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Masterclass with Anne Green

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I deliberately kept the abstract for this study varied because I wasn't sure what would be most interested people and on large number of slides prepared ranging from the basic observational evidence the dark matter going right the way through to the thing I work on which is the astrophysical uncertainties behind looking for dark matter so before I get started white lights duties you guys some questions and try and get a feeling for what your backgrounds are and what your particularly interested in so the 1st question is sticking around that you consider yourself to be an astronomer OK however because it is felt to be a particle physicist an investment fund 1 of the than on that aspect particle physicist at case was a mixture of the bias toward the particle physics side attacked and if you have a 15 year fairest a case that means the majority of EU observers experimentalist somewhere in the middle well I saw that been wonder about skipping the overview of the observational evidence for dark matter given that the majority of you have particle physics backgrounds would you like me actually to go go through that and seeing some molding selects the like a side structured got that questions why do you want to do tech dark matter what is it with trying to detect and how do we
do it so let's start with the
wife or in other words the observational evidence that it was the 1st piece of observational evidence is probably the cleanest single piece of evidence comes in looking at Galaxy irritation the message should say
at this point if there is anything I say that you don't understand them the stick hand up and wave at me and ask questions if there's anything I'm saying it's not clear so spiral galaxies and made a disk of stars and their stars circles use the force of gravity as a matter just like the solar system and the solar system the inner planets going round really really fast she gets to ones that remembering the release only then I think leading expect exactly the same thing to happen in spiral galaxies but he does so what you do is use the Doppler effect to measure the speed of stars and clouds of gas in a spiral galaxies as a function of the distance from the center and this is called a rotation
as leadership she published speeds as a function of distance from the center and what you'd expect
if all the material in the galaxy was the stuff could see the disk stars and a speech full of light
it's roughly as 1 over art to the hat what you actually find is that the stars in the outer regions that fire and really really fast an analysis
of this is that this is really straightforward it's just Newton's laws of gravity acceleration Lincoln renders Circle in the Square over are able to the gravitational force which is due the Mass inside that Radius divided by
r-squared as everybody's observation that speeds roughly constant stick that on the left-hand side here on what is telling us is is that the
mass within a given radius it is in constant it grows as you get further acts signals a change of mass into a density telling us that this is extended distribution of matter for that
matter hanging is density varies as 1 of Ross went very roughly
9 This is very straightforward the only things ashamed of Newton's laws of gravity that if Newton's laws of gravity a correct thing galaxies is surrounded by handlers of Invisible Man the question is you 2 so which constitutes OK that's a very good in quite some technical questions and it typically spends on the size of the galaxy the more massive galaxy the fast that things are going notice that a single Patel the Fisher relation I must and I can't remember off the top of my head but some rough roughly roughly there is a relationship that is not a simple issue might naively think buys any more questions on Galaxy rotation periods before we move on by swarming in the scale galaxies don't live on their own randomly scattered through space a lot of Livermore called Galaxy Court gravitation bind groups of tens hundreds even Fisons galaxies and in fact the 1st suggestion that don't matter exist goes right back to a guy called swiftly in the
1980 so I hated which is the doctor affects measure misstated galaxies in the cluster cocoa and in very simple
terms what he finds the Galaxy's refinery I'm really really fast so fast that you just fly off into space rather than being banged together in collapsed as he was the 1st to suggest that the matter should exist the physics behind this is actually something called the
variable theorem if you want sell gravitating systems are held together by gravity which is in equilibrium that is connected Kennedy Kennedy and its potential energy VAT correlated with simple relationship it has with the idea
here is to relate the kinetic energy potential energy to quantity should command and the total match so the way with kinetic energy is just some of the units individual kinetic energies
the Galaxy's potential energy you sum up overall the galaxies and then the average speed is just the some of the mass waited space divided by the total maps so it turns out the way to do this is to define called the gravitational radiation that happens to find like this and that once he dominated back you can then under especially for the total mass of the galaxy cluster in terms about gravitational radius and the average means speed spread the galaxy the doctor effect Elijah to measure the average means space where the else to make its gravitational rate by looking at projected positions of the
galaxy is almost gone and understands the appeal of technical detail appear but once you do this you come up with an expression of the total mass the galaxy cluster divided by the total luminosity In terms of the ratio of the mosque and luminosity the sounds so when you see any these
adults with circles random with the staff say galaxy cluster has 400 times as much mass the unit luminosity is
something you might imagine that galaxies made the start of a typically strongly similar to the sun so you won't necessarily expect factor in
its B 1 B said was expected to be 400 incident way telling you there's
an awful lot more money there than the light medium you'd expect from the light and state another thing we can do with galaxy clusters is look at them using X-ray telescopes and in fact don't just contain galaxies that contain large amounts of halt X-ray emitting gasses as
a hair on the minds voters familiar optical image the kind of cluster the galaxies but when you look at it and this is on roughly the same scandal with an X-ray telescope to see all this extra emissions coming from the halt yeah hands
again this arises workers something about what the galaxy cluster is made of and supplied physics of this work is usually gas is in equilibrium inserting symmetric and in that case the pressure force which is 1 over the
density times the pressure gradient is equal to the gravitational force the 2 balance if you is the ideal gas the equation the state of the gas pop back into the left-hand side and you end up with another relationship to the masses within a given radius as again what we've done here is trying to write the left-hand side in terms of things we can measure the temperature gradient with radius and density gradient with radius and it turns signed the measure those things temperature gradient from the X-ray spectrum but is the energy of the X-rays number of extras as a function of their energy and the density gradient you measure from the surface brightness of the X-rays variants and when
he did these things when you get right is the value of what called the barrier factions the fraction of the total mass galaxy cluster is in the form of
burial 1 result that you get when you do this is by no . 1 4 8 2 in other words the mid-caps maturity about
85 per cent of the mass the galaxy cluster is non Barry on so did
and that there this going to be here it argued that some of the reasons
for this this the use the of
send my objection with an absolutely valid here
pops a bird is not so much time X-ray brighter
days have you been things vary with radius addition to want to Spain a dusty tapped have dust doing old things like that but nonetheless I think your underlying points might be valid in the astronomical observations of difficult but have systematic errors and in particular the
things which governed here with assumed equilibriums that's probably not necessarily true as will probably see later
galaxy clusters dangers that exist in isolation many of them are having ongoing formation but not necessarily spherical and this also various uncertainties that go into the
modeling here prisoners going from the temperature of the galaxy cluster to its mast so
this is indicative that you certainly shouldn't take this too seriously and investing which be ringing alarm bells here is the lack of an arrow so I think I'm telling you about this because is part of the story that will see lights from their Araqchi nowadays more accurate ways of measuring the barrier fractures to begin announced that's roughly consistent with this not standards bits have cross-check something's the best isn't so messy astronomical technique so any more questions at this point the please all the people who ask questions too since both inside and outside this is that we so far seen that we've got evidence for dark matter only but evidence that don't matter is Norm Barry on the development of the last 10 or 15 years that we've been able to mark the mass distribution within galaxy clusters and this is a much much cleaner measurements so this is coming simply from the fact that Feinstein's gravity tells us that matter space months spaces will bend the light gets spent going through it an intake
level of the best ways of doing this to use was called strong winds and here .period example set in the middle of the year and we've got a very big galaxy clusters what's
happening is we're looking at a small galaxy the sat behind the huge base the just how but you it's asleep he's sat straight behind it so the light gets spent as a goes right as a citizen seeing a single image of the galaxy perhaps that we see these
multiple images and if is a minimalist fiction you can see that these are actually completely identical it
really is a multiple weird things multiple images of the same single galaxies like getting back as outlined in the brightness of these images and their positions become appetite
mass distribution in the galaxy clusters and that's what we've got here on bright despite that it corresponds to the allergies you can see and then this man in the middle that Saddam matter that we can say
set aside the more famous example of gravitational lensing that matters include bullet plus there's a hand-knit you've already heard back sticky hands of this embodies the best that I think it's probably worth going through a little bit detail said a guests nearly decades ago now that this actually led to some excitement in paper entitled to direct empirical evidence for the existence of God that which is a pretty Bell Trace said this is what they do so what we've got
here is galaxy cluster and what we've got here is a smallest subclass that he 1 of the things that the untrained eye you might not support but there is an evidence density galaxies here the that's where to see when you look at the Hubble Space Telescope however when you look
at the next rate had affected the things very different is the
