Master class with Francis Halzen


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Master class with Francis Halzen
Neutrino astronomy and the IceCube South Pole observatory
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Halzen, Francis
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Neutrino astronomy has reached a watershed with the construction and commissioning of the cubic-kilometer IceCube neutrino detector and its low energy extension DeepCore. The instrument detects neutrinos over a wide energy range: from 10 GeV atmospheric neutrinos to 1010 GeV cosmogenic neutrinos.Topics for discussion are: the scientific rational for building a kilometer-scale neutrino detector, the challenges in building IceCube and the present detector performance, initial results based on the more than 300,000 neutrino events recorded during construction. We will emphasize the measurement of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino spectrum extending to PeV energy and discuss IceCube's potential for neutrino physics and for identifying the particle nature of dark matter. Furthermore, we discuss the search for the still enigmatic sources of the galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays. Finally, we will discuss how the first data taken with the completed detector have revealed strong evidence for a flux of extraterrestrial neutrinos.
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fit so I I don't know what amounts process said so this is what I decided it sees this as parts is that so the 1st part and going to tell you what the the used and I'm going to tell you about uh how you build a neutrino telescope then the we actually discover something but that I won't tell you about you can be defeated in science or you can come to my doctor more but what I'm going to do instead in the 2nd half his talk about the science we do that I did I will not talk about it to me so I'll do everything I know it's there what I talk about the more which is admittedly the most interesting thing you don't have to come to my talk to more of the you little preview so don't worry now I so this is what this is the 1st half of the talks so the for the 1st half so I want to
talk about Cosmo Janik neutrinos it doesn't matter if you don't know what this is and weren't value 10 and going to tell you about concentrate then I am going to tell you that some 100 he are connected to customer Chase and the
important part of this is that if you want to do astronomy was neutrinos this discussion will tell you that you have to build a kilometer Cuban 19 undetected is very important for me to explain this is because you know if you tell someone you're building you actually have to build a kilometer to Cupertino undetected to cases did so I'm going to tell you the logic that the rationale behind this and now and then I'm going to tell you about it the
detective we built and then I will tell you that there we discovered cosmic
neutrinos and that's what's the detector was built for but that's the talk tomorrow but if you you don't cannot come to my talk use small please can sleep late a soul what what's special about the neutrino special about this at the note is that he has no electric shock when you go out that nite and you look at the stars disease and you do astronomy was your eyes is because light travels in a straight line to your I and so you detect a dissection of the of the folk dance and then your brain makes a pattern which is what you see you can only do that if southern electric shocks which is very effective albeit and have no doubt but if they had electric shocks before they would teach you they would conclude a magnetic field of the galaxy and they would just you know going all that elections they would be banned as galaxy has a team micrograms electromagnetic magnetic field which is pretty strong and so it's impossible to To do astronomy was shops particles and we detect protons from outside the galaxy but they don't tell us where they come from by the time we detect them cosmic McKay experiments taken from everywhere they are they're Rizal top I spied a magnetic fields in the galaxy and so you can only do astronomy was not neutral particles so what is that is the new neutron but in doesn't play for long enough In fact only at the very high energy could you in principle for instance people have been looking for a new Tom's arriving phone because thousand minutes but if you use the lens boost over very high-energy protons like at a million the then we can teach from the center of the galaxy and so but if not been seen so that's a problem you cannot see very far and you can only see them when they have extremely high amateurs ss as the man who disk the neutrino was proposed as a way you know it to look like when when a nuke and moved from the case it decays into a proton and and and so people discover when the proton goes this way if I'm the neutron the electron that and people found that they saw the case like this of the neutron Of course it means some other particle goes the other way and that was the neutrino got worse effect in this is what's called the missing energy measurements so by today would we discover a lot of particles in the last decades by doing missing energy measurement so by the definition of today the people who did these experiments Ellis for instance at the Cavendish they would have discovered the neutrino but they never told at time only the the proton and the electron exists that fact and children from already there existed no within the new content exceeds at deposits from didn't exist so they never thought that this was a new particle except Pauly proposed it was a new particle and so this is a long story it took about 20 of in entire turn 50 years before blindness discovered the neutrino and detect neutrinos from a nuclear reactor and kindness told me he died not so long ago he told me that as soon as people as people realize that this was not some mathematical ,comma concept in field theory of of beta decay that this was a real particle everybody immediately at the idea of doing a between so it's an idea that surrounds since 19 56 and according to him everybody at the idea so that's the idea there something new in the key of course for this these discussions is widening you need Gilmerton Cupertino detector and so that's what I'm going to going through so let me start was this
slide pin this is an amazing slightly to spend some time on 1st of all the slightest 25 years old is a slight I've been carrying Resnais staff that In this business and this is the right flight in the sense you don't get intruded into the latest updates of the details in this flight just a craft to and so this slight tells you if you if a telescope and you the telescope as a certain size and it works the serfdom wavelength it tells you how many photons to detect so if you His microwave detector you see the microwave background and you see that they speak that tells you How many photos to detect so this is the diffuse flux a flight throughout the universe In fact you can also think of it as how much didn't have much what the energy density but cubic centimeters or calculate for you in a minute but in my choice back from throughout the universe of course the universe is filled with radio waves that are less of them that's the this is how much visible light every so you go out was a major disease ceremony many folk you detect and you see this slight stops at that that's which is about 10 to the minus 4 15 cm square in in wavelength and so those photons are detected by satellites that have to fly above the atmosphere and so on detectives of that big and so we actually don't know whether this talks continue already and that is just due to the fact that satellites a limited size and so you just run out of flux you have to realize if you look at a slight right this is I'm not talking about 10 to the minus safe and we stopped offended at 12 thanks to the south 20 orders of magnitude so have only 1 photon anymore for every attempt last number of my choice programs so L now people have and this is part of my talk to more people have looked for photos of fire actually I'm going to use as my natural unit in this talk 1 TV that's my small units 1 TV tend to the 15 electron falls so it's somewhere here and so on I am going to talk in multiples of the disease the energy of the traffic from at Fermilab the LHC beams 7 TV so that's us from the small unit in the stock so and so the idea is kind of 2 week we have never seen like a thousand TV photo and there's no reason we haven't seen it that I know because you can detect a thousand TV photon was a knife shower and people have built lots of fresh air and so did the normal particle detectors that people built to detect cosmic case can detect and so is Delaware flux here it would have been seen so what this means below this level which is actually quite interesting and has something to do with Sarah recently but so the idea was to just neutrinos like Fontaine to infinity the high-energy 103 is the easier it is to detect it because the neutrino cross-section Gross was energy and so if you go to high energy it's more likely to interact inside your detector and it's more likely that you see in this very beautiful high-energy it's easy it's the other way as from cosmic face so you know the court is that anything in the university's energies and of course there is you could see that here this is like a calf tune again of the cosmic flux so this are you detect so if you have a detective here you don't take photos to detect cosmic and so these other programs mostly so I I will generally talk about them as programs there you know there are in different places all the nuclei but that's and that's not relevant in the stock and people actually have seen TV but not because we don't really know what they're foxes but we have seen individual nearby sources and this is pretty interesting and I come back to To that discussion by the way you can interrupt me I'll still from time to time to ask the question where you can interrupt me anytime if I said You know I do things that I should say and forget to say so no OK so what does this have to do is neutrinos and he is ass 1st exercise which is extremely did you 1st notice 1st noticed that this the Scotsman case Devon energy of about 1038 TV so they have 10 million times the energy of the LHC beams that's a lot of energy so there is this big universe and in this universe of these programs and there are those photons so whenever a proton meets a microwave folk form of this energy it actually can produce a pile so did the collision energy allows you to produce supplier and the Spiral will decay into a neutrino and so that's a cosmic neutrino flux you know we see neutrinos from the sun and from the atmosphere I will tell you in a minute but this is an interesting 19 and this comes from there From the cosmos and is produced by cosmic rays so the hope is if you see that neutrino you will .period back to where cost McKay's after living in the universe and this is you know the Holy Grail of cosmic ray physics is find the source of river time to do this for 101 years now unsuccessfully and so you can calculate how many neutrinos you would see because we know what a cosmic ray Fluxus he's been measured from outside we know the microwave background and photons every cubic centimeter we know that interaction cross section for photons and protons since 1950 actually so you can just it's a bad line back-of-the-envelope there will tell you how many neutrinos Siouxsie and the answer is given on the next slide to
