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Opening lecture with Sibylle Günter

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Opening lecture with Sibylle Günter
Magnetic fusion for baseload electricity in the second half of the century
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Professor Sibylle Günter has been the Scientific Director of the German 'Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics' (IPP) since February 2011. She took her degree in physics at the University of Rostock in 1987 and three years later completed her PhD at the Department of Theoretical Physics there. Subsequently she worked at the University of Rostock, the University of Maryland and at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). She qualified for a lectureship at the University of Rostock in 1996 with a thesis entitled 'Optical Properties of Dense Plasmas' and she still gives lectures there. Since 2006 she has also held a part-time professorship at the Technical University Munich.
Keywords fusion magnetic
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good morning I'm glad you all made despite the weather and the trouble
the trains the yeah fellow physicist it is with great pride and pleasure that I open this edition Of the physics at full conference in physics and analysis striving and measured by impacts we ranked 1st in the world before countries like the USA Switzerland Denmark in the physics world in the Physics World lists of that came out in January December 10 of the most but of the 10 most important discoveries physics discoveries of last year to work done by you and on top of that you took a relatively large part in the 3rd for the discovery of the Hague the particle that must explain your massive presence here being together with 1900 representative of Dutch physics research you may not immediately realize this but you are an endangered species the Dutch government understands science but especially physics is relatively small only 1 . 6 per cent 4 . 6 of the world's average on spending on sciences we are small compared to physics in other countries around us we are small compared to the world average inside cities quality is important besides matters too In the world of science and humanities Dutch physics it's like food in a fancy restaurant it's very good but there's so little of it Our statistics Arabian beatable we may all be may win all the competitions score aces in the RCD have the highest impact in the world Kerry homes cost of international important international prizes but somehow we do not succeed in getting across the message that physics apart from being interesting and highly intellectuals intellectually stimulating it's really important for society In so many ways and very very often it is useful to in the short term .period long-term now look at us and here we are in 1900 souls tuned to a secret wavelength discussing alien concepts very few people can grasp in an aromatic language that's no normal person understands or even recognizes that the carrier of information let alone emotion the motion which is the principal currency in today's world no wonder we are under recognized and underfunded all that this change following in the footsteps of lower back after who dazzled the TV audiences with his life lectures in the veal that I or other physicists all the scientists researchers appear on talk shows um layoff costs shown out do blow makes can be used to construct a might run a fermion and and takes discovery was opening news on the news on Dutch television good although there appear on the talk shows 2 young people as futuristic people people with hair and we need a lot of debt following up on this initiative of 2 young researchers evil open and active on the pole form has organized a competition in which young researchers were invited to do a two-minute movie about the research with outstanding results that you can see at this conference on the video columns In the central hole near the coast 3 winners were selected fate pale Delft University many malls oval Delft allowance from back from trip the winners were award was supported the video portrait that is of them and their work and those tools are on display and a special mention was given for perhaps the most unusual daring and artistic film awful the honor to hold down secure PGD project which he carries out at that differ Institute she definitely there's 2 different in his opening address I do not think tend to spend much time on political stuff but you all know that science funding in this country is fundamentally changing which calls its dynamism and uncertainty the threats and opportunities in spades toxic it's easy to see those developments as threats as a monster that threatens science and physics in particular but then also ago I spoke to a little boy who'd had a nightmare in which he was chased by a monster he ran and ran as fast as his short legs would carry him but a monster will soon upon him and his legs gave way Barry was on his back helpless and Ponting he asked the monster monster monster What are you going to do to be a which which the Moser says How should I know boy your dream of mine let me just say that we in the full board who spent quite some time discussing budget things which is necessary but not inspiring but we have more fun more in particularly Imphal silos to
full direction and hateful and optically over and the entire team at full I spend a lot of time an ostrich developing new opportunities such as New Ways to Work With industry and that is inspiring it's not easy finding never knew roads never asked the king would you you meet new people you get to see new sites you get influence let me and by saying this you're the best in the world the pinnacle of evolution yet urinate Endangered Species Act what can I say go forth and multiply it may not be the best advice go forth and communicate may be more appropriate in this case in any event at this conference get inspired His spiraled orders cross fertilize jump over fences bridge gaps meet people you didn't know make new friends clash with other cultures forget about architecture is about boundaries fundamental applied bought lot curiosity-driven use inspired radical experimental forget all those barriers and use this conference to samples lots lots of excellent physics the curious used by charge appear better use enough of it you bought them I thank you fuel supply future Knesset like to but me to the podium to