best thing on the ride hasn't gone big number whole X-ray emitting gasses and then a smaller 1 His bullet-shaped like that this also happens
is that the state things are in the process of merging the little galaxy cluster has gone through the big 1 and idea site but not for the galaxies and dark matter of them because they don't interact with the other hand the extra gas does interact in gets caught up in the middle and particularly the
shop fronts as a gas from small surplus that tries to push its way through
the son we already know that month but the baryonic matter in the galaxy cluster is in the form of the X-rays and so this map
here is not just telling us where the answer obvious has already expect most of the baryonic matter today
however what also is use gravitational lensing cleansing it turns out in this case which is not we get multiple images the wages get distortions in the shape of the galaxies city's people assigned some sort of what I need to map out the mass distribution and that's
what this plot on the bottom left is becomes share the mass distribution from the Lens analysis and the total mass distribution follows the distribution of the Galaxy's rather and the distribution but the dominant Barry on it sir the
list is undoubtedly pretty strong evidence than on Barry on dogmatic the was capped at going into this is date this lensing analysis you have to machine general relativity and we kind of already but if you assume generality tea is correct and we have good evidence the automatic system now and that all areas modified gravity of unsavory much advice from this 1 called Mons modified Newtonian dynamics which was designed to explain his
observations of the galaxy rotation curves and it does what it was designed to do very very well however
Munster normal logical it was just designs To do that job people who worked on it developed it was nice Finkel Tabarez tens
effective Scalia gravity which is a cosmological generalize shares 9 the question would be put those sorts of theories explain these observations but I don't matter and the questioning isn't really answer because these modified gravity theories as so absolutely hideous that is really really difficult to do these calculations people a sort of done a half cup half calculations but nobody is definitively showing the modified gravity theories can stay it seems likely that you could have a mass distribution that looked like that produce
lensing Contel was that look like how it it would have to be something really really weird starts
nobody is actually disproved at this point that modify gravity theories can do that so this whole deviation is that this is another piece of good evidence for dark matter but is not quite definitive the title of the paper and some of the some publicity that went awry as it might have surprise so many questions on galaxy clusters so overcome the is the cosmic microwave background radiation this is probably the most single powerful tool in Cozumel a G not just
don't matter that could result in much of what we know about the universe comes because they migrate back so because they might be
background radiation is about trying thermal relic photons that left over from the Big Bang so very early times the universe is very hot and dense and the lionized back 400 times in years after the Big Bang atoms form the universe becomes neutral as at that point is that a scattering of things all the time the fight on start streaming through I'm a strange wards of today and the universe expands they get stretched so the temperature drops and existence radiation is when most powerful pieces of evidence that the Big Bang is the correct description of our universe however is not the radiation itself but it's the isotropic In the radiation that really interesting the the temperature is roughly 2 . 7 Taliban but tiny fluctuations in different directions thereby 1 parts intends to the and said the fluctuations come from small initial fluctuations in the distribution of matter and energy in the EU it's what we think is the initial small fluctuations possibly generated by something called inflation happened just after the Big Bang we don't know if it back to shore but we do know To some degree of confidence that the small initial fluctuations the grounded due to the force of gravity gravity pulls things in the fluctuations get bigger thunderclaps form galaxies and galaxy clusters that will happen in the late universe that India universe fluctuations essentially provide potential wild I'm because it might .period background photons have declined to and that leads fluctuations in temperature and embodies temperature
fluctuations while they depend on various things that sleepy obviously depends on the very initial fluctuations but they also then depends on how those initial fluctuations grew with time up until the point the microwave background radiation was released and the the
fluctuations depends on what the universe is made up inside by looking at the skilled hands this fluctuations we can learn what the universe is made of some fluctuations with this the text in 1992 recently there is that it's really high accuracy by such Michael W. matters just come to the end of its useful life on state the
reason its final results from his nine-year dataset city is the time to fluctuations of the mean temperature affected all the relevant regions are hot spots the regions occult thoughts and the 1st
thing you son of notice when you press the footballs in different sizes that typically as a characteristic blobbiness scale which is about the degree of crops and it turns out that the characteristics scale these fluctuations is the latest the size of the University at the time the radiations remain in the states that's late scare what we see when we look at the sky it's an angle and that depends on the geometry of the universe In my faith a particular signees in space open the curtains the angles of and is negative because of small and so by looking at the beginning I will soar in measured geometry of the universe what was interesting what the geometry of the universe depends on the energy density is a critical energy density for which the dormitories flaps and if the engines these big air geometry is closed and the smaller geometries of some
of its enzymes but this characteristic scale the shows up in this plot here as this page is pretty much exactly where you'd expect it to be at the
universe flak it's not telling us that's the total energy density in the universe is very close the critical energy density for which the geometry is flat said that cosmologists like to do we are
trying things density parameters Omega where omega is density of whatever species are interested in the matter barrier arms radiation divided by this critical density for which the geometry plan the latest c and b datasets measure I'm to be very close to what we really high accuracy they need to worry too much about his exact numbers there what you need to worry about is that this is very close to 0 and the Arab hours a very very small the Mexico back to
this supply here that is the angular power spectrum is telling us by the typical temperature differences between directions that separated by the ticker gold hasn't got the angular scales on the top it's
90 degrees here going to smaller and smaller scales here so this peak tells us bites geometry and hence the total energy density but there's an awful lot more information in the subsequent paid the physics
they're coming from the you competition gravity is trying to pull things then the pressure In the barrier is trying to stop the practice you get these oscillations that matter
within here article Dr. paid and the issue these
oscillations depends on the road to the minds of dark matter and barrier society
by looking at the peak heights of also being able to measure the burial density parameter and the cold dark matter density parameter in
both cases it turns out is not actually just down the promise you measure it condemns France at
times little when little is related to the Hubble constant the ways in which the universe is
expanding deck to the Hubble constant is bank's 72 kilometers per 2nd medal prospect and middle
age comes from writing it liked it so I just said is about 70 to the little age is about No . 7 2 this thing here is roughly the middle-age No . 7 2 again don't take too much notice about the exact values of these numbers the point is that the error because of very very small so I told you before
that you could sort of measure the faction of Barry on developing galaxy clusters you could I do this much much much more accurately using the cosmic microwave background radiation science any questions about cosmic microwave background radiation please is so that's extreme question plants going up there for a few years now busily taking data types come but it can't say what Frank is doing is basically the same sort of thing is the thing that scanning the house guide lots and lots lots finer resolution that I must
admit I can remember numbers on the top of my head that so I it's going to be able to get some measure more these wiggles however may be at this point I should actually get
slides from another talk about balance your question rather better than there are actually already other experiments that are doing the bad things called acts and Sypolt telescopes and the mental condemning tomorrow I have about lights lists I'm can you I don't know how I did but my colleagues in Nottingham does indeed work compact and not all where it is coming out of his mind so don't worry I know nothing said the plot that it showing his across not applied data
it's the W not data we've already seen these 1st 3 pates and then these additional data disciple telescope is something called acts concede that they've actually already measures all this sequence of high things so plank is seriously gonna do the same but was more Arab allies is also eventually going to middle-school polarization I
probably won't go inspect would spend too long offered the pH but it's going to be these Arab was dying substantially however failed to be fair excitement about pint isn't going to be coming from better measurements of the dark matter density is in the coming from other things that it might be able to do for instance
measuring suspect the strength of the initial fluctuation spectrum that's committed 60 million dollar question said against the deviation the gravity waves that could be generated by inflation just after the Big Bang we don't know I what the amplitude is it really depends on the underlying physics there some small class of models of already been ruled out by the fact we've not seeing them as a class of models the plant could say and then there's a whole bunch more models the clandestine meanwhile CCF planks sees the 10th those will get very excited because to see the closest thing to a smoking gun for inflation your guess is as good as mine so that is a coming back into the sea and the anybody got any more questions for anything thank God we all the change the 1 which was said to be different is the temperature that will go dying uniformly the universe expands the things hope it'll be different in 10 years time of difference being which we'd have to come back and bite 2 billion years time centered on so the timescales completely stable changes over cosmological timescales person timescales it is anything else and I really don't mind high simplicity as away I think that this