the bottom line is that you see 1 event in a kilometer Cupertino detective per year but you know in the seventies this arguments go back to the early seventies and it may be that you saw the
cosmic trade problem was 1 of 3 no so people started in the early seventies to try to build a kilometer Cupertino detective we finally managed to duties in 2010 civil it was a long way but you know the neutrino physics the natural timescale of anything happening is 20 years so this is nothing unusual but that's the bad news kind of funeral you wish it were the thousands rather than 1 but there is good news but what
happened this by despite In a an almost energy because you don't produce it in the center of masked the Proton hits this microarray photon and that and comes out with huge and then what it does in the case the decays into a Muehlemann immunity now that's 1 you're are looking for and then the new on decays into an electron a new Muna Lee and then this so basically the Bayern
that means whose future energy gives his energy to 4 laptops and electron and the females and so you can just take the energy of the Spider-Man will do it is for that from now on and divided by foreign that's your McLean alignment and so if you worked through all this you find that
start the energy of this neutrino it is stated to be 18 which in my unit at TV standard of 12 sits a million TV so this is an enormous energy military N it may be only
1 year but you cannot miss it as you will see with
the instrument we have built OK so now
this is 19 1 of 2 thousand and seeing as I know in this paper is the loss calculation at the Dome last year and so here you see this is the professional version he had his this stay aloft cosmic chase that above threshold so you take this data you take the particles you collide them with the microwave background in is keen Bandarban neutrinos that command the prediction is actually this clean-lined beginning banned are kind of the Astrophysical ambiguities and you see this is not the subject of this talk but that this in ice cube corresponds to 2 events prettier we haven't seen any yet but then you know this is a logarithmic scale so it'll take us a couple decades to get to the bottom of this game back so it's only the beginning that sensitive to so anyway so but also Beaujolais is sensitive at a similar level and some do experiments that are being built now so yes where have it's produced it comes at the speed of light by the way there is between us travel at the speed of light here we are at such high energies that the mosque
doesn't matter they just like a photon so it's you tell me the distance and that's how many light years it takes to get here no it depends where the sources so imagine as a source and it may be you know dental passing a wave at the center of the galaxy it may be a gig Popsicle away it's black coal somewhere and there now then it just takes speed to come to hear it's a time still this is 1 of staff this is expected to be both so the cosmic problem is actually 2 poll below the stale is extragalactic how do I know it's the extragalactic well if you you can calculate the amount our galaxy you stink of us a Baltic that has a team micrograms field so it is dead China radius so charge cosmic will end with sit in this magnetic field and have a gyro radius and effective it's like 1 TV it was just gyrating this bottle for a million years and then it may escape if the gyro radius at the cemetery's that's why use the Centrino is larger than the size of the galaxy so it's not contained so as soon as you come to this gyro radius then you know that you're looking at an extragalactic component so actually to cosmic a problem astute problems where the didn't where do the galactic cosmic rays originate whether the extragalactic concentrate at the origin and we don't know the answer to eat a question will soon hopefully see OK
so let me now talk about the cosmic rays themselves because they give you some very interesting you may say
How do you accelerate particles in the universe remember these are enormous and hello you know look what it takes to build the Devore commonly LHC and now you get 10 million times more energy where does this go home and so on following a lead you into answering the question as I as I said we don't know the answer what you are looking at here is the sum and this is a solar flare so what happens during a solar flare is these filaments you In this hair filaments father streams Of the atavistic particles so if you ever moving relativistic particle it makes a magnetic field so they are mining magnetic fields where these filaments and so the particles get accelerator I was going to allow this happens this is black magic he goes on the worse like shock acceleration of the connections if something has to worse explain it means that we don't know and so actually sold for areas of pretty well understood but they're not what I will talk about next anyway so we see this protons are accelerated all the way to 10 GTV and we see 10 GV protons from the south arriving at
so why 10 NGV well there is a very simple a nice argument for that suppose given accelerated like solar flare you accelerate circus you salivate you want to accelerate a particle to an energy E In a magnetic field B so be here is the magnetic fields where the solar flares rapids and so on the gyro radius all that officals PC divided by B now of course the QQ is protons is warm and the is the speed of light everything in this stock moves at the speed of light and so the China radios must be smaller than the size of the accelerator in other words the proton that's accelerated in the solar flare must ever gyrated which is smaller than the solar flare is it's bigger it's not contained in the cannot be accelerated was just simple common sense so you see that equation Yeovil B is smaller than off which I can write as he is less than the terms are and if you put in for being here the magnetic fields of the somewhere the flats happened trifle called awarded but it doesn't matter you put here this typical size of a solar flare you get NGV and this not physics were this is dimensional analysis you cannot you cannot violate this former and you know we are is favorite difficult Akchurin to find anything in the universe you can even that satisfies these equations but his equations for instance if you put here and in 1 test year 4 kilometers you get 1 TV you also have to remember that the beam goes around 10 to the 5 times per 2nd so did this the Tevatron satisfies this fall the LHC beams to but then
you know give engineers lining up magnets can you imagine someone doing this somewhere in the universe where I can maybe it's true that's where the of but there you see you cannot violate this fall and we can only think of a handful of objects that will get you in the galaxy 2 thousand TV and outside the Galaxy 2 are 10 million DVD you know it's an incredible challenge so but that's the easy path is the hot but if you think about the energy in this particles you know experimentalists will tell you how difficult it is to
detect cosmic rays because you did see 1 but kilometer square century that's an experimental that's the wrong way of thinking about the let's do the microwave background 410 photons 2 . 7 degrees Kelvin per cubic centimeter that this an energy of half an electron volts of cubic centimeters so everywhere in the universe navigate cubic centimeter of this offer electron volt of amateurs and now now and going to do the same calculation for the galactic cosmic rays so as I already explained these cosmic rays are Galactic and then somewhere here if you they become so if I hear I'm a buyer dubbed the popped right out of the particles was their energy I actually get the same number so in another galaxy I think that's an accident but that is the same amount of energy in cosmic rays in microarray photons there is also the same amount of energy as a magnetic field if you add up all the lights in our galaxy is the same energy actually so like magnetic field cosmic rays they're all there tend to them the same energy density that means that cost McKay's actually there not some of their culture somewhere location they're part of the delight in equilibrium of the galaxy and actually turns out 2 to be vetted difficult to think of sources that can generate this energy so in other words my 1st light says you need a strong enough accelerated to get to the highest standards disliked says it better have enough luminosity to explain what we see and that's small DEC so if I do this calculation for the extragalactic cosmic face I get a smaller number 10 to the minus 19 but
this now respected cubic centimeter in our galaxy but in the whole universe and again this is so much energy and particle filters the bottom line is between these 2 sites there is no good idea and so I'm going to show you the idea is that people of trying to To make war but it's clearly act Teri is an act of desperation so what do
we make that's bigger than the sun a small magnetic fields to get above this NGV remember you have to get 2 thousand this is a picture of a supernova remnant still a thousand years ago a star exploded here collapsed and the gravitational manic energy this release In the interstellar medium and so you see here the of the staff and just like in a solar flare screams of laughter at times and years you see these filaments that this is the next big picture that's where the fast-moving streams of particles are their power by the cavity From the start that collapsed and now so it's exactly the same thing that's where cosmic rays are accelerated if you now due to be less formal and you apply you calculate the energy in this you actually works you can get like maybe 2 thousand TV With the supernova
explosions but centimeter you can produce a cosmic rays we see in the galaxy provided about 10 percent of the energy in the explosion goes into accelerating particles 10 per cent is probably the last not Bloomberg we don't have a better idea this is it OK so what do you do stop now
I'm going to digest where are the neutrinos well
this is a very beautiful example OK this is a a supernova remnant that explode so here in these regions are very energetic particles now when the explode they explode stars are formed in the 1st place so you look at star-forming regions in our galaxy and then using the supernova explosions but why is it a star-forming region it is because it's a region where staff forms this fine Moss concentration and so there are among other things that molecular clients In star-forming regions so whenever this expanding accelerated accelerated particles media molecular cloud you have the worked particle physicists call being dumped you ever talk get on the target to produce by and the container NO so
