Tuesday evening lecture with Andreas Heinrich

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Tuesday evening lecture with Andreas Heinrich
The quantum and classical properties of spins on surfaces
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The scanning tunneling microscope has been an extremely successful experimental tool because of its atomic-scale spatial resolution. In recent years this has been combined with the use of low temperatures, culminating in precise atom manipulation and spectroscopy with microvolt energy resolution. In this talk I will review recent developments in investigating the electronic and magnetic properties of atoms and small clusters of atoms on surfaces. A large cluster of magnetic atoms behaves similar to a macroscopic magnetic particle: it's magnetization points along an easy-axis direction in space and magnetization reversal requires sufficient thermal energy to overcome a barrier. How many atoms does it take to create such a magnet? What are the properties of individual atoms on surfaces? Those are important questions for future technologies as well as for basic understanding of materials.
Keywords spin quantum
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thank you it's still an honor and a pleasure for me to introduce to you the speaker for tonight's plenary sessions "quotation mark others scientists from the IBM research center in the summers California a highly his leading a that is IBM Research Center which is basically working on the technology for the future and this is how it website for computers of the future and data storage of future well you actually see it a minute what it actually means but before he gets the ball in the 1st explain you we really is to look behind because a PhD in getting a two-year gear ghost University where he already worked with the techniques of 1st telling my custody and transmission electron microscope is investigating at Trenary compiled semiconductors and after this he moved to the United States actually already moved to the United States during his the trial working but later as of course talking here returned to California but now to the IBM with a guarantee that the call himself a fiddling with ground and he joined the world-famous T-Mobile I'd and I get all of you know mobile libraries because he's the 1st who was manipulating atoms riding the smallest possible advertising that you can imagine and the letters IBM with individual atoms and there as we will see that it really didn't stay at that level because after his arrival supposed to he actually quickly made it to the project leader of the project taking over a team from the library and taking the whole effort to a completely new level so he developed low temperatures telling telling microscope the low-temperature atomic force microscope is unparalleled resolution in spectroscopy very very beautiful physics with magnetic atoms small magnetic structures a whole range of beautiful inventions and beautiful physics extremely high applications and the I'm I'm very very happy that finally we have you here 2 shows all this and I should add that over and over dinner he confessed to me that the real reason that IBM is actually paying for which it is making tightened Friday and also advertisement for exercise you see it treated this tonight with some of the beautiful images and movies that he his me was further ado I would like to give you the floor of this splendid few while thank you everybody it's a very impressive to stand here have to say a little bit scary so there with me and will do hopefully good job now at 1st I was going to tell you about all the beautiful spectroscopy techniques that we developed over the last 10 years or so and do a more solid state physics type of election but then I looked at the program and Minnesota theirs gravitational physics people here string theory people and I thought that this is probably not the right audience for this kind of talk and so that they now have to rethink what am I going to tell you bought and sold what I decided to do is give you a more public lecture using the scanning tunneling microscope as a tool to inspire people to do science at the National scale so that's really what I'm trying to do with you today now this whole endeavor started with the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in about 1979 19 by these 2 gentlemen here get Finigan high near or and this is actually also a special opportunity because I the gentleman on for the set your left he actually passed away last year at the age of thing of 80 or 81 and he was 1 of the real spokesperson for signs he's 1 of the people who really brought signs too the forefront in science but also in their in politics and made it possible for all of us to have such a great life in this field get golf course on the other side he is the guy who made this whole to work he is an incredibly genius guy at making instrumentation work and not to just just give up that this secure challenge of trying to image services with atomic-scale resolution and so they really were worked an amazing team put together by IBM Research in our Switzerland facility to develop this summer about what assistance 30 years ago almost not this is a very famous image of the surface of silicon 1 1 1 and this was an outstanding challenge in the beginning of the 80's people did not know With other techniques where the Adams actually on the sofas and this is the 1st emotion really showed the power of scanning tunneling microscopy to really see surfaces every single item in the surface and so