is constant called beyond the power spectrum also relates to the thing I said in words which is based the mean temperature
difference between scales sort of it becomes you taking you expanded announced vertical harmonics to average a spherical pop ballads of deliberately fudge that since it gets a bit over the mean temperature differences of practical yes it is going to the world of indeed established the phrase is certainly not random the majority of them yeah 7 there is an
element of randomness in as if he took back the power spectrum you can generate different realizations that would have same statistical properties of the but they would
necessarily be the same in details there if there is an element around them but which direction to take a hot spots from which accounts for Cianci a question up until now I fully covered in the 1st part is why don't matter the observational
evidence and very briefly waltz limply weakly interacting massive particles or whatever come on to NYU is stacked with the full weekday
that anyone got more burning questions about why in the wall someone is even if no 1 thing thinks I think several people asked about this notebook book pages from another toll which my answer is coming back to to galaxy clusters and gravitational lensing allowing us to map out mass distribution and it's this
additional picture at the top that probably makes clear what's going on so here we are Stattelman we've got this big galaxy clusters ,comma looking at this little galaxies sat behind the galaxy clusters of galaxies plus depends space suddenly from the Galaxy doesn't travel in a straight line it gets bent around the galaxy clusters
however when we look at images of brains analyze them as if the light was traveling in straight line so instead of thinking that because single galaxy that has traveled lights along
multiple band pounds when it actually looks to His instead of having a single galaxy with the multiple images Of the same galaxy because the lights from it has come to us only spent pound so hopefully
that makes what's happening with strong winds saying little bit player so is there anything else from the 1st part that that he would like me to say but more about when have some time at the end of the nite and let's press on With the how at the
so I'm going to focus very much on weakly interacting massive particles the most the 1 going say that it doesn't matter what the physics behind the Mesa could be supersymmetry it could be something else
under a spell out with the thing which actually probably many of you know more about it than I do and that's using collided as they really what you're doing here isn't so much detecting dark matter is making it yourself it was a very heavy
you need lots of energy to make them but the LHC is buying things together a very high speed some of the public talk version and what they're looking for is missing energy laments the winds strain the detector leaving no trace in carrying all energy Manson costing reality is a lot more complicated than that and my understanding of what would you guys doing is looking
for evidence somewhat like this to persons come together that she's clearly known as far as they can down the bottom end of the decade change here and here for instance you have liked injury along the way he producing "quotation mark somewhat you looking for is the combination of the missing energy and momentum and projects along the way so that the limit of what I know
about facts so what I would say is if the energy does producing detects when light particles that would be fantastic you really really exciting it would tell us these particles do actually exist for real in reality but on its own it wouldn't solve dogmatic problems In particular the winds continued presence detector In the case of the time they got to Darrington so and so to be sure that it was the detector is the dark matter you need to know it's stable on cosmological time scales and then he won't even if things are also potentially stable on cosmological time schools you then need to prove that yes these things actually on the dark matter in the universe and make up galaxy halos looking ahead to the future well I haven't the I those detect
when and then if it does the next step will be to measure the wind properties must see why this is important lights are on the sort of things would be interested in the mask interaction cross sections and the reasons why while 1 of the things that really convinced us that dark-energy existed was the plot ratio here we
had lots of different observations measuring quantities and therefore worries I'm producing consistent
results it may well be that convince ourselves we seem dark matter we have to do it by various different way measured the properties and Jacquette consistent and then the other thing that we need to do it if you measured the interaction cross sections that I just go back to theoretical calculations the production of dark matter in the universe and calculate how much should be produced and check that matches the medical met matter that cosmologists think there is a new so that is the sort of to do list for collider physics and went in the future any questions about that not all be able to answer them if they're very technical no think I will move on the things I know what and for the 1st of these is laws called indirect detection theory is this :colon direct detection is that you not looking for the winds themselves you're looking for the products of their annihilation for instance gamma-rays
positrons and antiprotons now I told you just now that actually has the universe expands events he dropped the Windstar stop nite 4
that's trend however once structure forms was galaxies and galaxy clusters form then was the average density is very low density within galaxies is very high so the Winterside annihilating again as the cutting shows what happens here
publishing a Windsor neutralinos the come together to produce "quotation mark substance burdens on these things then fragments the Kennedy using all sorts of things of course the thing that most interesting are the unusual things the high-energy gamma-rays positrons antiprotons possibly neutrino the 1st thing about In
yes and no is the answer so most calculations and done in that framework that some of statement where so again I'm getting near it can actually supports later on maybe the parameter space is getting cut into and squeeze the simplest supersymmetric model but the problem is supersymmetry is a very broad saying that's difficult to block a probably come back to that however almost all of what I'm going to say now isn't so dependent on Susie more times the particles and was weakly interacting and its own article particle known of the key parts of the puzzle right so let's have a look back at the guy calculating what you'd expect an indirect protection experiment the 1st thing you need to know is what happens when 2 particles come together in Ireland and that's obviously part
of the text if you don't get calculating fluxes you need to know how I went to distributed from 3 space and that's largely astrophysics but with a little bit of particle physics the initial conditions and then if few interesting charged particles like positrons and antiprotons they propagate through the Milky Way's magnetic field about domestic process we need to fall back into and all 3 those
things can come together to give you predicted signals so let's focus on gamma rays they travel straight lines easier buying is the
flux encircled defied on the left-hand side of the stuff in blue bloom is all the particle physics related stuff the stuff in red is the astrophysics so
when violations antibody predecessors going to be proportional to the number density squares the number density it's mass density rho divided by so if we look
at the astrophysical term it's going to be an integral under way quiet along the line of sight and over the solidifying Liviu detector and then the particle physics term hair so what we've got we've got under labeled different annihilation channels on /slash just the things that could initially can be produced in the cable system example was later on so is the fraction is fraction of the annihilation which goes and buys a channel the yen ID is the number of gamma rays that produced unit energy for that particular annihilation eternal and and here we've got the mosque squared commitment on the density squared and unsurprisingly here's our annihilation cross section times be again so that's how often they
annihilated the cross-section time speeds and number densities square so is bits may separated nicely into the particle physics the astrophysics terms so let's have a look at the particle physics visit them where you do have to have a specific model in mind and supersymmetry is usually what people have in mind now because the limits adopt that doesn't couple directly to the photo that means that the vast majority of the gamma-rays get produced a coming from messy process is something else gets his 1st prisons titles will be quiet safe from Menton to carry
enormously tens of going through the cave the policy not resolve all of that is that you end up with inspecting the gamma-rays as a function of X Series energy divided by mass His featureless and obviously cuts off at the point that you
can do something with higher energy the energy start with and the
different colors here of the different possible annihilation channels and actually fairly similar it is possible that you can get gamma rays produced directly for instance wins annihilating directly to Z in the gamma what to Dallas and in those cases
is that of having this spectrum you'd have a line of the wind Mass but others can do directly they have to do it fire-related diagrams and hence not means the rate to suppress this typically expected to be very small now the astrophysics simple said the fluxes depends on the density square so that very much means you wanna go looking way expected density to be very this
is the result of a numerical simulation of the formation of a Milky Way like galaxy the bright areas where the density is very high some surprisingly dense is very high in the tactics center but we Seale also that government for distribution businessmen contained lots of little small clumps called some paydays some of these
henceforth galaxies some of them are as far as we know it .period so those long would be a good place to go looking the ones which had not requested know where to look the ones which placed galaxies we can toss the systematically looking man not so some technical
stuff there's something which gets mentioned electoral called the biggest factor and it's basically how much bigger than the actual rate is due to this
clumping of the density than what you'd expect if the don't matter distribution was complete
as a other things tonight is that actually MySpace factories a single number different species present different scales in regions gamma-rays legislative mention travel in straight lines so that you just looking at the density squared along whichever line of sight you looking at but deep antiprotons and positrons connection he get to us from relatively low local region of the Milky Way Semenya probing the density distribution fairly close the sun
so this fact is not a single number depends on which species are you looking at and people have tried to model in calculating that there is a huge uncertainties a bit more about that later on if you like