does this happen well this
is a map of our galaxy intend the view dominates this is very unusual map of the galaxy but it looks exactly like all the maps of the galaxy you see the galactic brain and not much else and so this
is the it's Cygnus the star-forming region signals and so if you look at the tail the Stormers gamma-ray source remember we're talking 10 TV gamma-ray These are the highest energy ,comma is everything that is the sole if you go and look In astronomical catalogs and other way for you won't find this this is a molecular cloud and so it presumably Oliver appliance but new top items produced in "quotation mark collisions Of the cosmic face wisdom electoral clout that made by CEOs and advising us cater to gamma-rays which is what they see and this of course now you don't have to be at their revision right but if you have Proton proton collisions
or nuclear more like by collisions you the 1 thing that sacred is that you produce equal number of bypassed by mines so defies the homemade still gonna the bypass the
case into a neutrino and a new 1 and new on the case further so the bottom line is that you get the 1901 amounting to Reno for every to garment and so there's no calculation you know exactly what the Fluxus you see ends
the result is that the puzzle minus 1 at neutrinos per year From here and there are some other sources like this so maybe 10 Craver and I don't know how to count sources but so we are not far away from 1 but it's a bit better this
idea as I said is the only good idea around was 1st suggested in this paper in 1934 so I
think it's time to prove this by seeing the military I always you will make this man smiled soon but there if you actually going to meet the paper that nobody ever does including me I decided 3 months ago to actually paper but endit he has all the ideas in there but he actually says that it will be star-forming regions from another galaxy because galaxy we haven't seen a supernovas and step-brother and so they're obviously not enough in our own galaxy of course we know now that we don't see most of the supernova that are happening in the center of our galaxy where more most of the Masters so anyway so now where the sun with that we understand the galactic cosmic rays we have 1 model there are people who may try to make false starts work but I don't think this is kosher so what about the extragalactic same idea so you just have a star that collapses to accommodate 2 black hole instead of a neutron star and then all the same things happening I could stay my speech over except instead of in a thousand years they happen in a few seconds but you get there you know the gravitational energy of the collapsed black all gets
released and you the difference here I'm showing you simulations instead of a few pictures of objects and you see it's not nicely spherical because the black hole was a spin and so their most of this stuff is moving along the there's been direction of the black hole but it's a new worked out newest form of you say that May 1 to 10 per cent of the explosion in the gamma-ray bursts goes into acceleration you're from all and that's it we have 1 model for except now he is you
don't even have to move you have to know entity on that so fortunately I mean for females this is
fight in this explosion "quotation mark protons because that the cosmic case eventually then there are photons because the photons are radiated from electrons these other the photons that this Thomas so again it's a case where you know because McVeigh flux you know the photons from by looking at the astronomical observations and give protons and photons in the same place you make me feel of that same idea but now it's even easier to do the calculation remember this is the reaction is other
cosmic faces are the photons in the fireballs from the gamma-ray bursts then what happens In a gamma-ray bursts after the stock collapses to black hole the staff factory is a play it's a lot more transparent to life so this year the fireball protocol the fireball this has many like interaction length so what it does it expands on
the radiation pressure there's no other way can lose energy it can eliminate because it's opaque to photons so we just on the radiation pressure experiments while it expands it does the acceleration is happening but the protons of tap they don't get out Didier and by the time the fireball becomes transparent that's when the astronomers see the light finally gets sound but 2 protons by then if lost their energy so you don't have a proton machine however when the protons leaving the fireball they can become neutrons and the new towns on until they can come out of the accelerator and they will decay and so all the poll the cosmic rays we see in this model well-born neutrons that decay on the way here and of course for every neutron Nunavut bypass that gives you the neutrinos and so you can just immediately transferred the proton data in 3 of the pocket sold did
this it is an active galaxies so what it means it's a galaxy but unlike because an enormous active black all through but it doesn't have an active black holes and still you can actually make a model out of unit of the game is to satisfy my 2 slides that you can actually make a model out of this full there that what that satisfies the 2 flies so we have to models for extragalactic cosmic face but so in general the ideas wherever customer trays of born you have an accelerated and have talk it and the target every black always surrounded by by radiation so we just might get some years of of the minute target and then the piracy produced by and when the decay of a neutrino beam it's exactly the same but the target baby made out of flight troubled them but often like where molecular clocks in the case of supernova remnants but so that the physics is always the same and now you see you get the idea is that the protons themselves they may be trapped in the accelerated because the accelerated magnetic field if the confined to accelerate them so the general picture is that they make amount as new homes and then you have 1 cosmic a button program and if you do the counting correctly a factor of 2 year over there but we are not worried about that in fact the astrophysics is such that you can get a fact you can afford it to get a factor too I don't recommend this but that you do the Astrophysics of the systems as such you can afford this so this
is my summary slide customer case we're looking for so this is now a picture of the cosmic ray flux of professional picture and so you see here on the left that's where the sun Ronald interested in this cosmic face you see this this is what I call the mean the spectrum this time off those are the galactic cosmic rays and what you're seeing here is the accelerator running out of steam you know we cannot accelerate anymore these are the extragalactic cosmic rays and so we have to ideas for this 1 for them and you know it trade issue people think these ideas are home there is to to the mark this no evidence for any of the it's none whatsoever but we've gotten used to it is isn't textbooks as Ovitz who know that we just gotten used to it and except for him there are 2 ideas instead of 1 but said the hope is that the neutrinos you know a handful of containers you know where they come from and the problem is solved we will
know OK so this is a good place to ask for questions any any complaints annually Everybody happy OK yet this system not talk at science laughed at me and this is what it is complete there I think mentioning that yeah year for them the acceleration actually unit you can do you get the idea that you you have to have some kind of gravitational soul dead said candidates themes of relativistic particles that kid magnet effective magnetic fields you get acceleration so the way this works is due and a black hole the stuff in the galaxy was an active black hole at the center is a cheating on this black hole that give you stream of particles and so that's where presumably you can accelerate cosmic rays and so how much energy and that depends on what a black hole and actually what happens is black holes ' they did they typically Ocate matter and then they show you would take the matter just disappears it doesn't take choke and then cannot absolve the matter then they blow it all and that these jets and that these jets are against teams of relativistic particles so we don't know but you can make model worked acceleration In the checked on the accretion disk so you know supernova remnants and gamma-ray bursts of a simple clean systems where can calculated between flood in in the model active galaxies very difficult you don't know where the accelerator that you don't know what a targeted this target photo of target photos everywhere in an active galaxies but you have all these combinations you can choose and so there is no clean prediction like a gamma-ray burst that tells you 1 cosmic trade permanently no you don't have to know when physics as the gunman rose to and set answer a question yet so it's not like the hawking nothing nothing fundamental like Hawking radiation of sewers have anything to do with this OK yes I rather ask questions that I have time it's a quarter to 9 yeah but is it not and then when does it that there is a break and then the break is a quarter so now it's attractive prospect thank you I know that Nigeria well I told it's now I have to start looking back to Minnesota said In the end it yet and we don't have the kind of yes that's the 1 we see what hope to see is at the end that's the that's the beauty of the train there they just get out of here and now but apply on case site we know the lifetime of I would hear him yet they have mostly been fun and that was the last day of the month the voice of an old but you cannot it it will you know in the magnetic field it can scatter also but in practice the lifetime social that aspiring will just to take you yeah this this accelerated member dogged black coal so we're talking very compact accelerators strike and so in fact in the garment you see this active galaxies that's part of what inspired this idea is active galaxies may burst of photons in right 2 minutes where do still delight comes out and the idea is that maybe the accelerator at work I mean I'm not this is not good 1st of all I'm not I person this is all the talk about uh speculations on astrophysics I'm a particle physicist that any other requested to suggest this answer your question yeah so you can think of all of this happened in a straight line there yes he said the constellation .period and that infected I can use who's going to stop me OK this is the clinical section as a function of energy and and it looks like this and so as I will tell you later I mean the probability that to detect and train the Matena last 2 hidden declares annual detector In the case of Pfizer tested hydrogen oxygen right there and the case of water so that the the way tries this if you do swamp TV and this is a thousand this is a party manager were interested in so here it goes to prizes as the square so the probability that you detect the No 10 times higher energies 100 times easier to detect that's how it worked at 182 thousand it's kind of linear it's 1 and after thousands it gross kind reverse you know it it goes he to some powers in fact what I'm telling you hear is the neutrino cross-section find the range of the new on the details but so so as your detection probabilities proportional to the cost section you see you higher damages much easier than lower them this In energy of Mediterranean no energy of the military in the last 1 that's relevant to me we need B & B know that of them all I can Wharf you come off 2 . 5 yes we can do it all over the place 2 at end this stew and so that is this is not the numbers are not quite right data they down a bit exaggerated because the included new longer-range this is correct this is almost correct this I don't have my that I shouldn't "quotation mark commenting but the there 2 ideas get easier and easier and the idea is that higher energy you don't gain as much as the workmanship then flattens out effect it goes as the law Q of the energy and the which