here every 1 of these of these bombs in this in this image is actually not an adjusted put this in perspective this is still very early 1980's people did not actually have computers to do the scanning get prenatal highly war started using an XY plotter which is something that the younger ones among you probably have never seen that a tool that you had to use in order to take data sort of automatically in a piece of paper to of like a record player needle taking the traces and then this was the real left real relief orders that were Delanoe base was made from wood pasted together and then photographed to take this this famous picture I said that's when this whole Tool started beautiful pretty beautiful development now give me in a couple moments to highlight you why this too was sole special and then will go into the fun of using it to do some signs with it now at the heart of it is a very simple to you want to look at the items on the surface and what you do is to use the metal needle that is very sharp down to a single and you bring that needle about 100 away from the surface no wiser difficult because that needle is a macroscopic object that numerous like a millimetre diameter piece of wire and now you wanna hold this while at about 2 or 3 added them at a distance over a surface and keep all vibrations this incredibly impossible as an imagination to actually you know be bold enough to actually Tempest but obviously get behind the work were able to overcome this challenge that when you bring this needle so close you apply a small voltage became that electrons traveling between the Earth and then needle and the substrate underneath it and so you get a current that current is tunneling current hence the name scanning tunneling microscope now we can then move that needle and horizontally and and and keep a constant current is all normal imaging more and so we keep the height of the 2 we vary the height of the tip as we move that need along in the span of understanding fashion and take an image of the height of the new as a function of lateral position over the surface and that really is how simple this tool really is in the end now obviously in the beginning these tools operated at room temperature already in a vacuum chamber to be able to make very clean surfaces so that already was achieved by get and I need and interest of pure barges wouldn't also has a very important role to play in this beginning phase then my friend and mentor Don came on the scene in there in the mid 80's and he was bold enough to say Well if this to work so great at room temperature in a vacuum chamber why not make the whole situation more difficult why not call this whole thing down the temperature of liquid helium than all the items will hope will hold still and we can do beautiful experiments in spectroscopy looking at the electronic properties of those items so he also equally as bad as old make that step of building the 1st really low-temperature STM and here's a picture of the STM which is actually hallway not just in little display case nowadays In the end that is a robot is robot needle that we can control with atomic-scale precision we can tell that needle move 1 out into to the right of all moved 1 thousands of an item to the right and so it's a very simple tool in the end if you look at it just at the scale now I want make my life a little bit simple at this point I want to take you on a tour of the laboratory and I'll do this by showing you this little movie the hope that the sound
is on or before we get to the movies a modern image taken with 1 of these tools at low temperatures began to surface and initiate this is no metal surface couple 1 1 1 is 1 of my favorite images because it shows at the scale by the approximately 190 meters by 190 meters so before me that's actually very large-scale image and what you see here is not the individual items of the copper surface those are actually very difficult to see with scanning coming microscope because the services just electronically speaking very flat but his seat the steps you would is littered with the substrate with a couple takes 1 atomic layer higher or lower and you see the beautiful electron waves the standing waves on the surface of electrons confined in the surface layer of the Copper Bowl as well moment all
our desire to strengthen microscopes the timing is moving to at this wasn't
around when the Adams way we could assessment on a neutral on this summer's indicate that until relatively far away it's
only about 100 meters from the continued use of the
hearing of the other that we want to move here we have on and we switch between imaging motorists relatively far away To the moving more to close and then to his right temple on the site of the analysis of moves along this year you are actually in
the microscope rules this is the room where the actual to persuade example is the actually used
to working a temperature of minus 200 160 something degrees centigrade knew this because Adams hold still for moving in laboratory you actually hear analysts this is happening here in this
town of molecules following
belongs here in this region and it
is important me because we can call