the contract absolutely huge astrophysics thing was even concrete examples of this moment is they're all sorts of astrophysical processes that reduce antimatter and high-energy gamma rays so it's really important if you did see something you can convince yourself is due to Wempe annihilation and not some known astrophysical price so let's have a look at the current status that start with the gamma rays and most of
the action and gamma-rays is coming from the certainty space telescope and ground-based air of telescopes like magic Vera and bit of some very
much Astrophysics of things they're bedding huge amounts of astrophysics stuff that's really exciting discovering also of new objects in the fact plane we never knew existed and that matters very much is sidelined for these guys there have been various claims hands but dozen nothing was really convincing yet as possible 1 exception which I mentioned in a moment said before going on to that lets actually Lookabaugh constraints we get from the fact that we aren't seeing anything as I mentioned before dwarf galaxies are a good place to look this up within the Milky Way halos rebel relatively close and surrounded by lumps of dark matter there are also good because the little some small pathetic galaxies that tend to contain large amounts of stuff like supernovae that would produce gamma as a background so all family has done is limited by attended these things because it's not clear which 1 is best the best bet is to look at lots of them and that the observations no sign of anything she place a constraint on the cross section said constraints
on the way cross section as a function of the wind massing GV going from 10 to 100 with gigaelectronvolt the dotted line going across hair is the cross-section with which we think the women should have based on the measured called the
matter density the remember this is once 1 link between the cross cross-section and density and then he doesn't they dependence and limits on how high the winds annihilated news that
these beings and tights but what you're seeing is that things get better as the wind gets lighter that's not at
all surprising that coming from is 1 of the mass squared thing
here what is saying is that the very light winds that lead to stand the tens of the fate the observations of beginning to get to the point where excluding the cross sections which correspond to the measured against the swells
would not saying anything yet that is already telling us interesting thing I also mentioned the galactic center is a good place to look because that's the place in the Milky Way were expected don't matter density the highest however unfortunately there's something astrophysical there that is kicking out huge numbers of high-energy gamma rays and that this has been
affected by a decades ago very accurately measured by Hess we've got Gambari flush times each as a function of energy black and red data points and they're going like way I here to tend and basically is very
difficult for particle physics models to make dogmatic candidate when candidates that have people trying to do it these lines are the
best that and is basically you can come up with a dogmatic candidate this happy enough to produce the high-energy gamma rays of the galactic center that's
not due to that matter annihilation and is in fact a background searches for the galactic center but it's not the end of the world is more .period sources so the trick is don't look directly at the galactic center looks like awhile back degree while going through whatever the astrophysical sources and that matter density still going to be pretty high so that's something that has particularly have done here
again we got constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section as a function of mass 100 V 1 TV tendency I care that limits looking all of galaxies he conceded hat is sensitive to heavier winds concern and here's what they see limits from looking close the practice center here's a bunch of cesium models that sort of getting toward Towards the . com will demand but not yet yet to push the sensitivity of the
topic to do that yeah tomorrow to the area and you know what will be the 1st to support the celebration I'm not 100 per cent sure but I think the astronomers do have some pretty good ideas of English talking supernovae remnants and things like that In fact so that 1 of the things that tests and Wilson more easily fended them just mapped out galactic plain high-energy gamma-rays than it actually is quite common for astrophysical objects to kick out huge amounts of gamma rays notion not the Fermi doubles the read the point sources that relates to the galactic center that's that's this spectrum speculators anything else galleries in general that the the big thing is coming I mentioned a moment and it will hopefully coming single the Cherenkov cough telescope which is an array of these groundbreaking based thing I think that that's the next thing on the horizon it's I think they're beginning to Humphrey start thinking of building in a couple of years fold operation roughly a decade funding permitting the rest of the year I said it's gonna push things dying by a factor of a few but I think it's very much a factor of a few rather than an order of magnitude is going to be much better at lower masses in the ground-based air traffic telescopes there that's what was going to be a big advance said it is that it is good is coming but it's not a huge step changing waltzed possible yeah anything else goes the base as called exactly what happens a high-energy gamma-ray as it comes through the it's atmosphere refuses a shower Cherenkov radiation and then picked up the there is send the
possible excitement this year In the field of gamma rays is possible discovery of the gamma-ray life so as I already mentioned this to be some something that might happen in the ring me but we expect the
flux of the very low but so bad guys and Victor crystal Finnegan who I believe is now here in the Netherlands look through the phony data looking for gamma-ray lines and
indeed to find 1 that an energy of about 135 GDP initial number was
130 Batholomew between their calibration and it's gone up to 100 the life question this high significant issues and
here there is the danger Minnesota saying a lined in red sat on top of what would otherwise be a declining spectrum significance on its side that's firefighters Sigmund fluctuations this is very much like looking for the Higgs you
don't know where you looking the government taken kindly of also got excited by pink somewhere else to let you do that significance comes down to a 3 6 the people of dying all sorts of things with the ball at the 1 thing I should mention is the thing that result that was really coming with the son of decided in advance which fits the scholar would be good to look at that you know that bunch of theoretical models while might make direct models for the density distribution and then worked that way you would best stopped looking if you wanted to distinguish wimp annihilation in the back that's what he did other people and possibly signed the 2nd line but another
energy so other people looked at data from galaxy clusters possibly sewer line the same energy Inc obvious question what the Fermi themselves say the published analysis no evidence the lines but
I was using an earlier data sets and looking at different regions the latest the final hour of coming from the Fermi summarizing late last year is that they say they're seeing known globally significant lines but they do see this feature 5 gigaelectronvolt and it seems to be coming from various places along the galactic plain rather than a coherent region but I think what you can say money that they're working on and you just got a wait and see 2 things stopping me get excited about the 1st thing is what's called a Lynn access so gamma
rays which come when cosmic rays hit
he had to be stopped nothing to do with dark matter completely understood astrophysics however if you look at the spectrum there's a line in it
so that simmering some alarm bells maybe there's some systematic the schools the other thing is
if you were expecting lying Nelson expecting all these
continuing fight because the galleries which come comes from direct annihilation that's very rare so there should be a lot lot more continuum
write songs people overlooked there is no sign of them maybe that just tells us that there's another blind model where it is much easier to produce began realignment continued fight of the dozens of various cooking up those models but nonetheless that is something that little bit of a concern so this is
really exciting is very nice analysis is not so the is dabbling in data into training nonsense they promised very carefully but ribs of various reasons for thinking actually let's wait and see what's going on here so many questions
gamma-ray line why his particle masks this to them anything else right let's move on from gamma to antiparticles and
particularly positron it's safe for a long time going back 4 decades there's been lots called an access in the pulses from faction between 10 and by 200 GB so positron fraction is number of positrons divided by the number of profit from the 1st number of electrons here as a function of energy said that
the experiments the scientists say this included Haiti then there was Pamela and then more recently the film is
actually managed to adapt their analysis latency positrons so since this is the plot the global fear we've got this is the this is a theoretical predictions the expected price stresses that this fall is
related to the lions defects the discrepancy here it will no energies isn't necessarily a problem the number positrons get affected by the solar cycle so it's quite
plausible you could be off dying here but what people were getting excited about was this will arise when apparently you'd expect a full
said you'd argue that there's something producing lot of high-energy positron I'm also people got very excited by that however the big question is why should theoretical expectations where does that come from and in fact is this line here on this plot is what's called secondary positrons that produce when cosmic rays interacts with interstellar gas however that's not the only non dark matter source of positrons and in particular
astrophysical sources like supernova remnants compulsive was introduced positron it's a bit
hard to calculate the can do it and what you get Is this rising thing here that's
called primaries and when you have these 2 together you get a solid line not brilliant the data but it is showing that he could find a rise in the positron factions just from astrophysical sources you don't need something weird and exotic like dogmatic producing extra positron but it that's not
proving could this be due to don't matter annihilation and it turns out to be read in the cold so that sort of emphasized several times that the link between the cross-section and the density of where so we think we know the density we think we know the annihilation cross section we can call the creator positron flocks of all we get is too small by orders of magnitude to explain so you need to find some way of increasing the rate at which top matter is annihilating Pusan positrons it has sought to do this you can maybe stick a huge company .period matter really nearby you can maybe have annihilation cross section which changes with energies of his very small Indian University that's bigger today maybe you could say he wants to produce norms thermally and that gets rid of the relationship between density sections yesterday those things their bit fine-tuned in take this idea of having a big clumps of dark matter nearby there's no astrophysical motivation that however the problem is that actually the number of antiprotons Husain is completely consistent with what you expect from astrophysical sources the Bengal to tweak up Madam model so it produces loads of positrons but no excess antiprotons could theorists can do that but models you end up with look and being pretty unappealing similarly you don't match annihilation cabbages to many gamma rays or scrap the stadium they so want
