context of conventional cosmology if anybody want to talk about these density fluctuations we knew they were there for a long time to needed for theories of galaxy formation you know that not seeing until recently that so but people want to talk about extensive insubordination various put in by hand go with and idea where there might come from inflation has a a possible answer to where these density fluctuations come from according to inflationary models of the density fluctuations can be accounted for as a purely as quantum fluctuations it essentially just direct implications of the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics so if we analyzed inflation purely classical the tremendous expansion of inflation just stretch everything's smooth and you would have essentially no non-uniform ease in the universe I I should add that there was a period of a year or 2 in the early history of inflation where that seemed to be the pictures you worry a lot about it How could inflation described the universe was discovered completely annihilate all density perturbations other than was realized contrary theory can come to the rescue of inflation then the context contrary where the classical predictions must complete uniformity the content of addiction because of uncertainty requirements this is necessarily going to be a situation where the ANC is almost uniform but because of random fluctuations in some places than will be higher than the classically predicted uniform value and the place is a little lower and classically predicted uniform value and that's exactly the small rebel probably almost uniform background and you can go ahead and actually calculate how what the rebels should look like it turned out that to calculate the the amplitude of the rebels it requires us to know more about the dynamics of the skill or feel that rising inflation than we know so worried not capable of predicting the amplitude the fluctuations of wealth we knew everything about the underlying physics we could in principle could be helpful to boy turns out to be essentially model independent almost long dependent on is the spectrum of the fluctuations predicted by inflation that's pretty much just because of the such uations are produced as the still feel very slowly rolled down a hill the potential energy diagram and that means that as the such relations are produced very little is changing Schofield moves a little bit down the health but very little actually congressional models so that means that each set of fluctuations is generated under the same conditions as the previous session I'd like to but they undergo different amounts of exponential stretching after the produced To get there for a whole spectrum of fluctuations which at scale invariant all having the same intensity From heavily How Waveland still married nations maybes .period out this year and up is not quite the same as white noise which sounds a lot like scale invariant but In this case scale invariant takes into account the fact that we have an expanding universe and we say that we have the same intensity all wavelengths we mean that you extrapolates where went back to the time was 1st produced at the same intensity than any other way land that is that all evolving differently than actual patterns time is more complicated than white lies and that is what the cost down barriers very simple but so so she makes this prediction for destruction which turns out to be beautifully with what's observed here is the data that we know the underlying fluctuations produced at the end of inflation are "quotation mark scale invariant as I said they evolved differently over time of it if amounted to an artifact resulting rather complicated spectrum as we see it today and because background radiation but is affectionate predicted by the initially scale invariant spectrum produced by inflation of dots are actual data coming in this case of the W map seven-year data plus an extra points from 2 other experiments but 1 of the conviction that part of the red line is the prediction I haven't stationary models including got energy as part of the evolution as you see the red line fits back .period gorgeously and very complicated curve up wonderful women between what inflation prediction would actually observed that I Ismael unique I tell me tell you how much I like this curve and this is a graph of which shall Max Tegmark helpless put together showing some competing but police previously competing theories of what was then the provisions would look like models other than inflation so if for example we had the open universe that we thought we had before 1998 astronomers thought we had for 1998 then you get this yellow line appear again Noah's fitting data but if we have inflation without dark energy meaning inflation without making equals 1 all 1 dark matter and dark matter rather than dark energy that the dark matter has a different effect on these fluctuations and causes this week proved which again looks nothing whatever like the data but they were also theories In the 1980's and 90's I would propose that the fluctuations that we see and cutting background radiation might be caused by the random formation of things called topped cosmic strings that leads to this purple curve which again looks nothing whenever like the data show what discouraging intend to show that is not easy to reproduce these fears but inflation does excellently have this area is incredibly strong piece of evidence for inflation emission clarify matter did that was being plotted here consisted of employment are the amplitude of the temperature fluctuations on the vertical axis and the horizontal axis is the wavelength of the observed fluctuations Wen way what is measured as an angle in the sky he seeing apparently started talking about the spectrum in the sense of intensity versus Waveland the way 1 can handle more precisely if you want a really know how the data is analyzed his allies by expanding in spherical harmonics and the intensity is participants of a multiple number L & L is just being translated here into angle but the real real analysis done is to come in terms of these multiples are there yes it's absolutely gorgeous curve that is not the most recent data on the previous