public resistance groups actually want the country to anything on thing London so will get will get to the to the reason why I have such a rather professionally produced display of my laboratory here at the 2 was the end of my talk but this so that gives you no idea what this really looks like this little role what is contained in a massive chamber would be used for backing generation for liberation isolation for the fabrication of ultra-clean materials all this stuff is all the details that we just don't want a war about today but what you also saw is that we can use that same tool not just as a tool to emerge to surfaces but we can use it also as a tool to move Adams imposition Adams at will with the precision of the underlying serve so I can't say I want to take this out of here and I wanna move 1 atomic led the side to the right and that is something that idle pioneered with this famous image use was already mentioned before off writing IBM and services and this also tells you something about another genius that that that at that don't have which is to not right on but to write idea might be right for me if you work for a formal organization if you ever have a chance to do this and you do this not because you know you're such a great guy but you do this because he wanted payback in our case it is important for us to pay back to the company end but what is really funny about this story here's what The New York Times wrote about that so many of times published an article about this work which I think was published in Science or Nature 1 of the 2 the big publications and here's where it says here I'm not seeing the inventor of the machine gun used to demonstrate his marksmanship by firing patterns of bullets into walls to spell out the initials of potential customers in a similar vein IBM announced yesterday that its scientists had spelled out the company's initials by dragging single atoms into the desired pattern on the surface of a crystal of nickel so apparently Don and flights of the 2 scientists that I mentioned here used a machine gun to make this pattern of IBM on the atomic scale
now this is what Don is up to the states so Donna says you said retired from IBM a few years ago and he actually purchased a sailboat and he spent the entire summer last year selling the South Pacific and the most beautiful part about this picture is this guy here that's actually me meet in Fiji taking a two-week vacation with my wife on this phenomenal boat and that was just just a great great experience and so don is not just just my mental he's really also a very good friend and he was a picture of this phenomenal sailboat which he spent a lot of time on this year
now what can you do if you can move Adams and this is also something that many of the younger ones among you that that studied sort of in in the late nineties in 2007 actually seen this is the deed construction of often an artificial structure of Adams's circle of atoms on the surface of couple 1 1 1 this cup surface has electrons at a stuck in the surface when you build that circle you can actually confined electrons and you can't actually visualize the wave function in real space and also an energy space as you making the so-called so the you wiggles the circular patterns that you see inside the circle of atoms are actually not Adams themselves but those are just the electrons that are confined in there and give you the probability of finding an electron that we usually described as the wave function in quantum since this Springs
resort to the end of my little bit of introduction and the widest tool is great it's great because we can obviously do atomic-scale imaging we can also do construction we can build structures 1 item at a time and we can look at the electronic structure all within the same tools and so here I don't want explained to you what this actually means but you can see that if I put my tip on the open terrace I get 1 type of spectrum the x-axis use the energy basically if I put my might've been the center of this quantum corral I see the peaks and those other peaks corresponding to the energy levels of the quantum mechanical system of a particle in a box very simple things that you learn in quantum mechanics and if you projected slightly a different location you see different orbital states different patterns show all this can be beautifully visualized using this tool because we have imaging manipulation and spectroscopy and the same tools so now you're all experts with scanning tunneling microscopy at low temperatures right so let me show you know how we can use this tool to do data storage and computation because in the end I have to make sure that IBM an information technology companies willing to pay the way for us to continue this research and have fun and laboratory and so on to do the 1st thing I want to show you a different way to computation completely different from the silicon transistors that we all use for example in my in my open my laptop here to do computations that yeah this is an idea that goes back to this gentleman here Charles Babbage in 18 1836 18 forties he was actually the 1st person to conceive of the idea that you could use a machine that do computations after this point a computer was actually a person when you said you had a computer he actually meant you had a person and that person was doing calculations writing tables full of yeah books full of tables of logarithms and also the other functions which we can't even conceive today that you would actually do this and then he would look up in that book What is logarithm of 379 for example and that person was called a computer now Charles Babbage I thought that when he wasn't you know you'd want to replace the computer with a mechanical machine because because you know he wanted to get rid of the people know he wanted to make it more reliable you want to get rid of the arrows that introduced by having people riding stables and so we thought maybe we can make a