and introduce the 1st good morning ladies and gentlemen it's a real pleasure for me to announce the 1st keynote lecture conference should be a good from the Max-Planck Institute in Germany be the was important in no more stock in former German to Democratic Republic but she get studies stare at the University of Rostock in physics should finish a PC in 3 years so maybe good lessons for our PhD students which should try to keep him for years the topic of the teachers were certain focus on computational investigation off radiation from danced past mast and what's in the Department of theoretical physics uh subsequently she stayed scientific adviser Scientific Assistant to the chair of the G radical department and during that time she had some extended stays to the University of Maryland and to the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 1996 she basically rotor teachers share habit .period shown as they call it in Germany on the teachers entitled optical properties of danced past Marseille and since that time she's so giving lectures at the University of Rostock where in 2001 she became a drunk professor In 1996 she also made a move to the Max-Planck Institute for Class Matthew seeking gushing near Munich uh where she became staff member and 2 thousand she um became hacked off the tokamak physics division and more recently 2 years ago she became the principal directed the scientific director of the Institute for Boston the sheik which is by far the largest fusion research institute in Europe a with told Baker laboratories 1 in Garching near Munich and the other 1 is in God's fault somewhere between Berlin and Hamburg it also I'm in 2006 she also became honorary professor of part-time professor at the Technical University of Munich well this to say about tubular and I will not repeat all because otherwise she doesn't have time to work at this lecture here and I could so let's say finalized by saying that she's also at this moment chair of the FDR steering committee have targets to European fusion developments agreements that see Association of all fusion institution Europe uh she has furry important role there will tour let's say entire professional life she worked the many topics should um most of them men that's a related to the cheery and say uh what she will certainly addressed a number of them in talk which hopefully will give you a kind of idea that fusion is not all about building a let's say new reactors for the future but it's also a lot of fundamental physics and and so on looking forward to talks should be the defrost yours b it off good morning ladies and gentlemen thank you told me I am very honored to give the 1st and only talk as you very important conference under the pleasure to talk about peace of advances in Monday diffusion research and also at Latvian about the perspectives of the money diffuse research to contribute to the energy mix in the 2nd half of the century for introduction however I would like to start with a few in the options we are looking at where you when no incontestable fission power stations we are trying to refuse likened the idea to have the ones in particular the heavy hydrogen isotopes the chairman Chretien union and the energy gain is of course due to the independence of the binding energy Pinocchio which last week do not choose the same reaction as this and we have decided that I wanted to on a potency you to and the reasoning
for 1 season if 1 has a look at the election relates sold for Hortense are essentially few few and the subsequent reactions and the action that matters most is a fast 1 told portends refused to a deuterium into using the convection is invoices and therefore the future rates are quite slow on the as we are not going for a fund size student enact medical for more efficient reaction and therefore we have chosen material features with a fusion reaction rate is 27 orders of magnitude larger where did you miss easy you really wide white so it's of contained in seawater pool .period all 15 % so you can easily have the skewers nearly unlimited and everywhere this not a tool for soon I'll accomplish later but tools used for medium and from essentially with an energy gain of 17 . 6 million Cornwall .period territory the situation is when you have friend as a half time of about 20 years so we have to creates a spritzer molestation of children Paul planned and for this we can use a new tone that can read honestly meeting 6 treats film and video was another energy but there are essentially 2 based on
humans the power plants once the notion of human endurance when interviewed trouble is we need to achieve about 150 million degrees temperatures To have sufficiently high of human nature and there's quite a high temperature about 10 times larger than the temperature in the Saudi interior played for national fusion you take a very small town was foes and interior features and use all the fire some heavy metal and then you have many Jesus tool compressor and you actually created many of the explosion but the natural state that there is sufficient to keep sufficiently long to get about 10 to the minus 10 seconds it's sufficient to have sufficient fuel rates will have a positive performance I won't go into details of that result and the reason is that this is being done mainly in the U.S. and Japan there some as leader of plasma physics that probably also the Netherlands and in other European countries but we only have some heat in parts activities in you will for the have which is in the U.S. for example he entirely financed by military advocate but many Chileans reason is this says military applications In particular you can test your computer codes for nuclear weapons the very cheeky but not very cheaply but relatively cheaply and without much rejected please the therefore I will concentrate on Monday defusing where you will use the fact that at these temperatures matinees at least pilots and is completely ionized and was plus monster that can be influenced by when the future and you can confined at last month by the means of Monday defused on that in contrast to the National fusion may you need better high densities and you end up with precious compatibility a interior pressure the privacy of small because the density we need to achieve is about the fact of millions more than the particle density in the atmosphere and therefore the pressures of all 10 atmospheres despite the very high temperatures of 150 million degrees and on the other hand we can keep of course plasma much longer together than tend to minus 10 seconds when you