urea and it's probably even through it OK other questions yes only have to the
industry too you don't 1st of all for Mike neutrino calculation it doesn't matter 2 members I don't care I mean the photons tell me what if you want to make and model of the supernova airmen and you it's want to explain why there are so many TV photo seen by the astronomers then you have to build an accelerator and then people people debate forever what magnetic field but I don't care I just I know how many protons supernova supposed to explain and I know the density of the might of the molecular clouds I can go and look to supplement in an astronomer catalog and that's all I need How the protons did too TV and produced TV that's an astronomer problem in fact it's a very
difficult problem that while I'm on this like this is not a subject of my talk but this is anyone here in this room who shock acceleration if a staffer well if you take a textbook shock acceleration seriously and you put there the file useful supernova in our collected in our in our galaxy you actually you you run out of energy somewhere here you cannot even explained the high and talk to concentrate spectrum 10 people invent all kind of additional ingredients you know nobody has ever been their rights so you can have whatever you want and hand sewer data did you have to it's like I have to say the magic words amend the editor Energis suddenly go up the truth is that in this energy region which by the way up the cosmic neutrinos come from that we have detected that these energy range we have no clue where this land is particles or accelerated to we don't even know whether it's extragalactic called Galactic everybody in the Galactic why but but anyway so but this is nice side and I'm not criticizing this is a beautiful field you know I come from a fields with the last thing I did in particle physics was due to loop radiative corrections less and you could
calculate that everything and it was even correct you do the experiments confirmed and so this for me is like a liberation from the prison I like to present to you by the way I I I would gladly go back and particle physics fact stilted yeah he was holders this week although that is the way I can make a lot of enemies in a short time way why here it is and what is that it's not something I'm going to explain I think a few words but that OK did that season is unit interacts this Byzantine a proton cross-section Tino you know mostly ignores anything unless it it's a nucleus said don't you won't see it and so the nuclear the nuclear play on the proton is made out of but after and the higher energy the basic answer is that the higher energy to the team know the shortage waiflike in short wavelength Latinos lower so the 10 the low-energy neutrinos and so the higher the energy the more soft bottoms is seen and that in fact the section that depart from cross-section grossly nearly yeah and so that's that so it is it's well understood so at any all the physics in this experiment the Standard Model physics so we islanders imprisoned there's no problem any any other questions that images of the of the EU it's been the houses told that then you think I should have toned down I don't mean what many would I mean here it is a pulse are falls too because it's a confrontational collapsed pulse that releases a soul of Mosul furniture that makes these accelerator but I mean where do a poll taken Posada itself accelerate across maturities it's not impossible but in fact all leading to a loser um astrophysicist at Chicago she has snakelike boat told arguments that this may be possible you could make all the concentrate galactic and extragalactic fell it not really all of them in the galaxy but some of them it said you have a fast spinning magnetic field it's a dynamo so that that both sides are easy to understand that thing is they spin down and their questions whether they really lived long enough to get the particles to high energy just to happen the acceleration happens in extremely short time and now it's possible so just the dynamo that's much easier to to understand it's a rotating magnetic field you get an electric field you accelerate particles so this much easier to statement from yeah OK I know I have to go on it although you know we have so neutrinos
associated with cosmic case I already discussed that come on neighbors may cost me cases cosmic to get interacting with the microwave background
and supernova remnants and so am 1st of all concentrate on this line and I at this something you have to realize when you look at my blog that these steps shock acceleration all clear connection all these models they tell you that the number of
cosmic case as a function of their energy but as an energy dependence of something like 1 over the energy square so you go effective then hiring manager of on the bonds less particles so what I always do and what everybody always does plot the
squared times the flux the flux is the and the number of particles and you see that's a constant so all the predictions of constant lines on this book and so you see here this is kind of the band of predictions for supernova remnants the galactic cosmic case you see these abound goes on all my money in energy I don't know where it stops that's my remark about shock acceleration but it may stall but here it may go all the way to where the extragalactic comment this is the calculation for gamma-ray bursts the neutral here this is the calculation this is the game back OK so you this is just a compilation of everything I told you now what state this is the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and this is the problem was that the North's Tomomi if you look up in the sky using military in fact Ice Cube sees 1 of his 6 minutes you wish you didn't so what they are
doing is when cosmic case the same cosmic rays you saw my 1st 2 slides when they but I at the atmosphere of the hit was and the oxygen makes pylons in the Bayern's in attainable and so if you look up at the sky you see enormous numbers of neutrinos coming at you and so these numbers this is
again 1 of the slogan logarithmic balls so here USA Today said 1 g announced and then when you go higher and higher in energy that's a measurement of the cosmic ray flux not to Yuri Wiccan calculated but you don't need to with measures that sold we use the Super their frigid Amanda Mumbai's their R&D project that led to ice cube and so you see the conclusion of taste all discussion is once you come to display you see this flux dives under your prediction so if you go to high energy you don't see atmosphere anymore and the match it over the standard of 5 TVs 100 TV and the experiment has reached the point this disposal was met so now it's clear if any of that stuff I told you used to you go that way it's not really keep measuring this way there is another way to look at it this 1 TV to want that 1 150 feet at the end of the year in ice cube if you sit then you have discovered some of higher energy if you see 1 10 times the amateur you may die out but
that you've almost discussed something facts so how not what is this this is something like a 10 to 100 neutrinos per year focus will now have 10 minutes less so this is not a nude is a summary of where we are how do you
build a kilometer to detective effects this
doesn't go back there the 5th the 7th is this in 1960 I
like show this picture because most of the time I ending Candomble number of ideas in a chain of physics is due to demand underwriters Bruno Pontecorvo This is the man who had this idea however he realized how to build a kilometer cube detector and so this is how you do it what he
proposed in fact they built such a detective in late by call a small 1 we still out trying to it's found that the original experiment that tried to do
this was off the coast of wives you you the Majid you go 4 kilometers deep in the ocean where his staff you felt the cold on the altar Clear Water and Sewer imagining kilometer cute both Walter and now the water is the detective so you have to instrument it so you feel the kilometer Cuper's photo multiplier to now falls the theorist the audience that I don't want to insult your
intelligence but this is the filter multipliers that you know the war costs in this field it's something that can it's a 20 centimeters it's like a
basketball and it if it detects 1 photon at the time and so you put many of these in this Gilmerton of Cuba and then you do what I just said so then if you have
an attainable 0 and look I know it's entertainer became it came to deal nothing else comes through the year so if you see a particle that you detect from below your feet it's an attainable it interacts entertainer you don't see that as a no child but if the tits Proton head on with this cross-section then it makes Josh after electrons both private fitting all the particles we left Bayern's and these bonds are soft and they radiate lighting in a clear medium Cherenkov radiation so the same it's actually mostly blue the life is a you know when you see pictures of the activists that of course have to its water the water always has this blue that's the single flight disaster shops particles coming out of the reactive in the water so that's how you you siege you detect a neutrino indirectly now even if the Latino interact kilometer outside my detector at these energies is it's a new on Atorino you will make him you on a new ones at these energy travel km and so on if the new on unleashes still detector you have a beautiful picture you have this new goes at the speed of light through your detector it believes its weight behind which is this source which means that the speed of light divided by the index of refraction so just like a speed boat that goes faster than the speed of the weights on the water and so your foot multiplies maker map of the shank of going you know the direction of the Latino any of the view on an Italian ushered in New England neutrino remember at these energies everything happens in a line and so important all the physics that goes into the analysis of the data is Eada electrodynamics so all the standard model weak interactions solar physics is snow OK