to put all of this together my money is on the fact positron excess is not due to the matter annihilation because
the role factor that that's what I did so any questions on the matter know what future prospects as obviously always the question of already had a question about this intensive gamma-rays
CTA is the next thing on the horizon the right of Cherenkov telescopes on the matter and that she amassed to is already launched on the space station the what general saying I'd say about indirect detection as in looking astrophysically does matter is that we've
demonstrated over the last decade than you give particle theorist and data will produce a model affected so that begs the question if he this is it possible to detect winds indirectly convincing given that we can cook up something to fix anything announced there is possibility and the way she could possibly do it will be looking for the features and gamma-ray spectrum and so
that is why this line with potentially them data is interesting because that's something will be very hard for Astrophysics to do there's also a princess internal Brands problem that could produce a feature In the
gamma-ray spectrum a higher energies again that something hard for Astrophysics to two-minute nothing he could do would be if he was saying emission from different sources for instance different port galaxies galaxy clusters the galactic center with the same energy spectrum than that could possibly introduce don't matter be be hard to explain fire astrophysics and so it is very difficult today they've done carefully to be convincing was called
Monte Waverly signals look for what you'd expect coming out in radio emission given you what you were producing a higher energies so they're all things he could do looking for wins
indirectly but it's going to be a case of being very very careful about and knowledge is jumping on any access in any astrophysical data so any questions about indirect detection said that then brings me on what's called direct detection and this is looking to don't matter in the lap the yet there is so little use during the now and at this point against sorry you can't just go on and on and on and on and on and on the and is a complicated process in particular I think 1 of the men going off on a tangent the 1 of the early worries about the Pamela data providers of where miss
identifying antiprotons and positrons Turns out they went knots with anything phony check this but that there
were very difficult careful processes that they did right succumbing on to direct detection so that's looking the other matches the Milky Way halal so we sat in the Milky Way galaxy we think way galaxy has a halo dark matter and the speed with which the sun is going around the center of the galaxy comes from the depths of the potential well the basically from the speed with which the sun's going round the center of the galaxy we can estimate the local dark matter densities nipping we local government to density we commenced make the flux of the matter through this race and she that much this is absolutely huge testicular Hamdi it'll be millions of matter particles passing through every 2nd that because they're weakly interacting most them light neutrinos would just pass straight through it's kind of production of them will interact with nuclear reactors and that basically the direct detection experiments but dedicated experiments built to look for the nuclei recalling when they interact with the win
scenario idea is the wind comes then blasted status of nuclear weapon goes away again you can see that but what you can say Is the is recalling on the counter-attack to see this recalling is a bit like
playing in a game of microscopic game of pool with an invisible people just trying to look the cannibals getting kicked so there are various ways to win nucleus can interact with each other
can be either spin independent wasp independence it turns out that the majority of the experiments the most since it has been independent interaction everything all show you will be invited back to the general principles also apply to spin the pendant and there are some experiments looking so the an interest here is the differential event rate the number of events per kilogram detector masks per day the revenues pheromone Piccolo electron volt and bed and this is the the son
of the essentials of back expressions we've got the interaction cross section on the protons
the local wind density in other words how many wins there are coming through the mass numbers and the target nuclei squared and we are not seen
as quiet as it turns out that it's a coherent interaction with the whole of the new this thing out that is the
nuclear form factor and
I just takes into account the impact of the nuclear ion .period particles are extended Texas essentially some of the energy gets absorbed and then
carefully kinematics of interaction we've got an integral and the local wind speed distribution and that starting from a lower speed the men which is the minimum speed that can cause recall energy and energy stocks just from kinematics I'm not depends on the mass of the target nuclei and the unknown with last I'm wanting to
emphasize here because you got this mass numbers squared in here this is kind telling you this heavy target nuclei to prevent the goods and then you if you want your energy spectrum might even have to multiplied by the
detector masks and how long it's been running for another product is called the exposure in August the biggest if the exposure is some also signals
could you be looking for so those who already seen from not equation the event rate depends on the mass target neutralizing here we've got differential event
rates the Rubenstein energy as a function of energy here in Caneyville from to 100 and plotted germanium in red seizing on in dark blue the 3 when masses going dying 50 100 200 or so
the fall off is most rapid lighter the win saw as the idea here would be that if he was saying signals into different detectives made of different materials you could check the spectra were consistent and any can also measure it when but of course you get a measure respectively the needles but that is not something you can do with a handful of events there are also some potential against the company that was at the signals which from that was sacked from the air
said the statement signed by 30 kilometers a 2nd and son is going around the center of the galaxy at about 120 kilometers a 2nd and right now we're going to a constellation called sickness and what that
means is that most of the women are coming from us coming at us from that direction and what that means is the most nuclear recoils go into the backwards .period ship the Sahara got a plot of the wind flux as a function of direction that the direction of
sublimation and you can see that almost all the Windsor hitting us from the from so this
is a really large theoretically it's really nice another perspective there is the fact that you don't need 10 events to show that there were isotropic need only need about 30 to measure the speed direction however the futures are getting moment experimental problem is that today that he needed detected the doesn't just measure the energy of the events that measures the directions and that's very very difficult you absolutely can't do it a Solidarity-led quits the gas and the US experiments trying to do this the MTV Seadrift
Menachem you waged their very much in R&D phase there a long way off having experiments this
sensitive on the skills they need to be yes so the use of condoms workers going into the direction when there is some rotational play the facts the group the 1st said this isn't really to the Windows this is actually did that distribution is completely isotropic and this is just coming from that we're moving through its imagine driving a car through the right to all motion rather than anything intrinsic to the with the schools anything out so that theoretically very nice experimentally very difficult but thankfully this that we've got wind moving it has another potential signals so what the fact
it means is that are not speak the respectively rest frame is largest in June moment coming round here and smallest in December when we're going back line but what that
means is the state distribution In the rest frame of the get shipped as our speed respects the practice frustrated varies studies the very simple speed distribution might not be right illustrated and plotted in the detective framed in summer and winter funded
summer dotted lines Winterset shifted to higher speeds In some ways you get more high-speed winds in summer and less laced with
this plot shows the variation in the wind flux over the years Due to the Earth's orbit and as you can see it's pretty small this variation not because the speed so much smaller than some states that is trying to measure
that on its side that up
but the fact that the shift is speak dependent means that you get an energy-dependent modulation In the spectrum and here I
plotted the amplitude of the modulation spectrum as a function Of the many or equivalently the recall energy aid and this is much bigger it can be up to tens of percents so you get a deficit at low energies probably images of property later manager and moderate energies .period so this is still
fairly small aboard attended the Senate seats don't you need a very big detectors and it would need to run stable for a long period of time and energy can also imagine the exact shape of this kind depends on
the shape of the wind speed distribution and you start with here and that something was not very well so backgrounds are
always the issue with everything circling back to experimental stuff what would you need today to be convinced that what he was saying in direct detection experiment was it's not background the 2 different classes of background here the first one Gamez can come in
and calls electrons and atoms Rico where's the whimsical singing Shiite there's a 2nd type of back rent is due to neutrons she's for instance by cosmic rays that come through the years atmosphere or by local radioactivity and that is made from the track say they can produce nuclear recoil just like the way says there are
various things you can do to try and make backgrounds the central recoils in principle parties so will the Giants detected the energy of the nuclear recourse and depending on what you detectors made up a constructed
since its inflation ionization or a rise in temperature and it turns out that that's electron we calls distribute their energy between the 3 channels in a different way to nuclear with coils In
particular more prone to giving ionization that if you measured at least 2 those channels that Elijah in principle at least to be work I was using electron recoils 1 nuclear recalls so this practice it's more tricky but in principle you can do this reject those backgrounds the more attractive background is the nuclear recalls due to the new from the problem there is the on event by event basis that completely identical with induced ones you couldn't tell what calls the idea is you just got a block out those neutral so