might populist can move freely on the along magnetic field lines and forced forces and on a circular motion but ultimately defeated lines and you wonder where among device magnetic field cage you better avoids a populist relief that diffuses a few cage along magnetic field lines and this Court's so you can't fool said just awarded the lines don't do the job but you would need to have missed the structure of our money to fuel felines sold so quickly its offices so we have if you start demanding the event here the TransAlta tools it has to end up 1 such as office and then there would advise is constructed out of Mystic yesterday Monday its offices on the SE transport alone Monday feud lines this half-hearted and perpendicular and it these temperatures for example the transport this 10 orders of magnitude larger the part of the perpendicular you end up with nearly constant temperature and density on these surfaces and this gives you a very good insulation in factory need the cancelation here that it's about 50 times larger than that of what is at the site temperatures but having said that on the other hand then we have a very low power densities in these devices so we have the bald 100 times less power density than a kindly in all and fishermen where the answers that essentially 2 ways of beating the fusion power plant 1 of the so-called compromise where great sees Monday defeated structure was to receive the money to so officers in federal components you have so broad-minded if you'd poise and if you have the confluence in this place then this is associated of course we're still the stored among interviewed lines you sketch places clean fuel lines but in addition you use the new plasma as a secondary winding of transformer and you'd use a class Marco and indicated by the fact was you and this does not McClelland and of course comes with a Polaroid and wondered if you'd like the future of the deceased futile and Sosa combined for you end up with next year lines and this is a check exactly these money to feed lines centuries-old Monday at its offices where this simplest fusion device you can think of at the store a .period water device it has next on units of in and a battery of really nicely intact many officers Ukraine proved that in such an ultimately device charged particles and Leslie this topic relations that has all but closed it safe so they would never be further device so comes with invaluable to the cancelation due to the exact so much on the other hand as you just said we need to use a condom the plasma is of course but also placed operationally and 2 :colon flowing is a source of free energy and therefore was able to drive instabilities that could even destroyed money to judge amateurs Belenenses disadvantages steadily down there is a way to produce the war among structure based on a future only about money to fuel plates on the additional plasma coolant needed for Senator and so you have the opportunity for fully steady state operation and you get little plasma and therefore this device is more stable against divisions on the other hand I was thinking that comes a crisis of the lunch blasted about that advantages you have to develop except symmetry you can fool the city cannot have invested money surfaces without the plasma coolant in four-dimensional geometry this three-dimensional geometry in general down was smart and insulation under and also part now can device even if they're not just have to stop by conditions on the continent leader the the creator of the site the tool concerts has never been further developed and for the Torkham operation that has been found that by using external means of Scotland device so it essentially by it's by race but also using intrinsic Collins said other than by some electric effects from the pressure gradient you just keep going meeting and then you can replace a large part of his McLoughlin by intrinsic for extended Collins so this finally allows you to go at least 2 Wetteland places if not steady-state Newfoundland women many of our customers are very hot and very friendly and therefore they are very that not many people of collisions was listed Tuesday's loss you can drive me on Christopher Cohen was so therefore this kind goal for many Lun Lun .period fighting and we have developed very sophisticated cheap systems such that we either interactively concert would these instabilities and safety operate only West both asparagus there has been the invention of Silkwood clauses in the peace so wide you can't fool mathematically that the war Monday defused cannot be actors in the that can some of the properties of the magnitude of the money to fuel initially was that you can get a little the disadvantage can win the end of the school summon installations integrin end up disclosed particle orbits unperturbed so if you want to summarize the success of about 5 decades of research this can be done in this kind of a diagram well the acceptance gives you the temperature and divide up gives you all of figure of knowledge which actually resides the power balance between the heating buys about of all customers with this energy losses to the plasma density times temperature times a measure of the quality of allegiance relief well it is about a fast talker marks there in the former Soviet Union favored tool reach temperatures of a few million degrees .period thought that it would be very hard to beat up last month to temperatures and friends have higher than the solar interior but actually was quite where possible so we have even exceeded those template was by far the CV of which fondly of 500 million degrees Rini also increased over figure of not not graphic of testifies to the 5th but this is type of 5 to 10 missing and this is missing heat insulation so we need to further tuneful volleyed information and this we are going to do increasing the size of the device and I will come to the next step experiment but also black .period atop marks and the blue points generators and while the 1st supplement was we are success so fast that it was a disaster so the 1st didn't work at all and that therefore the words you switched talk about there are now some delegates alone worldwide to use receive actually sleep data points from agents and you see that these are very much behind the government and the reason for that is that as I said stellarators need optimization "quotation mark systemically isn't important and to do that you need high-performance computers at least not not not present a high-performance computers but some do power and this was only available in the 1980's cancel the steadily disliking very much behind talk amongst 2007 ever Institute also and and area building up the present the largest and most innovative that later when the sensitive index and this is upon these people to the beach but actually there are many jokes along of course fusion has been taken for and that is the energy source of the future and that will always be so that if the however