so this is a cover to well-known diseases and actual simulation this is a new ongoing to detector and you see the stink of spread out in the photons interacting was the photo multiplier to and so this is still 1 of the murine goes through all this colored dots is what you're after so other article of adults adopt like this this 1 photoelectric detectors that big don't like this is maybe a thousand protons I don't know 102 thousand and so you can think of each doctor to numbers at times Annan amplitude and then you can reconstruct events from those 2 numbers we actually doing better now than that so did you get the idea that is simple idea and
I accept that that's not really how it works this isn't a simulation of a new on NR you see this hair growing out the track those of the folk dance this capital and then eventually they get a soul and but you see the life
doesn't come uniformly like in my simulation union makes this blasts of flight so what's that so there feeling no Cherenkov just to look very hard to find a shrink of gold what you are looking at this
a new on of TV what it does is of course is still minimum ionizing but it will vacate the folk and then a bit further it may produce an electron positron back then it may interact with the nucleus in your in your water and so don't have these balls of flight so each time the Musonda something catastrophic like this it will emitters ball flight that's what you were looking at and the high and the energy of the new on the more more does this so you can kind of guy balls of light or simply current total number of protons and it's a proxy for the energy of the new on the new 1 of course remember the energy of the neutrino that stand particle physics so that we can do an energy measurement and you'll see this is absolutely critical OK but
let me ask you this so we
we actually the only thing we did differently when the experiment in Hawaii was failing for technical reasons it's not easy to put thousands of photo multiplier 4 kilometers deep in water of the derricks they deployed
1 1 strain of foot multiplies it lost the 24 seconds and that was the end of the experiment so an idea was to photo multipliers in the ice by the way called Dumont experiment in this experiment by only if practically all the techniques that we are still using they just staff that is a bit before the time of the technology being ready there is an experiment that perfectly works and amended to bring now but called on factors that sold at a site while
at the same ball that is a station with bulldozers cranes people's bets of belt this is the runway so if planes to bring your equipment and this is ice cube projects and so what we 1st did
was build a small detector which was called on and if you don't mind I'm going to go a little over time and then I will have I want to go to bed at Woodstock but that it so we build a small experiment with 700 foot of multiplies it showed that it work that we could detect atmospheric neutrinos and so you could see this is there a picture of the Sun Bowl in the year 2 thousand that's the geographic South Pole and about their life come the meters away you go one-and-a-half kilometers deep and that's where we have the photo multiplier This is the house that holds the comics and the computers at the surface and then
you go and ask for money and just we've built now you take it kilometer cube of ice and you feel it was 5 thousand 164 to multiply that's what we did and you will hear tomorrow this detective works I don't want to go into all the details but this kind of you know we worked beautifully almost like an asylum experiment at the heart
of the hottest parts of this experiment was stupidest of India and so we have this system of God what she took about 40 of them and that pump water into this switches Series on the radio here above that's a 2 and a half kilometer long rows these big and so there is and also on and you let that just fall on the cavity in the eyes and while it falls to push out from the book water pressure and it melts the ice he turns it into water and so after 2 to and days you pull the thing out and you
have 2 and a half kilometers of Walter over this fall you you lower that the sensors into it wait until the water Ephesus and that's it you take data and so that's what Assistant US use it so it's like a moment 5 megawatts jet of
water so he you see host coming down to detail coming out and you see their 64 to multipliers waiting there in pressure vessels and have some other paraphernalia but sold
them here and there this is the cable remember this is 2 and a half kilometers of water so every 717 meters you attach was gonna be this uh photo multiplier notice this is the photo multiplier that warned .period looking through the end now so that new lower 17 meters high and you attach another 1 and when you have the 60 finished you have a instrument that on a cable that bringing their rifles to and that also
brings out the signal you should not forget about damage done so then there is a 6 under par and wait at the Baltimore and then you just let it go when it's 6 2 sinks to 2 and a half kilometers you do this 86 times and you advice Q U 2 kilometer Q instrument this I don't have time for you have to know the optical quality of the optical properties of TI's how photons propagate you saw this growing out of the attractive to understand that and this years every module actually as 12 really decent 250 different call so you can calculate tons 5 thousand 160 ladies and we should only these 4 men every module to the next and this is the way we find the optics of the ice with places in the eyes Deryl Dodd paraphernalia and so what you want to know is as a function of stepped into the effect of the absorption rate than the scattering and
this is the magic number you cannot produce in as solid as the 20 meter absorption lines and why is this so clear is because it's from the thousand-year-old ultra pure condensed there was no pollution nothing and where there was pollution this this is a bit of dust that came From South American mixed with the snow by the way it's still pretty clear actually this is still clearer than distilled water even into Baltimore the speed
we actually have measured ice so well that In part of the detector geologists noon there was a period around this debt all of us have said he intends volcanoes and people looked in ice cores that never seen these volcanoes and look at the data field period is called the ghetto but fan so this volcanoes are about just on the centimeter of dust I'm this doesn't go into full-time publication OK so he a picture after 2 months 20 strings have been deployed this thing's going to deuce house in this house contains all the computers that analyze the data online I'm
going to stop here are going to go on a little bit it's a pity to rushed through this With practices that any questions yes the island I'm not very good How do you
do and that is absolutely critical you know if you don't know where your modulus every meter he said the 2 nanoseconds the speed of light and you want to do analysis you will see later you wanted nanosecond timing if you don't know where modulus if you need a rolling the of seconds any way you can have it we factored which is not very easy that gives you maybe 5 to 10 minutes of precision In fact the holes in the end where over 2 and a half kilometer 4 of Article 2 was in the middle to 3 some holes didn't go do that well but after the fact he you should glide from 1 to the other so you when you determine the like Pope of tastes think of it as a huge victory that too photo propagation data with the modules are becoming part of the faith that's the easiest way to think about we're still doing this by the way was vastly improved and others yes the heart of the morning it's all we had detective moves between 10 and 11 meters every year but it's sitting immigration right that tons of the Western staff that mountain range and so it means uniformly so it doesn't matter we have tried very hard to see energy formation in the eyes not that we care but a glaciologist of very interested in this and they have you know nobody has ever instrument at the kilometer cube of a glacier this isn't a credible experiment for that we actually have firm tilt meter on 1 of the 86 strings we have in each module until 2 meters but so far we haven't been able to detect anything and I think it probably is because people begin to think you know there is a network of lakes and rivers under the whole Antarctic ice sheet and now their comments to the sea and so this is like at I system on which to hold the de-iced and so that explains you were attached to the ice it will be different the T calamitous so should have set that still one-and-a-half kilometers deep detective 1 kilometer and then this 5 from the SME Direkt tell you that so the ice was just tried to to make it 1 of the few detector we were worried about going close to the bottom and having you notice things the foreman we worried about that but there's actually no problem even if there were sheer it's mostly deal until doesn't destroyed strings I saw someone on the fringes from their eyes In way it was are you know well that's why if you don't put foot to multiply missile David escalating including stuff I haven't talked about it I will talk about here has said in 2 half fear which are a centimeter by deceptively 250 colossus and so every module destitute 10 thousand PSI and so when dies he freezes its freezes by fingers coming out of the walls and then eventually it forms pockets In this pockets then they eventually collapsed 2 solid ice again and there is huge pressure at that time we take 6 7 thousand be aside and now we actually deployed did he come on and so this is very exciting Yukon grow our webpage and look at hours and hours of a TV camera looking at a hole in the ice and that's what you see this 1 exciting moment because the TV camera goes down and he goes to snow the 1st stated 200 meter of the surface of snow and then as soon so what this ,comma dancers you shoot you have a light source so that he can look into the eyes the new factor we can Thomas it's very exciting Sudan when it comes to the solid guys it suddenly becomes clear there's no snow anymore and so you suddenly depiction terms .period why is that the I just disappears in this clear medium and that's so the only thing you see is this little bit of dust reflecting the beat that's why we deployed it was not we actually look you know you have now you have melted the ice which means you have facility lethal of oxygen in this bubbles In this size and when it if it freezes back we wanted to know where the bubbles for guess what the ice is perfectly clear they'll sit in little column in the and then if you wait maybe on the thousands of years these bubbles with collapsed but there there and so we are just teaching the precision in reconstructing folk dance remember bubbles over this distance when your modules are 125 meters away it's not much size that is so they play a very little it's a very small effect but would begin to become sensitive to it so we studying these bubbles and if we're we're thinking about building a beta detector and we would actually make sure that we get the air out of the water before it freezes we have the use of the land you it and the only you it means you you understand the eyes better better known to detectors to live you die by our well you understand the propagation of the light title gives the example of the alright so I