mechanical computer something with wheels that actually all the wheels are moving in the right path to do what is called a difference engine on way to do a general computation he designed this thing he laid made plans for it he billable prototypes and then he ran out of money he spent a hell of a lot of money apparently on trying to build these things and it was just economically not feasible to make the the 8 thousand components with the precision that he needed them to be made and assembled tools and so the London Museum of Science a few years ago 20 years ago decided that it would be great to actually demonstrate if using the plans that he made and using technologies that were available at the time 18 forties could they actually have succeeded at this and they built this machine and obviously it is actually possible now that means there are different ways to the computation and there's computation based on the mechanical motion of Jesus and this is what I want to show you in the following few slice that we can actually use atoms and molecules on surfaces as mechanical pieces to do data storage wanted to to computations now this is akin to taking molecules on the table you set up your molecules sorry taking dominoes on the table you set up your dominoes imaging and I deserve it as a kid quite a bit even going down stairways and stuff like that you know with legal blocks didn't have that many dominoes at the time but if you set them up you think of them as 1 logic states and if the falling down then you think of them as another logic state so you have to to logic states and 1 and you can transmit 1 bit of information once along such a war nobody thinks of dominoes at in this case but you can actually do more with this you can do fanned out the fan out is a very important element in computation it's also called being in the silicon technology that means that you can have 1 channel drive into channels but you need to be able to take information from 1 gate and put it into 2 gates so this is clearly possible with these Domino's you can do logic operations the audit also very similar very simple to do and you could actually set this up yourself and if you think about it some more like like donated hear from you can actually make the universal and date as well and then you have an ordered an end date and you have the the deal of the year a crossover and fan out and that allows you to do universal computation with dominoes on a table public deal but what we actually found more than by accident like most of these discoveries actually goal is that we can actually do this on the atomic scale and so this is what I want to show you now he I show just a cartoon of of what the structures look like that I'll be sure you in the following you see here in yellow the structure of couple 1 1 1 to each 1 of these yellow dots represents 1 possible location for molecule of carbon-monoxide each molecule years represented by this red dot red circles and so we have structures where the ready covenants of molecules of sitting right next to each other and they have very different mechanical stability if we put them on the on left side here if we put them in the close packed arrangement stable for ever there she will move at all if we put them in many other arrangements they won't be stable at all we built them and as soon as you can imagine and safe 5 seconds later they already hopped away and in the middle we have this Chevron this slightly bent arrangement and that arrangement is interesting because it's always the case by by hopping the central molecule from this location for the next location it always does this with a liability with but the Fidelity if you want of about 10 thousand to 1 million that we've never seen 1 failed and we've watched about 10 thousand of those talks happen and some very reliable and found
works in reality so he's seeing image that has seen images now a little bit smaller to anatomy desperate to anatomy this year and I indicate the location of the copper atoms even tho we don't see them in this image because Petipa's actually too far away here but you see on the on the up side here single-molecule appears as a dip on the surface to molecules next to each other appears to adapt but in the middle you see some electronic stated there is something like a little bit of chemistry happening here and if you build the Chevron it looks like you have 2 of these nearest neighbor structures around together now if you just wait a little bit a minute or so you'll come back and you see that the structure has actually decay and you get to what I call the final pattern so we have on the 1 side the dominoes standing up and on the other side the domino fall but this is of course only interesting because we can combine these things together to make an actual wire and so here's the initial structure I can then take my STM I can with the other manipulation moved 1 out and make the 1st Chevron and then everything else happens on its own I'm just a spectator now I'm just watching what the structure wants to do on its own so I have 1 Chevron this will always decay by making this hot and then I set up the 2nd show 1 and there will always decay with the next hot propagating this information along this while on the atomic scale that is what some reality initial initial structure consisting of offer of a large number of these closely spaced ,comma not said molecules and then I can just watch this I can make the 1st Chevron with EST until this form will decay guru the next 1 this humble decay go to the next 1 and so on until end up in