the country of the figure Mallett was other doesn't look that bad what would have copy of that we come to that but if you compare with the figure of merit for example with the development of computer chips in Upland about these ladies to 2 thousand miles an our successful holiday doubled every the 2 use is right about so I think that provide energy physics but hasn't won a major difference between high energy physics student and computer ships we needed bigger devices Kosovo if you to go for success why the computer chips a decrease and increase size where this is this morning b sufficient to save a few another policy I think the major obstacle is that if you need people to increase above a southern Saskatchewan and unless we do so we stand waste energy wasn't and so we considered we can consider success only if you gain more energy of the future actions that we need to redouble all customers and that's probably the reason why despite the huge Paulison the cheating parameters fusion is still considered not yet at least to be successful when he Cross especially with the next thing that's that experiment that leader that is currently building being built in cells found some kind of March 9 to fast I would like to give now some examples of the problem of research by that plenty of top
marks around worldwide and ensuring the largest you only the largest at the moment is located in you create the Joint European toward this is the largest extended worldwide and is a joint experiments for European laboratories also many Dutch physicists arguing for jets and doing which was watch them so even those who expected to be effective 2 larger in the near dimensions when it thought of 2 smaller Internet a mentioned is our experiment in Goshen this upgrade and there are some desolate compliments of that size in the words of 1 is located in California and the U.S. and there are plenty of new devices superconducting devices even in Asia the atop of East that is similar in size fast example and also the superconducting public talk among themselves he said and as another problem not being that up there at the moment of subjecting us to 260 years and this is equivalent of talk market that means that that is being built in collaboration between here you open us there's over Europe and Japan is feeling to be good up in Japan where those of you who are experienced in the High Court of physics would not say why why why not go just for the biggest machine and forget everything I buy this is not wise as we can use our smaller experiments in kind of wind tunnel experiments to watch bigger ones there's 1 the think you have to acknowledge that you need to have the same on the future of between and then you can do some wind tunnel experiments to see you again all nested money its offices which are priced 7 begin the beginning this is needed to have the boutique insulation but then you see here as well that there's a lot closed flat surface and that we that 1 touches of water is the only money money suffers all you only fewer lines the few the plasma and awards to you can we contemplates a possible what what direction into this Chamber the right you and this development was very successful and has been initiated in Goshen go Institute and then blocked jet that has been modified accordingly analyzing the design looks so that in much the same we don't need to prove that the detailing kitchens if you actually work so this has been done at the U.S. talk about 250 yards and later jets and we have been able to produce 16 Nunavut the fusion power over ejected With this flight ,comma at this stage we needed more heating power to heat up Zambia got out of it but it was not by a large margin that was just 60 % of Aussies the 2 leading power we need to focus more on heating we got out by the reduction but please do of course need to me but to do that and this is planned fleet where we want to exceed ceding power needed for Plassmeyer meeting by a factor of 10 at least so this is the dimensions of the machine to major radius of about 6 meters this very close central precise already where people now think of 8 meters tall smiling uses for meters we have a pass mark on the 15 million years when the future of 5 thousand and his machine we are aiming at Fudan Palestinian 408 100 megawatts for the from seconds to a place donation of about an hour as of Sept this is machine is being voted those fonts and colors and their 7 partners to this project you opinion the Union Collins as 1 partner which is not always easy with 27 Member States China India Japan South Korea Russia and U.S. arms where wife of course designed the project in design of the day it is In outcome come off the discussions of the scientific community but in this particular project the politics has played a major part in this project has been announced by Gorbachev and they wanted to show the cold war was over and so they said Friday it let's go for a peaceful project peaceful use usage of nuclear power again this time where is the source of possibly the idea have 7 partners half the people living around the world and 80 per cent of the false of 2 of these countries but this game is a economy I mean they had even great idea seeing any of his partner should be able to build the fusion power plant afterward and therefore should be allowed to in every single technology this is a very good idea to intervene but this means everybody should have the possibility to bid for example when defeated .period or something that and this and that