slide this is the most recent data from the Planck satellite and the market is major democracy that's durable curvaceous that I just he's getting better and better so far at least so that's my 3rd variant think strong piece of evidence in favor of the stationing of actual explanation of our universe has evolved OK any questions about that no know I will not let three-and-a-half pieces of evidence that half-eaten evidence by the gravitational waves that may or may not have been found about adviser to experiment and you might recall that last March 17 the day that looms large in my memory probably larger than in your memory of the varsity team announced that they saw gravitational waves which were interpreted as evidence that system that are part of the polarization and cosmic background radiation called the out which were interpreted as evidence for gravitational waves from the early universe exactly the type that inflation would predict should exist not so inflation produces gravitational waves in a way that's in fact very similar to the way it produces ordinary density perturbations that is a quantum effects in the cornfield there are always very large underage workers and the key inflation players in both of these 2 cases than the regulations and the gravitational waves simply to stretch the stridency regulations have to macroscopic scales Hong where they become very observable In the case of gravity waves it really is the Metropol space itself for 2 in 1 very small scale inflation and stretches that to become classical gravitational waves on large scales and then classical gravitational waves the interact With the plasma the early universe and that produces a pattern In the cosmic background radiation which recalled the modes the other kind of Karim melody modes do not require gravitational waves the mood to do and it was his modes that passive to claim to have observed man elaborate ethical every little bit on and these mode questions it's so it's obvious that a certain kind of modem the polarization of the CNB to tell you that there are gravity waves but there is in fact a simple link there the point is that scalar perturbations are described by a scalar field where fundamental field from phenomena logical field and a scalar field has a certain number of modes with expanded in I bad a gravitational perturbation it is described as a gravitational away it has polarization of gravity wave has to politicians just like the electromagnetic waves so that is a very twice as many modes To the full description of a gravitational perturbations as there are to the full description of stellar perturbations and that means that if you look at it the if you look at the horizon OK next important factors signatories many bows to describe gravitational relations but also twice as many HMOs described judgment provisions if you can measure mobilization could likewise like gravity photons have 2 boys Asians so the CMB has a certain number of modes the ceremonies as a gravitational perturbations and twice as many as the scale of the nation and that means that if you can see the polarization of the CMB only half of those modes could be excited by modes there initially from the scalar provisions it's the only half as many skilled modes that is a half of the mode that exist in the polarization of the sea and they have to be uninfluenced by scale operations and that is the only ones by gravitational perturbations and that's what are seen as direct evidence of gravity waves in the early universe and those who were called to be notes the other half motor call the modes Hindi referring to electromagnetic analogs and therefore PCB modes and they really are primordial they have to be due to gravity waves in early universe and cannot because when 1 redemption provisions the early universe but it turned out that they can also be caused by dust in our own galaxy would also produce a complicated pattern of things off and on since the initial announcement as you've probably heard the other people have estimated the contributions from dust which have large uncertainties still but at least the estimates of dust seem to be large enough to possibly account for the entire single scene by said to the most detailed analysis that's underway is a joint analysis between the bicep to team and the planning team the crossed collating the data plant has the best way of measuring DOS this plant has many different frequencies that measure on the creation the bicep to experimentally measured 1 frequently 100 gigahertz and that makes them a better blind to what's Dustin what's primordial so hopefully because collating and they may seek out some small singling out no yet and that paper should come out any day now and was originally claimed to be expected at the beginning of December In the beginning in December and became sometime in January and the end of January I guarantee I contacted the John Kodak today too I get the latest update what to expect he said me this slide from the top he gave last week and now they're saying that the plan of bicep to Tech as with the case that's why I believe my analysis she come out by the end of January which cost which soon which also expect nude data from the CAC array at 95 gigahertz by the spring of this year and bicep to and attack and if a vacancy should come in by the end of 2015 and the Analyses the number other groups like the South Pole telescope so there should be a lot more data coming in soon and it may be that we will find a genuine single of gravity waves from universe variety of something clear how could also find that there is no single as the level of these experiments and attack now I would argue that some of the songs Sloan I would argue that and most inflationary enthusiasts would argue that if these demands are not seeing the writing that's great evidence for inflation others were not tonight is really not any evidence at all against inflation because the intensity that these experiments planned to measure his early at the upper end of a very broad range of possibilities that inflationary models allow for the intensity of this gravitational waves are so not saying gravitational waves at the level sensitivity in any of these experiments with really just mean that the upper