in the final structure and so I can I can demonstrate that can propagate 1 bit of information along this chain no reliable can we do logic yes We Can do logic making an or gate which is simple to do with the dominoes sitting up on a table is actually quite difficult here but making an end it is very simple so the and of course has to imports and they wouldn't X and Y here and 1 output and you want the output to be activated only when both inputs have been activated by what mean by X and Y so let's start input we make a Chevron that would decay and the indestructible propagate all the way to the center here where now we only have 1 nearest neighbor we don't have a Chevron destruction again will be stable for days it won't happen it will be won't hop on its own then we can trigger input y the same thing happens we make the Chevron's the propagated the center and then in in the middle we set up 1 Chevron just the same structure established everyone's as well so it will do exactly the same thing the color coding here is just to illustrate which molecule hopping in this process have older ones which are not helping the outcrop are part of the structure there but they're not hopping and the essential ones which are doing all the motions but this also works is the initial stage we can then propagate 1 of these arms but goes to the center and
then it's against stable there then they
can propagate the 2nd arm and that goes all the way to the end and now fortunately Rice can't ask me questions so that's that's great so you nobody's when asked me how are we going to the research we don't we don't have a good reason mechanism Uribe do this reset the same way that you do with dominance on the table he put them all back by hand so you have you know if you're a professor you might use to post so students might actually have to be in a laboratory so I contribute actively setting these things back up and so we go back to the initial stage know by somewhat hard labor and then be propagated different arm just demonstrated it does not matter which order you triggering these things and we go back to the output state where X and Y has been executed so that's transformation transmission of energy and also logic operation and that we thought OK now if we want to make a stink about this week at demonstrate something little bit more than this we gotta show that we have found out that we can actually do linking of the use of the states together and so we came up in the end with the structure here which is still the most difficult thing that anybody has ever built out and buy out of here because it's a very complicated structures of the Watergate and the crossover what it does it does the universal logic operation namely if 3 but counter 3 inputs x y and z and 3 outputs which I label the A 3 2 and 1 and these outputs count the number of inputs so if I start setting up from the table triggering input text it will bowl the output that is labeled 1 and then trigger input why it will go to the output label to end the call to the to the to the last 1 and that will trigger out with 3 now output is basically X and Y and the other 1 is X or Y or z and the middle 1 is called a majority gate again we can demonstrate that it does not matter which water which regard these things and so we can start began setting it up a pain in the neck right but then you trigger 1 of these inputs in a different order and showed a ghostly exactly the same structure the same number of out specific and so we showed here that we can do a universal logic operations this is work that is actually the 1st paper published when I was at IBM about to was just about 12 years ago now and with this we can show that we can do a computation on the atomic scale not at all in the practical fashion but it's my job and my laboratory this was still with denied the time it's our job to show that there are different ways to achieve this goal and it does not mean that this goal has to be realizable in there in a practical fashion but it's our job to think outside of the box and actually come up with ways that might or might not be able to be used so this was this was a great
success story at the time other than I spend about 10 years working on magnetic structures building chains of Adamson and learning a lot about the magnetic states and I wanna completely forget about this because again this is a little bit too deep I think for a general audience talk like this year but I do want to show you 1 result will be actually used magnetic Adamson surfaces to do but magnetic data storage no In order to do magnetic data storage I have to introduce a little bit of the concept of how we can actually read and write magnetic state and 1 of the ways you can do this with a scanning incoming microscope is make your STM sensitive to the magnetic state and we do this by using an effect called handling make me don't resistance meaning that the current that is flowing town Junction depends on the relative arrangement the relative alignment magnetic alignment of the state on the tip and magnetic state on yourself so if I have an added pointing its magnetic moment in the upward direction on my team and I have this this a magnetic structure on the surface which is pointing down I have a relatively low current and and flipped the state on the surface to an up commenters Asian I have a high but this is the the the foundation of giant magnetoresistance and time-limited resistance now I can also do this by building a structure if I make an act ferromagnetic structure where the 1st Adam up 2nd Adamstown 3rd bottom is up than I can keep my tip and the same magnetic state and I can move my tip laterally and I will see that the the current will change because of this that resistance and I can actually limit the so-called image the so-called meals state with atomic-scale resolution giving me the magnetic information now we were able recently at this was published about 2 years ago we were able to show that we can actually build structures of Byron Adams on a particular surface here where we actually see a chain of 8 iron atoms here and with a magnetic tape with a spin polarized current we can actually see that the 1st