stopped at this point because this is served the illegal it'll bit of technical and because I think it's interesting if you when we did to demonstrate the experiment among them if every felt multiplier was connected to cable In the beginning it was collects at the and twisted pair and so he said the high voltage to the photo multiplier over the cable and then this this signal that came out of the animals of the photo multiplier was actually is sent back to the surface over that cable and so you know as a signal that travels over 2 kilometers of cable doesn't look very pretty and so the
idea was now in ice cube every photo multiplier received this is the focal multiplier its the picture is difficult to see he so it's pointing down right so the photo multiplier is see this is the neck of the focal multiplier and this is a debatable that you see there and what that tradable classes when the signal comes out of the foot multiplied its courts With chip doesn't matter the flash ADC and 2 chips would basically mean and you have a
computer PC that makes a digital image of the sister of the signals right there when it comes out of the photo multiplier did this digital picture is then sent over cable over the cable to the surface and no information so that was a big piece of caucuses and so that's the State the ball so what it means in practice it means he has a
totally different experiments so you know there's no ice cube that is just there are just 5 thousand 160 optical and so when an optical module detects
we digitizes the signal this is the number of protons as a function of the number of nanoseconds so this is what it sees at that 52 time and then we have a system to tell the time to each module to 2 nanoseconds the way to do this this Nunavut oscillator around the surface and is also later bouncer signals back and forth to each module prompting continuously so you forget you've sent like a Take the function you send it and its state functional back to you when you match them and so you can't tell time across the hall absolute time to 2 nanoseconds and so a module detects light it makes this digital picture it puts a time stamp on it and sends it into surface and so computers at the surface collect this messages from all of the optical modules continuously and then they built them into tin
offense and so on I'm
going to show you how this works in the next like that before I show you dislike them have to to tell you something the Member exercise ball we are looking fork-tender team knows that he is coming through the effects the however you experiment this 2 and a half 2 kilometers 1 and a half kilometers under the eyes now the state but Babel the cosmic a new ones the ones we are not interested in when the Bayern's decay in the atmosphere they make neutrinos which some of us are interested in but the new answer that phone involvement and the rest of the this new ones go to the stable at about 150 or so every 2nd now if you go to Q moment as the barrel less of them but you collect them over a kilometer square of detector so you have to say you change the is this you train of new ones and yes they come from the wrong side but the only way to tell that come from the wrong side is by deconstructing them it's so you cannot do this if you make too many mistakes on this you cannot tell up from that and you cannot find prettier because a new 1 is a new on entertainers immune coming up at cost McCain on mule coming down if you tell cannot erupt from down it was a precision about your about fighting between now make about probably 1 mistake in 100 million events but if you have to do that it's not you know otherwise you you have a backhand that kills you so after this being said this is uh the detective
taking data as soon as you now know what you're looking at you see this goal talks appear that's each time a module sends the right
signal and you see that life at the right time and you see all these stocks those are the computer fitting tax through reduced to this
message and now you will see that the thing reappear and you overwhelmingly desire you you now it's
stuffed sofas How do you know how long do you guessed this movie is that you can of the half
anyone wants to make a guess all of data 10 milliseconds you 10 milliseconds so this is the
problem so
atmospheric new ones coming from the side we have about 100 billion per year uh 2007 on the perception in the summer this is the thousand 4 seconds in the winter it's less this is because in the summer the atmosphere experiments and so then the of more most likely to decay into neutrinos and new arms farther than the interacting in the air and so were anyway Oct . it think of it as your stock exchanges and you get different numbers of new ones we actually see you know when the 10 daily variations of the temperature we can see in this new and in fact in 2002 we suddenly Sami ones disappeared for several days not totally disappear but it just there weren't enough and the detector was working and it took us 2 years to figure out when finally a German student discovered that we saw the ozone hole breaking up so you detect target disappear for a few days and so well this is the type of things you have to deal with that atmospheric neutrinos they're interesting their Moratinos units to be more between us we see 1 every 6 minutes so it's about 100 thousand by the year so Healy high-quality neutrinos when you told a doubtful ones out we have about 50 thousand per year that I really high purity you know much less than 1 per cent is back for 99 points something this is asked to neutrinos and then I of already told you were looking for 10 events tentative to that so you would think this is impossible but the distance so this is a this
that dinars about from the TV and you see it goes that is certainly you follow the Rainbow cost tells you the time so selective blue is certainly too late so the Munich Pact ,comma studio now when you see a lot of photons you have to be careful that doesn't mean you have 1 of these catastrophic damage and losses it often means that the attack came close to a module and then he gets more photons in it but that's useful information write so well this is the 150 TV Muamba hero so that you expect an ice cube and that's the talk tomorrow but as just show
you last December we published the fact found standard females but here we actually been fined 20 in 2 years were found 28 in 2 years and now I'll show you 1 event but before that show
you the event let me tell you How do you normally look for annotating also you normally look for military knows what we do is you it's been at million detector is a point in the sky so annotate well I should during the more you look at the southern Sky City's unity in occurring from there so you make a map of the surface that Scott you make adults and if you have enough adults you hope to see clusters of events appear in this clusters is where there are sources of neutrinos sitting on top of this uniform backhand of 6 atmospheric neutrinos but remain and so the 1st this was the end of the man the demonstration you see the map on talk it was shown that the weak interaction meeting in fact in 1999 this was a great big breakthrough we saw 17 at the nose and now they are we already made a match of it when the ice Cube was
half complete for the 59 screens this is the man we now find a way to look up but I won't go into that and that but that's the last map I can show you because after that this just on turns black business solutions of welfare power .period off the smoke good enough this is just black maps that this map of the 28 events I would talk about that cosmic neutrinos they're not produced in the atmosphere we know we because we did a different analysis from this 1 will eventually With this government cosmic neutrinos this way eventually is within months we now know what to do and now that there at the moment we did a special analysis and I just as in case you want to sleep late I'll show you
1 fan now this you see this event so the light starts here then travels on to the next things in here you this you see that that's a view track and so you're looking ahead and you want that which emit at this enormous amount of flight in the bottom of the detector and then happily traveled along it's a bit of a stranger fan it's 1 of this 28 because of the track looks like it's tempting from having looked at thousands of special attacks in the last 15 years from undercover work this looks like it in renewed this enormous energy for cultural but you know when you look when I look at is the I know it's something I have never seen before you know I know what time the TV events look like so these events have typically I didn't I mean we have remember 1 event behind the but year now we have close to 20 that our offer of above from the TV and so you actually if you fall to date as a function of energy you just see offense the cat so finding them what he said the cuticle thing is that you can measure manager very well and so this is a set of events that have more than on the TV most of them and so that that we CDs effect now after seeing it but I just gave a colloquial and I made and I can just blocked events and everybody can see the signal for themselves Newton's no no analysis see where they come from we don't know that that's another interesting thing if we go back there the
energy is just the amount of flights it's no grabbing his ball flight to you know this was a photon that was radiated by this new 1 on Electron Positron pair and then it gets skates on the ice and makes life and in fact I would use the the simplest way of measuring the energy as you I where did you get used to look at these events for if if you take a defense debts 10 times lower than action it becomes 50 meters shorter radios so every 50 meters is a factor 10 and we can do this and because the optics and the top or the bottom of the detector is different this to be a bit careful no deal Texas Aesop's denies is so clear that things that look big in the bottom of not necessarily very Shepard because the ice is so clean so you must be able to but you know what this is not how we do this I can do this by I hadn't any of my colleagues cap but that geneticist don't professionally and I will explain to more we cannot we can't even tell the direction so where but he still so this is the 1st map of cosmic neutrinos the question is