hand of very broad management ruled out by inflation would still be very healthy and solve all these other successes that I like to brag about so slides inside if not put there if it is granted to about there are very interesting they would 1st of all be the 1st direct experimental evidence me that we had that gravity is actually quantized medical officers believe that probably have to be quantized on grounds of consistency with the rest of physics this will be the 1st observational evidence that gravity is really quantized because what we would be saying really would be the gravitational fluctuations on very small scale French legislation to make them that macroscopic invisible would also be the 1st time we've actually seen what a gravitational wave look like we have already measure the energy loss due to gravitational radiation binary pulsar systems which is considering a confirmation of sort of gravity ways but only measures the total energy in it and it doesn't tell you the revenue is actually look like what to about says that in the light but here you really are in the cosmic background radiation saying an image produced by gravitational waves themselves in the much more detailed confirmation about what is being scene and furthermore and perhaps most important for us inflationary folks if the gravitational waves inflation Oracene that would tell us something very important about inflation would tell us the energy scale which inflation happened which depends pretty much directly under the expansion during the inflation and then the weather's numbers were created by Sept 2 was right they found Oracle 0 . 2 0 or at the ratio of the power and gravitational wave provisions to the power density perturbations and that is related according to theory would too well in the energy density at the time of invasion that and the formula that has also went converted to simple numbers says that the energy density contemplation is equal to 2 . 2 times 10 to the 16 unity to the 4th power plant are divided by 0 . 2 2 of our really a 0 . 2 inches that manages gathering inflation is 2 . 2 times 10 to the 16th DVD the 4th power which is exactly the energy scale grand unified theories so if gravity waves are seen at the level of intensity currently being probed that would really mean that inflation happened at the scale of grand unified theories which would be a very important thing now it it's seen ultimately a much lower level that would mean inflation at the lower end yes we don't want to and then there is was the perfect match right away what what white people call this high it would be like if she reasons 1 is that but this is the Taliban unified theories and therefore people did things greatly and didn't but nobody is a put it at a higher state of carry skills already ruled out observation .period so the fact that I think mostly because higher skills were already without observation this was really ties it could be and there are lot theories of media lower energy and a particular even the grand unified theories give you this very naturally In the context of string theory it's very hard to get this large happy people struggled to build string theory models that were given on this large and they succeeded but it takes a lot of struggling apparently among string theory while falling under understanding but but the basic issue I guess is that in a strain compact affectation there is a limit that you the still field usually is interpreted as some kind of a my July 7 describes the nature of the string compact affectation and all that happens at the Planck scale and it's that hard to have a field which changes but more than the pond value and at this energy on the field does have to change by more than the bond value during inflation for the whole thing to fit together so insincere this is hardly yes no is Bush say 10 hour How can I think amateur fighters who is saying that there is certainly an issue if 1 assumes that this is right and 1 assumes that the plant data is also right and normalize the same weighs in with them together then this value is actually higher than what plant had previously announced as an upper limit the upper limit that plunk announced was religious based on seeing the total amount of fluctuations in the northern part has not yet released its polarization data and at the point was that to yet this much fluctuation the modes you have to have less fluctuation and everything else on his measured the total correctly and that caused a suppression In the plonk estimated total defensive relations at large wavelengths because its large where once with this is measured and I think that's the tilt that you're talking about if you put those things together and assume that it's fair to assume they will be calibrated correctly you do find that this was just 7 Fed yes I think that's true but only if you believe that although they can be put together I wanted from the beginning people that this was not a consistent block it's something had to give and the initial police for a weaker too was that plant would have to be wrong and that he had this much much more like thereby said to his yes well ,comma here there is 1 this would be the year of the stated that we you can't because we you would think of you many of the things we would have had to OK I think the difference that I and mind the living made similar statements in mind is that for binary pulsar the competitor radiation purely presently known within its borders it's true if you want to interpret that radiation in terms of gravity once a spot as you having to grab is beyond measure that has nothing to do with what you measure adjustment the total energy loss and that a purely classical calculation that does not require the colonization of gravity in this case what we're saying we're interpreting correctly and that's where the act and I will put those 2 provisos I what we're saying are quantum fluctuations of the diesel fuel at very short distances ending stretched along the ventilation so overstocked is a quantum fluctuations in the whole of the proportion page bar president independent of each part yes what you expect growth at 1 but there is no other holders and do well up expect it may be too strong a word in any case we only