sticky detector deep underground reason for that is the year that blocks the cosmic rays whereas the women's can go straight through and showed a detector with alleged that also blocks neutrons and it is the very careful to build everything right of radio appeal components Prince just
like blue in the face to multiply chief construct with direct detection experiments so fragmented wrap-up with the current results had begun the questions on the principles of direct detection experiment so we all start with the no results continue many sensitive experiments on the idiomatic Inzamam hundreds the NRC
is cryogenic germanium experiment uses Burnham's an ionization is the way of discriminating New that year and electorally calls exposure before the state cut 6 and 12 kilogrammes energy threshold 10 KEB bouts with Texas look like the most recent data set sold to events in the signal region however they're respecting No . 8 background events he
should get excited about it back and articulate reading between the lines they've been having a problem with what's called surface events the electron recalls the happened close to the surface of the detector so you can collect part of the ionization and hence they end up mimicking the Kerry also my understanding is that nite on way and the busy working on new style detectors that will avoid that problem some
100 they'd pressing on the latest results came from this summer they go to phase liquid gas then undetected until enveloping forests and should and ionization that detect waiver by 54 kilograms and run it for a long time of a huge exposure energy threshold little bit lower
than latest set of results at 2 events in signal region they were expecting 1 so again signed anything that is the case significant that Mitterrand either their most significant background again is the electron recalls the in principle you can deal with them in practice the victory here so can get online with the indirect detection there's been some of the excitement by excesses sir there are a couple of days Over the last couple of 2 years there has been 2 experiments have been claiming excesses in there energy spectrum would
go courage in made of germanium but very different types experiments the amassed much smaller fiducial masks will bolster smaller energy threshold day of these ionization so it's much trickier the background rejection in
fact what they do they know little of of what they're saying is backgrounds and lengths of stay will it stick to what we see using an exponential plus a constant background that's typically the sort of shape backgrounds they do that in this still some events left over the have the sort of spectrum that you'd expect from a 10 g the way is of course a huge leap of faith to then say that it is attending evening when my guest of me that it is in fact the background is more complicated than simple models sort of thing from Kraft calcium tungstate lots of
events in their signal region for sources of background they know about each of which contribute Ward attends of events when they take them into account is still about 20 events left over which code to be consistent with light
winds again and again with the Kurds and probably is just the backgrounds being underestimated 1 of the things I mentioned for the potential signal is the annual modulation the event right which comes from the Earth's orbit and in fact this is the thing that 1st call me into the field of dark matter went down the 1st announced it was saying this way back in the late 1990 to
medical or a really big sodium iodide detector they've been running it for over a decade now and has been very definitely seeing on modulation their rate is 8 . 4 sigma the
phases in the peak in summer is roughly what you expect when from whence and so
was going on here if they know that lots of what they're saying is backgrounds behind using went from the top with a modulation the odd
everything a modulation whether it's due to winds this is an open question this new thing
which was saying the excesses that then took some more data and they were possibly seeing a man modulation the a
summary of all that match their various hinted they come into forms excesses above expected backgrounds under new
modulations thing to be noted that the 2 experiments that have very low back wearing seedier essence then on a singer the
main issue more than this is that while the these excesses might individually be interpreted in terms of light winds it's impossible to come up with a model that fits all of them
as of this time resulted attention from its usual presented in terms of when interaction cross section on an economic basis when Massengill and so see nothing again exclusion limit like this is actually slightly out of date will and all and so
everything about that lying is ruled that because it produces more events messy and then we have aligned regions to hear
from the region-wide as terrorists is that a Texas native sodium and ideas this region is if it's sodium In this region consolidating the Saskatchewan is happening and also green regions in here Parkcrest savings on say yes Downer could be due to light winds resembles coming along fairly convincingly in knowing that I II
if what Diana was saying was due to winds expecting to see a huge number of events In and all nite there were huge amounts of things that go again into the analysis of these plots of 1 .period people were suspicious about whether an on the energy threshold was as low as they claimed it was I think it probably is they've gone away in final analysis this assumption that goes in about the astrophysics here the event when I showed you back here depends on the lake
would speak distribution that really isn't that well
known at all however people looked in sync
can really cook up something however bizarre that makes all these experiments compatible the answer is no
this 6 assuming standards wimp interactions spin independent people tried modifying about maybe think they interact differently with protons and neutrons again whatever you do however city areas you can't
reconcile these data so the family can all proceeding when and my guess is probably not some future prospects these various experiments the teaming up to get there they need to build bigger and bigger detectors and push detector masses up to the time scale so that action hero things right lockstep in Eureka Darwin and so on and to give you some some idea of where we stand here in terms of theoretical expectations this year we've got going cross-section vs when mass less than on 100 currently is His words and on 1 time could push Downing said In the other filled consul
as these and sum a maximum likelihood analysis of the simplest supersymmetric modeled after by a year ago and studies of the probability was tantalizingly lying just below the 700 limits may be saying more than just
pushed out a bit will get it however you then fold in the minutes and various allow the collider searches and push things
back the shaded regions dying here sir looks like it's within their reach the
settlement under every plot the function in the last decade has had a theory regions lurking just beneath the experiment so why do we really are going to get diner in Ireland all which is pushing the theory dining into ever more improbable regions of parameter space since given all of that and I guess I publish and say that I am a bit cynical and skeptical about things yeah maybe it'll work out in the end the question is how do we convincingly detect with I think the way
again here is like with cosmology we've got to look at get convincing measurements the wind properties from different data and the point being
that directs the indirect and collider experiments the role probing different aspects of the same physics we've got to it
don't matter particles come together with exactly sure how they interact interact in some way standard model at the other end the indirect probing the matter and post-up matter going to Standard Model directors dogmatic the Standard Model collided the founder Milan got around to evolve different ways of getting the same divvied
it's not seeing convincing signals in collide as direct and indirect station experiments events start measuring about wind Masson cross section and the answers you get a consistent then yes we could really do it but we probably shouldn't be getting too overexcited about Internet anyone experiment by these channels set to wrap this
up nightly beginning hopefully when I convinced you is there's lots and lots of cosmological an
astronomical evidence dark matter this cold number Ariel my opinion is that we haven't definitively said that modify gravity is the a possibility but it's looking really really difficult to come up with any alternative to development In terms of dogmatic candidate when are generically hadn't got mad because they're automatically produced in the universe In the right man to lead the dogmatic today and then going beyond that supersymmetry which is most popular extension the standard model gives a concrete when candidate in the form of the
lightest neutralino side currently winds looked like the best that from 107 honest there are other dogmatic candidates and so there are a experiments on the way it got the
sensitivity that if don't matter is in the form of when we should be able to get in the next 5 to 10 years maybe a single experiment will be able to see something that's so convincing we of the champagne corks there then the probably convincingly detecting holdout matter is not really due to 1 single experiment is going to be gentle multiple things the inconsistent statement so that's it any more questions the yeah most of this year only probably the best thing is by get much more slides up and can you wait tomorrow morning all let's have that anymore questions of this anymore questions lands that is that if there is not we've got time for that 1 yeah ,comma of you relations you have to do this work part time at time you know about it .period worsened this may be his there's absolutely no doubt that the event rate being annually large alliances and you have you were Of course I guess many a systematic we will change during the year it's exactly the same this is strictly banned on and published a very careful analysis where they've gone through each what they think the possibilities are looked at this is serious this very hard for me to sort of Judge high convincing back is the warm .period somebody people getting very excited as experiment called it caress which is located at GM are with down and they were measuring the modulation the neutron background means but interjected that wouldn't work to explained that I'm not sure the the states of this next explanation now I haven't heard it discussed for a couple of years but visit potassium lying lying just beneath the threshold energies down and that's what background and what you could plausibly imagine is if the energy threshold of their side to multiply tubes isn't constant perhaps it could modulate over the year temperature varies you could then get that that is the bottom line is no nobody knows what that what seeing that that you can imagine it being something which is dogma so the best thing you'd really love to do is take down experiments took in the