what do you do receive the decreasing gamma-ray bursts supernova remnants active galaxies but the truth is we don't know but these are only 28 events and you see if you this line that figure out is Equatorial coordinates seduces saying and the claymation no thickly nation in right ascension this more than a quarter of that this is the plane of the galaxy this line and so this is a new element we note that could have gone from the plane of the galaxy you now see also see this blow this pope is very close to the center of the galaxy so but you have to be very careful this pope Hess In is vault you expect this wear a uniform that you would expect . 6 5 events less than 1 event and you see 7 is a heart disease is it you have discovered some too close to to the center of the galaxy but that's only true if I had predicted that I would see the soldiers there ahead of time
once you realize this can appear anywhere in this manner by accident the probability it's a process but this is a backtrack so it's 92 per cent Source 8 % backtrack probability that happens all the time you cannot publish things have 8 % you're going to get burned most of the time another way of looking at that you know if you have a map like that was 28 offense and that you take another 28 events we have actually double that data since this paper since this analysis if you double the number of events dismount can very well look totally uniforms have seen this happened in the past you know we've been playing was maps since 1996 so you just have to wait will have more offense we have more data will have new monetary knows which we can to construct very well designed mostly electron and found that females yes what is the use of all as I'm running out
of time and I'm going to start the new subject of show you you can ask me
questions now I'm not going to give tomorrow star but by the way if you don't know what Cuomo detected a slight let me show you district this slice if any of you
has visited the University of Wisconsin Madison this is the campus which is along the way and that the size of this event so if you you realize this suit take it whatever your hometown is over your home universe the town and imagine 6 city blocks that's the size of the affair but this is this is not event that shows the different 1 effect I may as well not go go and show you feel few slide it's a pity that you wouldn't know what the outcome of this so let me know OK so this is assimilation Of these people because you say you know In fact this event there is no new contract is just
a blip offline and you see 2 things remember the qualities of the folk songs and the call his 5 so you see here this move faster than the so although the bloc is totally spherical and if you look at the times of the photons their very different they're different and you see this more yellow leave them there 1st there is more effective than there so now what is this guy disown you on track that I have been but I have faith in grain watching new ways well what it is it's
um it said let me go back to this life
this is an ally ,comma trading on its own Lemieux on a or maybe a tile we cannot tell that so what happens now is this is obviously a member of the defense staff in the detective right so you see here the net electron Atorino Interfax what does it do it gives 80 per cent of its energy to
1 electron when there's some all of stuff that the electron begins to shower in the ice so you get the splatter charged particles and they excuse me they emit is blue light OK so that end now indicate the key point is that the shower is very small In fact I think that they're on the next slide this is a
simulation of a neutrino an electron at the this area interacting so the whole volume it's five-metre Q so 5 meter cube of ice in a kilometer cube of ice misses the point source of flying you don't see any directions to it it uses just so small five-metre Q on the other hand the 1st is the size of less than the size of this food on the on the other hand if the electron the denoting came from there the Shi was developed in that direction and so the photons it's 88 will come out soon there than in the back and that's what you saw when you looked at the college and the simulation so the Times the the size tells you the energy the time still you the direction so it's said all told new technique questions property In fact 2 of these 28 events were discovered by accident we were looking for something else and then saw these 2 events you know we do blind analysis so as scripting we look for the whole analysis is done simulation them we take 10 percent of the data verified assimilation and then we use what you call opened the box and look at the other 90 per cent and look what's in it and so we were looking for cost much and train my 1st flight from 100 the million neutrinos and we found 2 of these events and you know you can say this is not you know 1 million DVD but they were spent by a small band on the TV which typically see as the last atmospheric neutrinos so then you know we have to learn how to reconstruct them
so let me see if I were Dallas I'm going to be OK
so and now this is where the fact that we
can't photons you'd get this message so in Amanda I don't like this was just a number of protons the guests on the number of photons and at times but now each of these adults is a detailed distribution of the number of protons detected by the foot multiplied as a function of nanoseconds and so I'm going to take silver in this event which is the event that I should In this offense but I'm going you I'm going to take 1 foot multiplier triple that that signal there and so on Of course if you fit the offense you fit the times you get the direction the energy and so this the Blue Line is the fit to the event and is a fight terms 2 showers the neutrino and the shower and by on the date indicates so you see from this wonderful to multiply you can already tell that that thing understated accuses mother good get but then you have more than 300 of them in this type of event by 100 thousand photons in these events typically and so so we found these
2 events remember 150 V this where more than a thousand TV we actually could have claimed the defense but so has said as evidence for cosmic between us we didn't would publish them but then you know we saw the advantage as as energy is kind of the key to move out of the of the atmospheric back currently member my slight where the atmospheric backfired when dialog you want to find offense at high energy to divide to is the key we started to look for more of these events and so it was very simple what you do is what's Super cameo every neutrino detector thus you define you decide
fuel this is Ice Cube and you divided In June and in the peace which is still active volume and Evita so what it means is entertaining always when you see an event stuffed in the detective like we saw the animation defense stuffed in the detective delight the property and propagates and you see no light coming in it's a mu on if this is a new on that atmospheric knew what it would have produced clear and so this way you select these events that where the neutrino interact you 420 mega don't detect that's the bottom line you can do
something else Is this where an atmospheric neutrinos then it's introduced in international so it's it's produced in an action our and it comes with a new 1 because the pie on the case and 299 and Nuon and in fact it comes with a new ones of all the other violence created in that direction and noticed these offense our neutrino and nothing else so we end so this veto will also feature of shower if there is a shower and some you want to then there may be a neutrino but it's atmospheric widow wh so costing 13 knows on Aquino's starting in the detective and are not producing an and in fact 1 of the 2 PCs ends the 1st 2 the PC by 2 ways thousand TV 2 PGA events 1 of them I came close take from there somewhere and so he came close but that a samples to come from the southern hemisphere it came close to the Ashoura and that's on top of the experiment and you could go and look in the Shower whether there was any evidence of a match our that was produced at the time this neutrino came true does not absolutely not of even a single hit in 1 of the scintillating that make and so on I mean really instead of working hard on these 2 events we found more so this is
uh the bottom-line kind of so what this book this part In this year shows that the effect it's a three-dimensional portrait vertical axis is the number of offense the horizontal axis this is the number of programs in the offense so photons is a will is high and so in this direction you go to high of energy what's this axis This is the critical 1 the section shows you the number of protons In the fetal life and so of course what you want is no light in the veto layoffs and a fairly high energy event so the interesting events are in this call all the other friends out here when you see in this book this is 1 year of data all events so you see this the defense disappears but then you see these events sticking out and you see there's no analysis you just cultivate their you know he talked 10 events a year they'll never find this just have to block the data said his energy and the critical thing is that people built his beautiful detector that can measure energy to 10 15 per cent and that's
the key so now what we actually did it was a blind analysis so we did the analysis on the simulation and will require an effort to pass final Cup was we look for events in these books that was the signal box and it meant less than the photons and the 2 each and more than 6 thousand the affair and then of course no accompanying new ones and stuff like that and that meant that issue in these books there are about to fall back her defense but but the active volume is 98 per cent efficient so you only use this 2 per cent of fuel signal but you have a backhander for offense prettier and so if you know now you can't and so this the next flight we now know its value now I'm happy to spend the last 52 10 minutes just on this book disease there but today called the monarch of the story with who we are lose even if there is a lot of like that and that's the sum of all the offense so if you some you get is yes a projection of the sun yeah so that all the events in 1 year but we detected I think it will only get the a bookcase so maybe a picture helped sir this is the eyes this is ice cubes this is the atmosphere they produced cosmic case ,comma and added to a height of about 20 kilometers the cosmic rays interact with the nitrogen and the oxygen in the air and 3 of a cosmic ray it makes violence and the Bayern's decay In new on an unattainable and of course I'd do it this way but remember all this is all alike that his future energy everything is is boosted was a large factor so there is no I do all of this "quotation mark but it doesn't and so you see it if you suppose this Latino you know up and it starts to defending the detector it makes me want to track all makes 1 of these balls of flight it looks exactly the same as a cosmic neutrino but the differences that is produced was a new on it doesn't come some solves far away and so this new we will also go 3 of detector so if you see a staff dignity no was you track such Grossman used that you died it has a better atmospheric backdrop is the fact that the other violence you use in the event can also make new ones In the detector so this pretty efficient way offer of vetoing so that all this is offensive and subjected to tradition yeah it was the result of this the comes from another direction we use of the word is used on the quality and safety is yet to come yet then of course there is the chance that immune got absorbed along the way so this has asserted efficiency this is guarantee that's part of the so you are you are what you mentioned is that it is an example of a backhander fair that we would could mistake for about cost McMurtry not yet well they taste that we get for events 5 we actually see for after the fact which we predicted 5 events per year that are due to problems like this this is not the only 1 you there by just fluctuations strike this diverted milk the most important a fetal is of course all this new ones coming down so that's a layer of 6 multiplied it's so after you open the box you go and look at each event 1st of all you can clearly see whether it started in the detector