know what to expect but the reason why we might suspect but that would be the scale is that if the scalar field that drove the infection was an element of the Grand Unified Theory had then the natural energy scale for that scalar field would be this 1 so that's the way gaza said that even after this can now and for the month or so that it was believed that people also had in mind very plausible inflationary models which gave this value of which back and nothing to do with grand unified theories so it provides a hint that grand unified theories have arrived in the scale but it's only doesn't show it look at the deficit every waves again not actually submitted for inflation goes with the 3 and a half that of the holiday on large scales flatness problem are the density perturbations the scene of background radiation and the possible observation about in which Of Mice warehouse I'll where what about Macs today we have a lot of publishers and talk about is the multiverse and how inflation leads to more diverse and what issues that leads to this will next unless there are more questions 1st about what we've already talked OK with most times and publisher just charge ahead and so I want discuss health models inflation leading to the idea of a all universe and the key idea that otherwise it is the fact that the material that drives the inflation which is often called the false vacuum the secure field some unstable statement on top of a hill and in any 1 location the probability of remaining in the false acting state is not made 0 but rather decays exponentially like the probability of uranium and survive for a long time you might think after many have fled Switzerland is merely actually probably that's still there was just increasing exponentially and that's what happens to a given .period inflationary space-time Hi the probability that will continue to inflate decreases exponentially with time the does not go sharply to 0 so what that means that if you follow 1 place and after a certain amount of time ,comma half-life Bibby approximately a half there will no longer be inflating but the curious situation is that what meanwhile universe is going on expanding exponentially and in any realistic model of the rate of exponential expansion is vastly faster than the rate of exponential decay and model would work with the other ordering and so that means that you wait half-life half of the reason that you're looking at that was inflating would no longer be exciting would become normal matter but the half that survives will attract occupy a vastly larger volumes than we started with I believe that the volume of inflating region grows with time rather than decreases with time even this material that's inflating an unstable and decaying internal matter that the moment later so what happens is that the inflation stops in regions and every region where it stops it produces what the call pocket universe be living in 1 of those pocket universes and the volume of Ofek increases the time given that the false packing the gang and said that and the inflation then becomes eternal which means that once it starts it never stops inflating region never disappears but pieces that would undergo detailed produced what misconduct recall pocket universes and it goes on and infinitum huh producing an infinite number of these pocket universes Hartzell instead of 1 universe inflation produces an infinite number of which is often woman call multiverse and the individual universes of multiple recall pocket universes now right don't want think the absolute all inflationary Miles behave this way but this is is the way I account for things most inflationary models this way I would even go so far as to say almost all inflationary models in this way yes all in all this political :colon but legacy Mary talking about their romantic side that number questions most recently saw fit attacked otherwise a probabilistic but basically to price inflation we talked about self-affirmation separately by the simplest is what's we call inflation with scalar field during inflation is just sitting on top of the hill so it's really completely analogous to the harmonica absolute government isolated it's upside down with 10 children equal to minus 10 x squared things start With the way back in Mexico 0 and as a confidence problem that can be solved exactly you might think if you have a potential energy function which has peaked and start with a way back at the top of the peak you might think that their weight back was put into 2 pieces and all that each side but that's not what happened you could solve the problem exactly what happened is that the way packages spreads the probability that is still the top of the hill gets slower more because the way that very broad and probably often size gets larger and larger but there's always a tale of the probability distribution in this case details in the center and where there is a small probability is still the top of the hill and the field theory is the same way breaking up the modes each mode acts like the harmonic oscillator that I just described so at least if you calculate this as a free field theory and without gravity defined as an exponentially decreasing probability that the scale will be still at the top of the hill at a given time and again by how best help the and again the rate of about 2 days in many successful inflationary model is smaller than the exponential expansion rate so the expense expansion dominates the volume of false vacuum grows with time rather than increases but for the other type of inflation chaotic type inflation it's less obvious that it will become internal In the mechanism by which becomes a journal was invented by 180 in 1986 and what he pointed out that menus .period that earlier in used by entree in this case is that to describe the fluctuations of the scalar field in this situation I was in an expanding universe you can adopt a simple model which is quite accurate which is that you can can think about the scalar field averaged over a Hubble size volume and vitamins then there is inverse of the Hubble constant double expansion but then you can think about what happens over a Hubble time and by making everything hobbled you will essentially allow only 1 well and