problem is law the 2nd 1 is high the 3rd 1 is low the 4th 1 is high and so on so we get this regular pattern which we call an act American and tight ferromagnetic state and it to be more precise it's the classical and therefore magnetic state the so-called state now if you look at this fall moment you ask me undress why is the 1st item down what's special about the 1st item being down nothing special about the 1st item being don't you also have an equal also Neil state Everything is the same with the 1st Adams tall and the 2nd 1 is low and so on so when we make these fully compensated and the ferromagnetic states they are now have to if you want to ground states to equivalent states that they want to be in and those of beautifully to demonstrate magnetic data storage if you will look at how a magnetic it works in your hard drive it has to magnetic states pointing in 1 direction or the other direction and then use Reed had to read out this magnetic state of your hard drive we can use the STM to switch somewhat control of the not good enough for technology that we can actually switch between them now 1 of the
beauties of 1 side of technology here if he was at the Feira magnets and here while use my mouse pointer here we call this entire structure 1 bit here these 2 roles stand here another 1 so these past 6 iron atoms with another 6 next to its 12 Adams for a bit and the beauty of using an and after a magnitude 7 and fair-minded internally compensated so there is no long-range magnetic field and you can place suspects right next to each other you also see that if you're familiar with with the chemistry and the physics of of exchange interactions that even these shorter-range exchange interactions for purposes that perfectly compensated they cancel out because this out here that is interacting with the neighboring bits it is interacting equally with 1 pointing up and 1 pointing down and so the net action is 0 so no long-range interaction no short-range interaction so those things should be stable against interactions between each other at all and and so then we built the 2nd most difficult thing that we have a built which has the structure of 96 iron atoms placed on this understand insulated here but and you see amongst them polarized image suggests a normal STM topographic image you see the bits label from from from 1 to 8 if we take a spin polarized emission magnetic image and then subtract the way that amongst polarized emission see on top we get just the magnetic contrasts and that's color-coded here and in this magnetic contrast we now have 4 bid 1 we have the 2 atoms on the topping up next on behalf be down next on behalf and be up and so we can call this a logic 1 and logic I already mentioned to you that we can change the magnetic state we can flip them when we say 1st that building the structure is really a pain in the neck this took post and myself about the 2 days working practically nonstop to places items and the right in the right spot by this is very difficult to do but once you've built this week then were were able this was Sebastian did this because he's more patient than I am he actually put all the 256 different combinations of zeros and ones into that same stated that's relatively fast do we can switch them and then we can imagine the image this with this resolution takes on the order of a few minutes for that's not that difficult to do and so
that we could show that we can store arbitrary information in there and it's 1 byte of information and 1 by historically is used for displaying all the characters storing all the characters in the so-called asking code so if you look and you ask the court for the capital letter s that is 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 on hexadecimal numbers 53 but then we can change that state and become right spent in these structures so this is using the same 96 Adams just changing the magnetic state imaging began changing its image in it again and so on yeah let's again look at some sites comparisons here we use 12 Adams the magnetic hottest strife which is a phenomenally beautiful technology used about 1 million magnetic Adams for bit so that's 100 thousand times smaller but this is a volume argument is a three-dimensional argument the total number of of Abbott's if you look at just the aerial density which is in the and more important for for good comparison here then we are storing approximately 70 terror bits per square inch apologized for the square inch and German originally but I'm used to crazy units like injures nowadays the 70 terror bits per square inches density that we have here if you compare this to the hottest driver is approximately 100 times denser than the hottest you can buy in what dealers by what's media market with the Dutch equivalent of a "quotation mark all right it's a small world specify for us all in any case so you walk into media market you put on 100 euros and you'll get a hard disk drive that stores approximately 