Southern Hemisphere the closest thing to back that I am aware this thing called the DMR as part of a got sodium iodide crystal and they put it down 1 of eyes keys hold unfortunately is quite small crystal and you get needed big exposure to test our mother they are hopefully planning to do that but over a long time scale that ingredient which to get bottom damages to do exactly the same experiment saying target nuclei modulation see what you say anything else on the the other hand actually no instance of eagle 25 minutes tomorrow sickle awareness of the kind of idea that um you get you when like particle is produced in the right amount but in fact it is an absolutely stable it then decays to produce something which inherits the right density but Hopkins extremely weakly interacting and therefore extremely difficult fact finding interesting is in existence proof that could I have something when relates seeds that will be difficult to show up in the director and attract attention experiment my understanding impossibly since you're asking questions like How long is the actually gained collider experiments are interesting as you might want to try and track the parents particles statement about care and wait for them to Kennedy said 90 I think simple and so I think we better hope not but you know you never know where the reality being kind and all yep it is also called 1 of you know very little this so I must admit I know I haven't looked into that particular theory rotational Kurds fitting those is doable what's difficult is lensing no Gino if he's looked into the lensing in that and and I guess specific amino acid when people who have looked the a mail often just means they produced the factor of 2 difference the general relativity gives from the tenant as of June specifically looked at the bullet cluster because my understanding this comes from Costa scored as in Nottingham he's 1 of the world experts on these things the Arabic various theories that might in principle be able to do the bullet cluster but that nobody has actually done the calculation that needs doing nothing because they can't be asked to do is because it's a really difficult calculation that why I'm not quite as close-minded might modify gravity some cosmologists are some of them would say you never should be told about it is nonsense but as far as I said it's not ruled that out so but nearby uptake test model like I don't know much about it there is another question it is 1 is there In this on Major was sold in the United Nations or a short answer no info the useful in principle yet the reason why he we hope Pinault's Is this winter miracle this thing that if it's weakly interacting you get the right density in the getting the density is a more significant thing and you possibly realize it is easy to fill the universe with nothing but the dark matter particles will have a negligible that's so tamale minds of this wouldn't miracle is a miracle but it's just suggested means that it is worth investing lots of energy and looking for these things however if the could cross section and it's not going dying too far then you gotta start thinking again so if the timescale detectors don't see anything that I think personally I'm going to be started thinking about other things going on at that point yet but that there will be a point thing anything else well I think that there will be no more such a horrible thing this is 1 of those things where we always keep saying 5 years and it means forward at the same rate as tiny does said the timescale detectors really are coming in the next few years and that really is I think the best thing because I was only I think supplies of showed there really is a very definite big improvement coming that Arsenal incremental laughter so that I think is the next big things any final questions so is gone 10 so we probably shouldn't qualitative anyone's gonna offered like to ask that you go free to come just may otherwise we don't I think
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Gleichstrom
Niederspannungsnetz
Gravitationslinse
Baryon
Übungsmunition
Computeranimation
Mikroskopobjektiv
Maschine
Luftstrom
Absolute Datierung
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Bergmann
Massenverteilung
Baryon
Pelz
Mikroskopobjektiv
Sternsystem
Elektrowerkzeug
Gas
Koaxialkabel
Dunkle Materie
Kosmische Hintergrundstrahlung
Rad
Computeranimation
Rotationszustand
Aktives Bauelement
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Messbecher
Wasserstoffatom
Dunkle Materie
Klangeffekt
Arche
Faraday-Effekt
Feldnebel
Bergmann
Blindgänger
Masse <Physik>
Massenverteilung
Papier
Grau
Neutronenquelle
Trenntechnik
Unterwasserfahrzeug
Wasserkraft
Niederspannungsnetz
Lichtstreuung
Sternsystem
Arche
Urknall
Proof <Graphische Technik>
Photonik
Weltall
Niederspannungsnetz
Strangeness
Leistungssteuerung
Feldnebel
Computeranimation
Umlaufzeit
Strahlung
Gleichstrom
Atomistik
Hintergrundstrahlung
Jahr
Himmel
Grubenausbau
Ersatzteil
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Quantenfluktuation
Temperatur
Niederspannungsnetz
Gasdichte
Mutter <Technik>
Maßstab <Messtechnik>
Konfektionsgröße
Proof <Graphische Technik>
Weltall
Weltall
Eisenkern
Kosmische Hintergrundstrahlung
Computeranimation
Wölbungsklappe
Angeregtes Atom
Tastverhältnis
Strahlung
Motor
Atmosphäre
Himmel
Lunker
MAC
Bergmann
Quantenfluktuation
Fernsehempfänger
Temperatur
Niederspannungsnetz
Greiffinger
Pager
Gasdichte
Messung
Waffentechnik
Mutter <Technik>
Maßstab <Messtechnik>
Halo <Atmosphärische Optik>
Störgröße
Big Crunch
Weltall
Weltall
Optisches Spektrum
Stoffvereinigen
Minute
Leistungssteuerung
Computeranimation
Strahlung
Gleichstrom
LIN-Bus
Straßenbahn
Ion
Temperatur
Stunde
Niederspannungsnetz
Myon
Lunker
Maßstab <Messtechnik>
Blechdose
Dekangestirn
Leitungstheorie
Weltall
Webmaschine
Eisenkern
Computeranimation
Hubble-Konstante
Deck
Koma <Astronomie>
Himmel
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Amplitude
Dunkle Materie
Logger
Quantenfluktuation
Gasdichte
Störgröße
Proof <Graphische Technik>
Weltall
Stoffvereinigen
Minute
Dampfbügeleisen
Übungsmunition
Molekülion
Tinte
Elementarteilchenphysik
Negativer Widerstand
Schiffsrumpf
Druckfeld
Ion
Niederspannungsnetz
Sonnenstrahlung
Messung
Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung
Sensor
Licht
Blechdose
Pulvermetallurgie
Emissionsnebel
Unwucht
Rutsche
Weltall
Feldnebel
Kosmische Hintergrundstrahlung
Computeranimation
Regelstrecke
Jahr
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Irrlicht
Baryon
Gesteinsabbau
Messung
Schwerewelle
Optisches Spektrum
Computeranimation
Regelstrecke
Tauon
Amplitude
Steckkarte
Dunkle Materie
Quantenfluktuation
Gasdichte
Schusswaffe
Nyquist-Kriterium
Feldstärke
Farbton
Urknall
AM-Herculis-Stern
Weltall
Minute
Schiffsklassifikation
Angeregtes Atom
Elementarteilchenphysik
Jahr
Initiator <Steuerungstechnik>
Quantenfluktuation
Temperatur
Jahr
Niederspannungsnetz
Maßstab <Messtechnik>
Optisches Spektrum
Webmaschine
Leistungssteuerung
Eisenkern
Computeranimation
Spheric
Supernova
Oberschwingung
Gleichstrom
Lunker
Ersatzteil
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Anschlussbezeichnung
Ion
Bahnelement
Temperatur
Pager
Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung
Sternsystem
Rollsteig
Licht
Feldnebel
Computeranimation
Woche
Sensor
Elementarteilchen
Astrophysik
Satzspiegel
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Speckle-Interferometrie
Massenverteilung
Teilchen
Sternsystem
Steinkohlenbergwerk
Licht
Dory <Boot>
Weltall
Quark <Physik>
Gravitationslinse
Nacht
Computeranimation
Sensor
Elementarteilchen
Elementarteilchenphysik
DVD-Player
Schiene
Lepton
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Bergmann
Masse <Physik>
Elementarteilchen
Energielücke
Multiplizität
Luftströmung
Dunkle Materie
Lungenautomat
Greiffinger
Nyquist-Kriterium
Sensor
Kombinationskraftwerk
Maßstab <Messtechnik>
Quark <Physik>
Weltall
Begrenzerschaltung
Photon
Übungsmunition
Computeranimation
Elementarteilchen
Lepton
Halopopulation
Bergmann
Ersatzteil
Elementarteilchen
Luftströmung
Dunkle Materie
Lungenautomat
Teilchen
Radioaktiver Zerfall
Gammaübergang
Steinkohlenbergwerk
Licht
Sensor
Quark <Physik>
Weltall
Differentieller Wirkungsquerschnitt
Impulsübertragung
Computeranimation
Sensor
Tinte
Elementarteilchenphysik
Elektron-Positron-Vernichtung
Lepton
Wind
Bergmann
Maske <Halbleitertechnologie>
Urkilogramm
Elementarteilchen
Luftströmung
Dunkle Materie
Lungenautomat
Stoff <Textilien>
Lunker
Schutz <Elektrotechnik>
Gasdichte
Nissan Sunny
Puma <Panzer>
Gammaübergang
Antiproton
Sternsystem
Höhentief
Mutter <Technik>
Weltall
Feldnebel
Windrose
Computeranimation
Sensor
Elementarteilchen
Positron
Elektron-Positron-Vernichtung
Ersatzteil
Edelsteinschliff
Kristallgitter
Tauon
Tag
Elektrisches Signal
Astrophysik
Channeling
Antiproton
Direkte Messung
Sensor
Teilchendichte
Januar
Thermik
Weltall
Windrose
Computeranimation
Rennfeuer
Positron
Prozessleittechnik
Elektron-Positron-Vernichtung
Gammabestrahlung
Elektrisches Signal
Gasdichte
Puma <Panzer>
Brennpunkt <Optik>
Querstromventilator
Ladungsdichte
Feldeffekttransistor
Elektron-Positron-Vernichtung
Niederspannungskabel
Differentieller Wirkungsquerschnitt
Minute
Magnetische Kraft
Elementarteilchen
Elementarteilchenphysik
Photon
Donner
Gammabestrahlung
Läppen
Sichtverbindung
Pfadfinder <Flugzeug>
Ion
Radioaktiver Zerfall
Dual-in-Line-Gehäuse
Puma <Panzer>
Channeling
Astrophysik
Gammaübergang
Masse <Physik>
Parallelschaltung
Teilchendichte
Elektron-Positron-Vernichtung
Montag
Einschienenbahn
Begrenzerschaltung
Übungsmunition
Computeranimation
Schlauchkupplung
Elementarteilchenphysik
Wirkungsquerschnitt
Spezifisches Gewicht
Elektron-Positron-Vernichtung
Spiralbohrer
Prozessleittechnik
Phototechnik
Gammabestrahlung
Buntheit
Gammabestrahlung
Ion
Gasdichte
Sternsystem
Masse <Physik>
Wind
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Optisches Spektrum
Niederspannungsnetz
Formationsflug
Leitungstheorie
Computeranimation
Greiffinger
Gammaübergang
Astrophysik
Magnetisches Dipolmoment
Antiproton
Sonnenstrahlung
Maßstab <Messtechnik>
Lineal
Computeranimation
Hobel
Maßstab <Messtechnik>
Positron
Prozessleittechnik
Elektron-Positron-Vernichtung
Abend
Kosmische Hintergrundstrahlung
Gammabestrahlung
Zwergplanet
Anschlussbezeichnung
Kontraktion
Steckverbinder
Spiel <Technik>
Sonnenstrahlung
Gasdichte
Rollsteig
Hochsetzsteller
Faraday-Effekt
Elektron-Positron-Vernichtung
Flachsverarbeitung
Niederspannungsnetz
Minute
Astrophysik
Drehen
Glättung <Elektrotechnik>
Direkte Messung
Sichtverbindung
Fußmatte
Ohmsches Gesetz <Elektrizitätslehre>
Magic <Funkaufklärung>
Gammaübergang
Astrophysik
Sternsystem
Magnetisches Dipolmoment
Bett
Schusswaffe
Windpark
Differentieller Wirkungsquerschnitt
Hobel
Gedeckter Güterwagen
Dampfbügeleisen
Computeranimation
Atmosphäre
Hintergrundstrahlung
Sicherheitsbehälter
Weltraumteleskop
Gammabestrahlung
Zwangsbedingung
Zwerggalaxie
Supernova
Dunkle Materie
Tag
Takelage
Masse <Physik>
Blechdose
Januar
Thermik
Weltall
Schusswaffe
Begrenzerschaltung
Be-Stern
Leitungstheorie
Computeranimation
Sonnenuhr
Gammabestrahlung
Luftströmung
Rundstahlkette
Gasdichte
Kanone
Wurzelholz
Puma <Panzer>
Feldeffekttransistor
Elektron-Positron-Vernichtung
Differentieller Wirkungsquerschnitt
Munition
Dampfbügeleisen
Photon
Wirkungsquerschnitt
Donner
Licht
Wind
Gammabestrahlung
Pfadfinder <Flugzeug>
Regelstrecke
Sternsystem
Masse <Physik>
Schusswaffe
Begrenzerschaltung
Leitungstheorie
Computeranimation
Hobel
Dimmer
Elektron-Positron-Vernichtung
Kosmische Hintergrundstrahlung