parameter to theory which is that Hubble kind and what you find is that during this Hubble time interval the average quantum jump of the scalar field is h over to pirate is the Hubble spent tonight and that's a cornfield .period space calculations on the frequent appealed to the Indians a calculation but soon what is that saying about the motion here we could think of the scalar field rolling down the hill but we could think about classical and as having to superimposed upon a set of quantum jumps that described the quantum randomness of the process and again with always describe things terms of a Hubble time interval and averaged over Hubble volume so that we get this size quantum jump the amendment you can ask yourselves what is the probability that the quantum jump is bigger than the classical notion that becomes a very straightforward calculation now this is combined with the fact that during the Hubble time volume increases by EQ by definition any tubes about 20 if you work it out I suggest Hubble time the wine increases by about 20 and furthermore you also expect then finding 1 job there is an expanding universes that nothing much happened Anderson scales larger than the Hubble and I want this the characteristic scale determines correlation so when the universe expands so the volume increases by a factor of 20 people think of is producing 20 independent universes from where you want How because once the separated by Hubble and they don't interact with each other much anymore so during the Hubble time 1 universe becomes 20 this skillful walls classically down the hill but then is superimposed by this quantum jump which you could think of is having a Gaston probability distribution river from shall have a casting probability distribution all right so you can calculate the probability that the tale of the Stasi and makes that jump upward instead downward and yet you get depends on how high up your was shaped like so long but if that probability exceeds 120 F then means the 20 new universes that you will produce more than 1 of them will have a still feel that's higher than when you started with and that's the criterion for eternal inflation setting in if the number of items were the still feel this high is growing with time rather than decreasing and means that will grow forever and always have regions that are inflating so we have to do is figure out under what circumstances the probability of the field jumping up the novel on bigger than 120 where 120 comes from you and it turns out that for any reason we shape potential of evil apply enough that conditions will be met so feel that are heightened potentials can eternally enslave our meeting that they have not allow probably jumping up rather than down to maintain inflating region forever and that's how inflation becomes eternal in this context I want to move ahead of you lose last test was about being In a region where the inflation stopped and then coming back to that's really is completely separate calculation although it is possible that the answer is normally non-zero but the case where I want people think they know how to calculate the probability going up is when 1 has a non-zero that positive vacuum energy density but we do in our universe all and as long as the energy is positive there is according to send my classical gravity I guess is what we call it a non-zero by up as well as down if there's a lower energy sector tunnels downward and their courses very small and my guests so we don't expect to find ourselves timely tomorrow but and that is visible possible and Saskatchewan OK the government's last-minute should say something about the role that the total inflation the Moldova's plays and some of our thinking and the cost using slices and landslides that have the right degree of abbreviations what I was saying last 2 minutes here have but important problem for which this case has a role in people's thinking some people don't think this way that something you know is a problem of the cosmological constant problem which you mentioned earlier otherwise the vacuum energy of our universe some incredibly small but particle physics standards the point that defines the problem didn't say is that if we calculate the Nancy the vacuum in the Qandil dairy we find divergent intervals what happens is that say if we talk about electromagnetic field its contributions every mode we can imagine putting in the box and asked what happens inside that box box makes the most discreet at that time the time of its air of every mode contributes this 1 have each borrower may go to the recommended just grandstanding 1 of Montross solicitor in every mode acts like a harmonic oscillator and the Infiniti comes about because there is the surest way as you keep adding Motorola's Moses shortage will delayed 1 each which contributes would have its power Omega who made it was up to the ceremony itself the average is even more quickly than alike 1 so you get diversion contribution but that leverage is coming from very short distances so that's sort of standard of renormalization issues and quantum field theories and you try to talk your way out of it by saying that there's probably some of the physics that comes in and you cut off the finale at very short distances so probably makes sense only if you take into account these contributions of 100 swarming down to some shortest way of life where you think you no longer understand the physics of 1 plausible candidate for that shortest wavelengths which we understand the physics is point which is the land where we know the quantum gravity becomes law I would imagine there is some kind of happens early but the content is a 1 plausible cut if you adopt the plant Yukon often then asked how large is this it will get interval describes the energy a vacuum fluctuations that turned out to be larger than the observed vacuum energy by about 120 orders of magnitude so it's fantastic this agreement but we really don't understand what makes the interview that acting so small but I should point out that there are negative contributions as well as it in fact the contributions from the lecture from the electron field is negative and seemingly infinite coverages because of the short wavelength modes so 1 can hypothesize