2 or 3 terabytes of information a bit density that is 100 times less than this thing a hundred times this is a factor of 10 in the new dimension that means that the hottest right you can buy for almost nothing in the store it's almost at atomic-scale dimensions already I would just blows me away what the technology has actually come to all how small the structures really up now by no means are we the only people that can do this kind of precise manipulations of several groups around the world and 1 of the things that I really wanted to demonstrate was to combine this idea of computation with molecule with with the with the cascade motion together with the data storage of a magnetic off of magnetic but but then my friend Alice Khachaturian said offers a role in business will be humbled stole this idea from me knowing he had the idea probably before me anyhow about and he built the structure where they have used magnetic islands as a stable magnetic structures as the inputs for these cascades here and these cascades then take the magnetic input from 1 of these islands so it goes up down up down up down and public this to a logic gate and then they could show he was 1 of these logic states so now they do this again has been polarized imagine you can see 1 Adams up the next 1 is sound and they could show that you can do this logic operation using magnetic Adams on surfaces now Our 196 magnetic adamant structure had a few crazy consequences ominous this is really the end of now it's just going to be fine from now on it so not at the beginning wasn't that much fun but now we're really going to have some fun so crazy consequences frustrated consequence I work for a company so publishing Science paper that's of course for all of us here 1 of the greatest things that that you can do in an hour publication will but the company doesn't really care about science papers the company really cares about New York Times articles so if the New York Times picks up our research and puts us on the front page of the Business Section then my sealed might actually see this and be very happy about this 1 day when this happened 1 day I get a phone call From the Israeli consulate in San Francisco leaving a message on my answering machine which I pick up and it says that as a soldier forgot the name I welcome the Israeli consulate in 7 school and I was wondering if you'd be available to meet with the president thank you didn't really understand what this person was saying I get a call the next day at which he believed would you be willing and able to meet with the president and so what happened is that the president of East Rail she won Paris actually came by and visited my laboratory in Almaden because he wanted to learn what his advisers told him that he wanted to learn how he can do magnetic data storage on the atomic scale now I think that's fantastic I'm very very very much in favor or talking to politicians and talking to the general audience I think it is a very important role that we have to play a scientist not she want Paris however travels with the same security as the President of the United States and that means that the entire facility of about a thousand people had to be shut down for a half day and there were snipers on the roof and there were snipers in the mountains and it was scary as hell to actually have this visit happen 2nd crazy consequences I get a phone call this is about a year and a half ago I get a phone call I don't know that the show a show of hands how many of you have ever seen in the TV series called Mad Men for quite a few quite a few actually the next the last season starts in April in United States some really looking forward to that but for those of you don't know madmen it's about the advertising agencies in Manhattan in New York City in the 19th 50's 270 space to be really crazy bunch of people so I got a phone call from 1 of these advertising agencies namely Ogilvy which is all IBM marketing firm in Manhattan and they say what should be a which should be able and willing to make a movie with us and so well this is a long story and so we decided to actually tried to make movie and so let me walk you through
solution in the hills of northern California
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you up then the set her up ooh la com Tom I I I I label this year wanted geared interest of up enough you think back about 30 years ago these gentlemen had no idea what they were actually starting by making a tool that can look at services with atomic-scale specialist allusions this is obviously the trailer for a movie that is 1 minute long and just show you in a few moments which actually has entries in Wikipedia and I am db database it us really treated like an actual movie a director for this and so on so how does this come about now there's the 1st cut to 1 that is advertising agency meals the guy who did this is the creative director of this effort basically sell