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Gammabestrahlung
Luftströmung
Dunkle Materie
Cäsiumatom
Gasdichte
Schwarz
Proof <Graphische Technik>
Differentieller Wirkungsquerschnitt
Elementarteilchenphysik
Hintergrundstrahlung
Source <Elektronik>
Irrlicht
Zwangsbedingung
Atmosphäre
Gammaübergang
Magnetisches Dipolmoment
Masse <Physik>
Dekangestirn
Sternatmosphäre
Supernovaüberrest
Schusswaffe
Optisches Spektrum
Rasenmäher
Schwächung
Computeranimation
Schlauchkupplung
Astronom
Čerenkov-Strahlung
Discovery <Raumtransporter>
Kopfstütze
Gammabestrahlung
Anschlussbezeichnung
Array
Puma <Panzer>
Eisenbahnbetrieb
Farbton
Flachsverarbeitung
Reif
Feldemissionsmikroskopie
Angeregtes Atom
Photon
Strahlung
Atmosphäre
Source <Elektronik>
Jahr
Natürliche Radioaktivität
Gammaübergang
Kugelblitz
Leitungstheorie
Optisches Spektrum
Schusswaffe
Rasenmäher
Schwächung
Leitungstheorie
Eisenkern
Computeranimation
Elektron-Positron-Vernichtung
Kontinuumsmechanik
Anschlussbezeichnung
Erwärmung <Meteorologie>
Sternatmosphäre
Counter-RAM
Gasdichte
Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung
Puma <Panzer>
Niederspannungsnetz
Higgs-Teilchen
Dampfbügeleisen
Photon
Kaliber <Walzwerk>
Initiator <Steuerungstechnik>
Videotechnik
Quantenfluktuation
Atmosphäre
Zugangsnetz
Wurzelholz
Astrophysik
Leitungstheorie
Telefon
Windpark
Optisches Spektrum
Rasenmäher
Webmaschine
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Radar
Feldnebel
Erder
Eisenkern
Leitungstheorie
Computeranimation
Photon
Jahr
Gammabestrahlung
Kontinuumsmechanik
Kosmische Strahlung
Videotechnik
Dunkle Materie
Stunde
Radioaktiver Zerfall
Atmosphäre
Gammaübergang
Leitungstheorie
Schusswaffe
Rasenmäher
Chirp
Eisenkern
Leitungstheorie
Computeranimation
Regelstab
Scheibenbremse
Elektron-Positron-Vernichtung
Gammabestrahlung
Maske <Halbleitertechnologie>
Kontinuumsmechanik
Personenzuglokomotive
Ionosphäre
LUNA <Teilchenbeschleuniger>
Puma <Panzer>
Feldeffekttransistor
Boeing 747
Brennofen
Türglocke
Elementarteilchen
Kontinuumsmechanik
Photon
Gammabestrahlung
Läppen
Videotechnik
Fernsehempfänger
Zugangsnetz
Erwärmung <Meteorologie>
Intelligenter Zähler
Antiteilchen
Lithium-Ionen-Akkumulator
Elektronik
Strukturelle Fehlordnung
Munition
Computeranimation
Magnetooptische Atomfalle
Beschleuniger-Massenspektrometrie
Positron
Ponton
Herbst
Positron
Wärmequelle
Kämmen <Textiltechnik>
Astrophysik
Blechdose
Interstellares Gas
Supernovaüberrest
Thermik
Elektron-Positron-Vernichtung
Rotierender Radiotransient
Staustrahltriebwerk
Leitungstheorie
Computeranimation
Positron
Source <Elektronik>
Gammabestrahlung
MAC
Irrlicht
Kosmische Strahlung
Ion
Dunkle Materie
Tagesanbruch
Gasdichte
Puma <Panzer>
Antiproton
Thermik
Elektron-Positron-Vernichtung
Differentieller Wirkungsquerschnitt
Weltall
Computeranimation
Ampulle <Technik>
Wirkungsquerschnitt
Elektron-Positron-Vernichtung
Positron
Source <Elektronik>
Gammabestrahlung
Pfadfinder <Flugzeug>
Gammabestrahlung
Natürliche Radioaktivität
Rundstahlkette
Dunkle Materie
Leistungsanpassung
Gammaübergang
Astrophysik
Sensor
Leitungstheorie
Nähen
Optisches Spektrum
Leitungstheorie
Computeranimation
Source <Elektronik>
Elementarteilchen
Raumstation
Berg <Bergbau>
Čerenkov-Strahlung
Elementarteilchen
Luftströmung
Elektrisches Signal
Rucksack
Pelz
Zugangsnetz
Astrophysik
Gammaübergang
Sternsystem
Sensor
Läppen
Wellenlänge
Optisches Spektrum
Munition
Raumfahrtzentrum
Übungsmunition
Computeranimation
Source <Elektronik>
Beschleuniger-Massenspektrometrie
Werkzeugverschleiß
Source <Elektronik>
Sprechfunkgerät
Emissionsvermögen
Clusterphysik
Elektrisches Signal
Patrone <Munition>
Elektronneutrino
Gasdichte
Antiproton
Sternsystem
Sensor
Sonnenstrahlung
Thermik
Elektron-Positron-Vernichtung
Schwache Lokalisation
Computeranimation
Elementarteilchen
Schiffsrumpf
Gleichstrom
Positron
Prozessleittechnik
Halo <Atmosphärische Optik>
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Knoten <Astronomie>
Dunkle Materie
Mikroskop
Sensor
Spin
Gleichstrom
Montag
Wasserbeckenreaktor
Optisches Spektrum
Computeranimation
Sensor
Kernenergie
Array
Spiel <Technik>
Leistungsdiode
Maske <Halbleitertechnologie>
Waffentechnik
Tag
Bett
n-Kanal-FET
Urkilogramm
Differentieller Wirkungsquerschnitt
Spin
Restkern
Molekülion
Nukleon
Donner
Magnetooptische Atomfalle
Wind
Restkern
Tag
Schaft <Waffe>
Target
Masse <Physik>
Sensor
Spin
Leisten
Gleichstrom
Montag
Einschienenbahn
Schwache Lokalisation
Computeranimation
Sensor
Kernenergie
Array
Ion
Maske <Halbleitertechnologie>
Windgeschwindigkeit
Edelsteinindustrie
Streuamplitude
Sonnenstrahlung
Gasdichte
n-Kanal-FET
Impakt
Niederspannungsnetz
August
Restkern
Elementarteilchen
Wind
Gel
Restkern
Elektrisches Signal
Messung
Ringgeflecht
Motorhaube
Sternsystem
Masse <Physik>
Target
Sensor
Gleichstrom
Amplitude
Spannungsabhängigkeit
Rotierender Radiotransient
Nadel
Staustrahltriebwerk
Säge
Computeranimation
Sensor
Atmosphäre
Kernenergie
Messung
Material
Herbst
Sternbild
Masse <Physik>
Lungenautomat
Sonnenenergie
Elektrisches Signal
Rückstoß
Ringgeflecht
Magnetisches Dipolmoment
Kraftfahrzeugexport
Mutter <Technik>
Drift
Gruppenlaufzeit
Amplitude
Niederspannungsnetz
Gas
Computeranimation
Sensor
Gleichstrom
Schiff
Schwingungsphase
Wind
MAC
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Rückstoß
Astronomisches Fenster
Vakuumphysik
Sublimation
Rührreibschweißen
Lungenautomat
Summer
Magnetisches Dipolmoment
Sensor
Amplitude
Optisches Spektrum
Staustrahltriebwerk
Modulation
Leitungstheorie
Computeranimation
Sensor
Juni
Posament
Dezember
Bildfrequenz
Kopfstütze
Winter
Anschlussbezeichnung
Elektrisches Signal
Luftströmung
Logger
Patrone <Munition>
Umlaufbahn
Modulation
Querstromventilator
Wind
Drift
Niederspannungsnetz
Rotverschiebung
Standardzelle
Gedeckter Güterwagen
HAARP
Munition
Angeregtes Atom
Magnetooptische Atomfalle
Jahr
Wind
MAC
Irrlicht
Rückstoß
Fahrzeugsitz
Singularität <Meteorologie>
Rückstoß
Höhentief
Hyperbelnavigation
Sensor
Sternatmosphäre
Amplitude
Optisches Spektrum
Radioaktiver Zerfall
Neutron
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Modulation
Schwache Lokalisation
Computeranimation
Sensor
Umlaufzeit
Atomistik
Windgeschwindigkeit
Amplitude
Speckle-Interferometrie
Elektrisches Signal
Logger
Modulation
Niederspannungsnetz
HAARP
Elektronik
Dampfbügeleisen
Gleiskette
Schiffsklassifikation
Gleichstrom
Hintergrundstrahlung
Jahr
Irrlicht
Kosmische Strahlung
Phonon
Channeling
Rückstoß
Messbecher
Sensor
Montag
Neutron
Schwächung
Computeranimation
Schall
Zylinderblock
Aktives Bauelement
Vakuumphysik
Tagesanbruch
Kaltumformen
Basis <Elektrotechnik>
Elektronisches Bauelement
Gedeckter Güterwagen
Elektronik
Drachenpunkt
Ionisationsdichte
Hintergrundstrahlung
Jahr
Tanklager
Sprechfunkgerät
Isostatisches Heißpressen
Kosmische Strahlung
Temperatur
Phonon
Elektrisches Signal
Drehen
Sensor
Blechdose
Urkilogramm
Nacht
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Munition
Elektronik
Dampfbügeleisen
Leitungstheorie
Computeranimation
Sensor
Angeregtes Atom
Ionisationsdichte
Gleichstrom
Schwellenspannung
Hintergrundstrahlung
Jahr
Kosmische Hintergrundstrahlung
Ersatzteil
Elektron
Elektrisches Signal
Höhentief
Tag
Steinmetz
Elektrisches Signal
Summer
Sensor
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Computeranimation
Sensor
Schlauchkupplung
Schwellenspannung
Kosmische Hintergrundstrahlung
Maske <Halbleitertechnologie>
Elektron
Elektrisches Signal
Höhentief
LUNA <Teilchenbeschleuniger>
Ionisierbarkeit
Tag
Voyager <Raumsonde>
Elektronik
Gas
Übungsmunition
Angeregtes Atom
Rips
Ionisationsdichte
Donner
Diesellokomotive Baureihe 219
Hintergrundstrahlung
Jahr
Dosieren
Lithium-Ionen-Akkumulator
Schwellenspannung
Ion
Steinmetz
Tag
Pelz
Atmosphäre
Elektrisches Signal
Modulation
Umlaufbahn
Phonon
Motorhaube
Licht
Optisches Spektrum
Abend
Computeranimation
Licht
Hintergrundstrahlung
Source <Elektronik>
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Crestfaktor
Schwellenspannung
Luftströmung
Dunkle Materie
Höhentief
Tag
Myon
Atmosphäre
Summer
Sensor
Montag
Sägeblatt
Eisenkern
Modulation
Computeranimation
Schwingungsphase
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Crestfaktor
Amplitude
Elektrisches Signal
Luftströmung
Steuerwelle
Gerbung
Modulation
Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung
Licht
Wind
Juni
UKW
Molekülion
Tinte
Hintergrundstrahlung
Stunde
Direkte Messung
Irrlicht
Schwellenspannung
Schub
Surfbrett
Temperaturregler
Basis <Elektrotechnik>
Astrophysik
Lawinendiode
Blechdose
Differentieller Wirkungsquerschnitt
Cocktailparty-Effekt
Sägeblatt
Begrenzerschaltung
Standardzelle
Computeranimation
Schwellenspannung
Feldstecher
Absolute Datierung
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Irrlicht
Lithium-Ionen-Akkumulator
Crestfaktor
Anschlussbezeichnung
Luftströmung
Steuerwelle
Tag
Masse <Physik>
Sensor
Maßstab <Messtechnik>
Spin
Gleichstrom
Neutron
Sägeblatt
Computeranimation
Sensor
Array
Crestfaktor
Anschlussbezeichnung
Steuerwelle
n-Kanal-FET
Voyager <Raumsonde>
Standardzelle
Niederspannungsnetz
Restkern
Spin
Diesellokomotive Baureihe 219
Schlauchkupplung
Jahr
Irrlicht
Schwellenspannung
Aufschmelzverfahren
Myon
Kaltumformen
Messung
Magnetisches Dipolmoment
Steinkohlenbergwerk
Gleichstrom
Nähen
Begrenzerschaltung
Impulsübertragung
Munition
Dampfbügeleisen
Computeranimation
Sensor
Chirale Anomalie
Tastverhältnis
Jahr
Wind
Läppen
Steuerwelle
Kaltumformen
Elektrisches Signal
Channeling
Durchführung <Elektrotechnik>
Gleichstrom
Differentieller Wirkungsquerschnitt
Weltall
Impulsübertragung
Propellergondel
Dunkle Materie
Eisenkern
Computeranimation
Astrophysik
Sensor
Elementarteilchenphysik
Elementarteilchen
Wechselstromgenerator
Astronom
Gleichstrom
Wind
Elementarteilchen
Dunkle Materie
Schreibware
Mikroskopobjektiv
Target
Sensor
Maßstab <Messtechnik>
Rutsche
SEED
Cocktailparty-Effekt
Impulsübertragung
Neutron
Minute
Leitungstheorie
Computeranimation
Schlauchkupplung
Kristallwachstum
Juni
Rotationszustand
Druckbehälter
Dieselmotorenwerk Vulkan
Umlaufzeit
Schwellenspannung
Anyon
Vollholz
Passfeder
Winter
Elementarteilchen
Luftströmung
Dunkle Materie
Morgen
Kaltumformen
Relativistische Mechanik
Modulation
Gasdichte
Puma <Panzer>
Neutralino
Beschusszeichen
Differentieller Wirkungsquerschnitt
Weltall
Minute
Druckkraft
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Titel Masterclass with Anne Green
Untertitel Detecting dark matter
Serientitel Physics@FOM Veldhoven 2013
Autor Green, Anne
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - keine kommerzielle Nutzung - keine Bearbeitung 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt in unveränderter Form zu jedem legalen und nicht-kommerziellen Zweck nutzen, vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/18026
Herausgeber OpenWebcast.nl
Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM)
Erscheinungsjahr 2013
Sprache Englisch
Produzent OpenWebcast.nl

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Fachgebiet Physik
Abstract Observations indicate that the Universe contains a significant amount of cold dark matter, and particle physics provides us with a well-motivated dark matter candidate in the form of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). After a brief overview of the evidence for dark matter and the physics behind WIMPs, the masterclass will focus on detecting WIMPs. WIMPs can be detected directly, via their elastic scattering off nuclei in the lab, or indirectly, via the products of their annihilation. We will discuss the principles, current status and future prospects of both types of experiment.
Schlagwörter dark
matter

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