that there's a cancelation between the large positive numbers negative number U.S. the number that we say that we don't know the reason for the cancelation so too big mystery why the vacuum energy is as low as it is looking also has string theory was what 1 expected and string theory 1 has turned out many many different vacuum from different ways of compact defiantly 6 dimensions that need to be compact 5 I think there's often talk about 10 to the 500 different back you up had a string theory these tender the 500 different Bakula would have a range of energy densities gone from moralists plus the Bronx Skelton minus the punks dealt with as far as 1 knows a more-or-less even distribution between along with a so sincerely predicted there would be many Bakula that would have energy densities as small as what we observed that there still being an infinitesimal fraction like Kendall 128 of the total number of Dracula and string theory and so safe areas of possible that there could be back vacuum like ours but doesn't give us any reason for the violations and that such a vacuum so I the inflationary multiverse plus was called and Tropic reasoning selection effects provides a possible answer to this puzzle the answer is by no means universal believe but it is believed by some the number of people it's taken seriously these days and the idea is that the underlying theory except in extreme theory with the huge number of different bacteria with different back energies and that's the reason why we find ourselves in a very small documentary is that life can only form In back with very small vacuum energies and there's logic behind this are the documentary does affect the acceleration of the universe if the I documentary is much larger than what we observed the universe would backfire .period so fast that galaxies cannot form and you could argue that life should as we know it would not and several if the vacuum were negative somewhat larger magnitude than what we observe how the universe would implode too fast for life to form so if 1 is willing to accept misanthropic idea that we should not think about what the laws of physics predicted for all but rather we should think about what the laws of physics project for regions where life can also exists then what has released a possible explanation for why we see such a very low vacuum energy and Harare universe so present this explanation is controversial and have taken the public opinion polls I don't know what fraction of his is believe it is only has talked about very seriously and his conferences but also railed against by many of my friends I would say that right now it is the most plausible and explanation and we actually have to wonder that energy is so small but booksellers hope for a better explanation future and I will leave it at that I think we're over time so I will quit and I enjoy chatting with you very much on the questions of great and I really enjoyed the session after the game Q yeah you're will stay on as questions from Stuart ones it's because of that very good question and the answer is that dominantly they are causing disconnected but it is still possible to public universities form close enough to each other that as they grow they could collide with each other and that is exactly what the effects of such a coalition would be depend on details of what's inside each of these bubbles presumably in most cases the collision would be catastrophic meaning that no life conforming the future of the collision have but there is a possibility that some collisions could be very gentle on the conclusions of practice aimed at the vacuum our very similar types of vacuum and with weakly interacting fields so if the collision were very gentle we might perhaps the living in the universe underwent such a collision in the past and there would look for signs of that speculation and that would show up as a kind of a circular pattern and cousin background radiation so people have looked for such patterns and so far as you might guess not found them and but people still looking and I think it's a tremendous launch really but in principle someday we might discover and cousin background radiation in a picture of a collision between our party universe another party universe science conceivable but I think not likely yes 1 of them but I don't know much about it think so but we are trying to use the additional ways of enforcing more I wrote but yes you should right that their release claimed alternatives to inflation and talk about the and finding them very plausible but there certainly are claimed and alternatives to inflation and perhaps bookable but full of requiring special assumptions of 1 feature of of of gravity waves is there I think all of those commonly discussed alternatives to inflation would not produce living gravity waves so in particular the actor Robert mall would produce very small gravity waves of the today get some model involves a supernova supra strains with called CBS right the street as biology registry as technology will also be used a very low level of gravity waves far too low to be seen as an accessory yes cosmology would also be ruled out as gravity waves were seen much about this matter bounce the hypothesis the act of of work right now but as far as I know other models that are discussed hold the out except inflation the gravity waves really still would be very nice it is the question of the size of constant ended this cancelation in dense fault that positive and negative it is the same question seems fine tuning or you need instead it the rendering is that there's a fine-tuning to sell because model has a problem and what is the other fine-tuning their asking that announced saying so what I'm wondering is so sporting News these in the street you the standard of 500 he finds some of that energy that's very small fry but which is still active and he does not include the vacuum energy due to all the articles in the North Sea yeah that's all does concludes that everything that we don't know as well the somebody's character correctly attacked by that's right now so I because it's such a huge number of accurate you really do expect there are many Bakula when you have everything do fall in the energy range of what we said