just like you do in any other movie you come up with a storyboard you wanna tell a story and would really intrigued me about this is to communication to a general audience this is basically now I beat literally IBM marketing dollars and what we buy a lot of TV spots buying a TV sport in producing this TV spot in the United States cost on the order of a million dollars and so 1 of our vise president of marketing said why don't we take a million dollars and recorded a research division within IBM and we find some gems that we can communicate to the general audience how great IBM Indian rights and they hire this this marketing from all will be and they come up with the idea that they want to tell the story and the story should not be scientific this story should be emotional should be a emotional connection between the viewer and the story that we're telling but it's made with Adams and so you can sort of drag people into the excitement about doing science with Adams and then having them ask questions later and so they came up with the idea of course you can't do lines you can only do not basically without arms and so you have to translate this into this pattern of dots and Seoul this IBM marketing firm hired a director in Manhattan this director hired an animation from in South America and this animation from came up with the idea of how you translate this this this story boards to a pattern of Adams on surfaces and then we of course became involved in translating from the but also in 1 direction
translating from this this this idea of thoughts to an actual image by moving these items and services now I have a team of at this time and a team of 4 people in my laboratory for scientists and it took us as a team effort 10 days to move about 10 thousand of these molecules each 1 of these stocks as opponents of molecule same surfaces structure as in the molecule has stated that the past 10 days straight to make 242 frames to make the movie
movies and called the is that our theory :colon Power Hour the what they bought you Back the day madam Mathilde um but at last um a quarter to half theory and the other at a or we will in the I'm a
uh you also talk about only hold only all the agreements that we have been under them and then needs you listen her and her the In the so yeah you guys thank you very much so this was of course you know a ten-day effort in the laboratory was was involved in this for approximately 1 year of all the production around it but as I said this is a significant amount of marketing dollars at work but the has been
quite phenomenal sold the the stated goal by all all vice-president of marketing was too great to make his move legal viable as they see no viable was defined to have 1 million views you're new to this was published on YouTube and different from publishing in science when we published on YouTube ,comma it got 1 million viewers in less than 24 hours it has now approximately 5 million views which is which is set in the top 1 per cent of all you 2 movies that are available so I find that quite amazing that so many people other interested in learning something about science this I showed in the beginning a kind of the clipboard we looked in the laboratory that was produced in a one-week sessions by this marketing firm in my laboratory and this making of movies 5 minutes longer tells you all the information I told you pretty much today and almost 1 million people have taken the 5 minutes to watch this kind of information about now science nanotechnology and I think that is a very important thing that we have to do is to talk to general audiences even noticed was of course incredibly complicated but there's still things so they can communicate to a general audience that they find interesting enough to spend 5 minutes of their precious time on it at about the response by the audience as you can see from the from the comments in the YouTube sections of overwhelmingly positive there were lots of comments on what are using Adams of molecules but we were sloppy about the this distinction there and so was like That's fantastic people are thinking about whether the starts Adams of molecules with success and so overall very great response now then I got more marketing opportunities for IBM and for example I spent a week in Disney World where IBM has a booth where we tried to get the visitors to Disney World excited about IBM and of course my daughter and my my son would not let me go there by themselves and so here's my daughter's chair on stage with me explained to an audience how we can move items industry also very excited about this actually very interesting too has used 10 years old and to have a 10 year old explaining science to people this is officially recognized as the world's smallest stop-motion movie by the Guinness Book of World Records that's that's the organization that certifies something as the best of the smallest of the biggest and finally I just want to show you how we we actually do would these frames we built this frames 1 item at a time and so you can see instant molecules the all the seal molecules disappear and being assembled 1 frame at a time into the boy the week we call no finality
this whole media effort was only possible because we have strong arm off of a lot of money behind us and they can come up with these kind of promotions
basically this movie 1 at the at the Cannes Festival of Animation popcorn festival of marketing which is a huge organization of all the marketing firms in the world that won best best not essential but it won best branded entertainment and so I was able to go to come and go on stage and and taken an award for this movie and so this brings me to the end I have a small team of people and on the left on the left-hand side he's post oaks and students to spend time with me on the right hand side scientific visitors this will resolve and possible to the general support mostly of idea so now I don't want to take any more of your time because I'm standing between you and I hear there's going to be some wine in Europe available so thank you very much for your kind attention and thank you for bringing me to this fantastic


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