after the fact you could see where there is a new and didn't on all but what we don't do you can go and look back whether there is any lighting the and then sometimes you do know we found we can actually some of the events actually have some light in the fetal and so those are the background events which he didn't he this box is arbitrary right so they could make this book Small and then I would have no background defense but then I would signal to so this was the books that optimize signal to background based on the analysis done was assimilation In the other questions look in the eyes of yeah so where that's important right so you can look over this times the Times being different of the photons traveling in that direction that direction you can look over the skies over you know literally microseconds remember the time unit 2 nanoseconds so that's why it's so important that these events so be yet solid but I haven't seen that was probably not your question during the recent debate on I it's pretty I don't have a plot twists me but of course it works well once you've got that catastrophic at nationals so 400 g the new ones it doesn't work at all that minimum ionizing every new on but he begins to the textbooks tell you it's you know catastrophic energy Allstate sits in around 5 form of GV so I'm the TV it already works well and in fact it did allows you to even below 500 so once you have bath a TV Italian Hubert Stamper said no matter what the anniversary and when it was traveling with you here would you he will Amelia we were looking remember that when we found the well that's as I mentioned when we found the 1st 2 events like that we were looking for a million TV What a million TV event look-alike will usually take the center of the detector it would almost fill the hole detected more quiet you know you at your 50 meters 3 times and you feel the detector and so I read you know you look and you see that's not there but is also not like any atmospheric McAnally see and then of course I mean that sort of thing he later computer systems that we have we had 2 different groups in Madison Click on Stockton-On-Tees offensive to see if they got the same answer 1 group was to invent something very simple remember you have to fit all these each module there more than there's some 300 plus modules each 1 is a function of the number of protons as a function of time you have to fix and so you can generate all the physics that goes into this catastrophic damage and lost his electrodynamics it's all know so you make simulation this set of dislike traveling through Europe and that there is still work what you do is you just moved to 1st Texas annually rotates the defense until you fit all this waveforms and 1 of our scientist this is just by pollute forced except that he found a very intelligent algorithm to make 2 major the number and the number of trial small he takes about 2 hours uniformity of this respectable cluster it takes about a half a day to a date to reconstruct 1 offense and so we made an enormous breakthrough teases you no doubt this what you do is after all you propagate photos for this detective the thousands and each time you make a new tile for features along the wrong with about photons used to propagate so 1 of the scientists discovered that universe is a way there are computers computers used for games computers that do the same thing over and over again very fast and when recent this call GPU used when we switched to GPU about factor of 150 without doing and now I have to do is just they came just in time let's see I should stop and now I am going to show you I just want to show you a better picture of this this
map and it's of course not preliminary anymore the paper was published in Science in December and end and this is the map they'll still up Ch
but it it's like the models shift appointed in February again and finished that should have done this a bit later so you see that's not the galactic played NO the 2nd highest energy event construct right on the center of the galaxy creature well this straight experts said the 1 that deal the site to tease over to Europe break for they messed it up I have my own book doesn't look as a mess on but is is these are the this is correct this is this is the center of the galaxy using these events Faustine it's 1 of the 2 1st offense thousands for the 1 TV and so this is this cluster which you may think is somehow associated but you see there all of the fans dead of softly
not in the brain of the galaxy so this is an extragalactic flux or a combination of an extragalactic in Galactic and you just need more offense we know we need more Muallem tax which we can construct was very good precision which we are getting and so you just have to 2 the patient and stay the word I shouldn't finish on this but I'm going to the worst possibility is that this map becomes totally uniform which is not impossible because you go the team knows you're supposed to come from anywhere in the universe so suppose they act by the way they are not the times of the snotty nose do not happen at times of gun-murder labor but it could be done Monday burst that astronomers don't label aspect come on enabler so I don't think this is that concludes but suppose we suggest active galaxies throughout the universe the new diffuse Fox then what do you do well then you look at maps of active galaxies and correlate them with these effects so you get to the answer anyway hopefully so now due we haven't worked it out we have to find where this conference get more events and expecially Lemieux on offense so that's the question so if you come to more you'll hear this in more detail but this is the punch line you're not really missing anything so you can go and sit in the bar yeah you don't want to be commercially the since we published space but there are some 100 papers on the Web who compared these offense was everything you can think of and I don't just the interesting thing is that they the 1 thing they didn't think of his to combine events reserves a fence so I did that actually have but I'm not going to show it to you because you don't see anything prior so you this is just an attainment you have to if you want to do too seriously you have to find some correlation parameter which physical meaning and then so this has not happened so at the moment I think we just have to wait dealers said to write papers skies so this is a golden subject goes but they are going to be home soon yeah I'll stay here as long as you want but could unit in on the I only but you know there will answer is by only looking at high Hyannis in 3 so these days looked like they may not be may have a high energy you put them on the pole because they they may not be atmospheric and so in fact way distorts some analyze this that you build the probability which is this likelihood I didn't tell you what to call that I showed in this book you see this is a likelihood and this likelihood when we look at it when we look up what you do is a combination dislike Lola to slosh 81 events cluster B when events in the cluster of high of amateurs if I imagine which made them less likely to be a post and so you for each event you you construct this likelihood and then you compared it was around them as randomized map of Europe France and that's the probability that you find source that's also obviously his call to which of course is a strange thing to do because most of these events of signal backtrack but you know that's so we didn't know that so we that's what we have defined before the blind analysis of that what comes out With now in more intelligent ways of doing this so Dallas with a credit risk for weeks in May we full use of data user completed Detective Michael complete 79 strains you 7 were missing that year but doesn't matter and so were so we have 4 years of data what you see here is 2 years of data and of course we are doing in our analysis looking for me on a train of which is not finished but that would also give more for offense and better constructed fan and it's been going on for years and the like you have to wait although they have a better solution you'd you'd do you determine that the solution to the resolution on the sky over track it's still much superior to this this bowl which I like from time military they said that they would not use all he is 1 so the once you are looking at the he knows that stopped in the detective doesn't matter where the conference you get all the attractions here all the amendment were yesterday and that is because that's the talk to
more Mario going to ask questions of the letter given to more stock that made it through the Senate coming through this is the Southern Hemisphere at 100 at at 100 clearly the military not cross section is so large that entertainers beginning to become sold by the and so
at a thousand TV the on concluded here the anymore so the signal that's totally favorite coming from above and so if you do assimilation UCI lead exactly this racial free fans there Nova members we still want to do new ones through there's still this this was decided do you need to beauty of this analysis is as you for that there's no simulation involved even the efficiency of the fetal was determined experimentally by creating the fate fetal and see how much like this you so there's no simulation in this analysis this analysis was designed to get a statistically meaningful signal Wis absolutely not people could punch holes in the analysis Snow simulation now we go back to look for new on trainers and will find nose was good and energy and good there .period thing and will do better than this because you don't want to give up on what we were doing anyone else this in his this is how the rest of us 10 the minimum ionizing losses total in incorrigible this the over all the energy lost once this two-disc radiation you can neglect minimum ionizing and nationals I don't think it's neglected in the simulation but it doesn't matter it's very small well I hope you enjoy it is as much as I did I even forgot my jet lag it what can


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