thank you expect naively it's like 10 to the 386 Bakula tendinitis 120 times the total I think secretaries numbers such and then the question is is there any justification for believing that we find ourselves in such a vacuum and that's where the selection effect arguments come in yes sir all of them on particles so I want to now we can only make a stand and we just don't know because we have been standard model we have both positive and negative infinite contributions for his coverage To have out really have no way of knowing Of these we have to do do this because they probably would have where and just the on the right you would think but it was small we just have a very point was that the Mets right that's right therefore 1 with very small backing energies are on very fine-tuned but they come about in a natural way as just a small subset of commercial orders yeah it is too I think I he played loans and is the most you later on as the most likely during 1 of the areas where they belong and in line with the but yeah that's right that is right by the time frame saying should be online which I that's right but the information that were the extra insulation talking about his really before Top of the universe starts to form so what I think the right picture is this that inflating backbone which is costly producing pocket universes and the it's background is exciting but it's not really evolving the other way it's 1 with same person on top of the sale and just standing there and moment in many places fall down but I just not part of the training background in bringing back by definition that where regions with Schofield has stayed on top of the hill and even tho there where because of the exponential expansion by such regions is getting larger and larger this time and then ultimately each 1 of them produces many pocket universes answers about universe is gone forever from the from expectation value for the time at which we would be living in sort of have a definitive or something like that and .period had figured out that know it time where you are that's right that's right that's right and there really is version calculations at times have clearly doesn't make them a chance that that sort of way he predicts the where we be living in this inflammatory and universes I might mention "quotation mark babbling but that the issue of defining probabilities in this attorney was inflating universe something that had been decided that the only get to other that's a serious problem and we don't know how to define probability terminally inflating tree Infineon's tell us I did that made up the obvious that the really make it hard to define probabilities but if you have a set without a definite ordering which is infinite has turned out to be but there's no preferred way to define probabilities the example that people often point to in this context isn't a good example some of the things that can happen the multiverse is just to think about the integers and the question of what fraction of them are even but you keep the standard ordering entirely the 1998 and he simultaneity .period it's almost as if could be walked by 1 depending on where you stop so in their standard ordering and given very clear definition I went into the half half half of my half of the year but he stayed out of the water you just the 7 years this was the situation popping university because they mostly inform cause disconnected from each other you can say which 1 form 1st cities have center indigenous then you can always rearrange them and you can take them in the order of the 1st the 1st 2 other ones 1 and 3 the the 1st even 1 to next 2 I once 5 and 7 and the next even 1 for the next 2 of than the next even in the next 2 of the next year and so on and on that list every individual player once only once it's the same list of integers as when you started with but if you order them that way looks like two-thirds of the the question the ratio you want so that 1 of the things you really can't say what fraction of the integers are even and the moderates is like that we don't have wondering and we don't know how to say what fraction of pocket universes have any particular property we have proposals for get around that problem but we don't know what to write proposal is no good reason to think the music poses we have a slightly by answer yes said yeah well in a sense we we really are and this is certainly a slow form of inflation compared to what I was talking about in the early universe when the time comes there was tentative minus 38 seconds of the united grand unified Theory scales now the time constant since 10 billion years but we definitely are entering a period of exponential expansion now and that can be considered inflation and as long as the fact that immunity is positive as I mentioned earlier discussions on this in principle possibility that we had tunnel upward to a much higher than a year to the state OK make the things tend to adjourn having a man a question finally hesitate to have but otherwise grating folks
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Masterclass with Alan Guth
Untertitel Inflationary Cosmology, External inflation and the multiverse
Serientitel Physics@FOM Veldhoven 2015
Autor Guth, Alan
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - keine kommerzielle Nutzung - keine Bearbeitung 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt in unveränderter Form zu jedem legalen und nicht-kommerziellen Zweck nutzen, vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/18034
Herausgeber Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM)
Erscheinungsjahr 2015
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Physik
Abstract Inflationary cosmology gives a very plausible explanation for many features of our universe, including its uniformity, itsmass density, and the patterns of the ripples that are observed in the cosmic microwave background. Most versions of inflation, however, imply that ouruniverse is not unique, but is part of a possibly infinite multiverse. The speaker will talk about how inflation works, and why he believes that the possibility of a multiverse should be taken seriously.
Schlagwörter cosmology
inflation

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