and that is a very broad distribution of costs of stars and this in mind we always if you develop a new power you would use the site to develop 1 use in U.S. and 1 . 1 1 in China and 1 in you in your and then you bring in all together and then you have had all the development and research costs you hope it fits together so I just want to tell you this is a very very complex management tasks in addition that's not the money was the central management but was the domestic agencies with departments and labeling everything and kind and if you have that in the newspaper said the data was lacking behind schedule and the budget was not as plans this is not this is not the only reason of course but it's part of the part of standards going on so the
outside they have finished a few buildings awareness was his ability to wind up the largest quiet 2nd on sport anymore the Atlas station waiting of course has done but also the problem of getting it is being paid to the sea that pits to make it safe against Austria and by the
middle of last year the delegation has committed 80 per cent of the in-kind values licensing is nearly completed more than 70 per cent of the the super levy payments for the money to feed .period C major element of the device is produced and we expect the 1st half of attributed that to cut about next year but Tony is that it is not all about being picky license also involved science and cousin of physics and I want to give you some over the union president I would like to show you what a for me dealing with symbolic and sold fewer have physics is a 20 might escape problems both in space and time this is the smartest is after his life as a generation leaders of the electron and is less than a million the fears is the right size leaders Tommy In time wait actually would have to was like in the fascination time but you Yukon average dissolved but you have to look at the time useful for the major Rios Montt supporter told but then you have the from the time of the irons and then you see that irons tons of many many times about the toll was before they once collide and this means actually have to deal with the kinetic description of the plasma because the parties don't collide like often enough that you can use pictures on the other hand we can still travel temperatures but I did all the time because apart to stay on as many think surface for long enough to have many many positions before the history and the largest time we have to deal with is the time of the list is that the distribution of the common fight and this is of the order of several tens of seconds so to deal with all the times he the philosophy have developed several physics models so fall the largest largest is still looking you with some plans for the creation for larger-scale instabilities the look of an extended with models but if you want to really go from 1st conservatives here we have to with kinetics and as Alinghi said we try to and which old the fastest activation motion so will place emotions perpendicular to the wondered if you'd buy kind of the emotional charge things 1 of the major problems he wanted
you with the tool we predict the necessary size and the properties of fusion power plant this public transport and if you look at the history of the public transport as funds for the at venues you see white people who have made promises save energy but to keep it at the beginning hissing of 7 high-temperature fusion plasma and you take a proper market where the party all of its losses it said I did not find any effect that could lead to war part of diffusion except collisions but collisions are already there so I can't watch has actually preventing many collisions so if you estimate the knowledge of plans for the new speculations you take a simple estimated the popular all that the actual go the deletion ladies is not profits but take any part of that size as the lengthier followed diffusion coefficient and then the time and agreeing to collisions as a timescale and then you end up with very very small diffusion coefficients and would come the conclusion that you could have fuel from power plant basically in the basement but this didn't not about actually instead of tendinitis tool credited the 2nd we find if you will said that if the 2nd transport and then come to the conclusion that Topalov would ignite and major weakness of 8 meters only but the reason for that is that we do not only have this collision of transport so that not a single part of the picture that is sufficient to recede that we have problems operations on balls plasma density and temperature and if you know what makes such a simple estimated it takes the size of the problem that is as the landscape entertaining the settings as the times you said he would end up was I'd order of magnitude it there's also view of working fluid dynamics know very well that the chances that the talents problem 1 of 2 by last month's would unsolved problems classical physics and therefore our devices to rewrite based on simple and Lakers scaling laws and this is a holiday for this looks like this is the natural heat insulation and its many many government experiments and the busses scaling laws of West size money feud does McLoughlin and or the Indian partners and then you see adhesive Abalos make plots these data points lineup recognized me and then you extrapolate and quite confident as we look out as 0 Donna going to need to extrapolate isn't about to see sighs as you can with each prison bond found but still if you want to go go for fusion power plant if you want to know exactly what's going on if you want to predict things and she knew that I would like to know the physics principles so I would like to know if you give me the powerful such a plasma I would like to be able to predict the temperature profile all same price categories and the density profile and on so and then however we need to hear 1st
principle a description of the problems so we need to start from having to physics moderates and already told you what we have to do we have to start this entirely committed see William and as this go and sources of tension and a sheet of paper you need high-performance computing for that so in principle houses much as we need life tolerance by he didn't want the 1st of course to increases the pressure gradient descent initiated by summons the permanent the diffusion that finally determines the pleasure reading when some I didn't and we and our future thousands have always shown you that I somebody covered many times along the the toll was between before they once relied so they do fear the monitored geometry so he has to you cannot just have a symbol mop-up model you really have to invoice awarded geometry in particular because transport this valley on bicycles so toward doing that that the is part of the production is fact of this 10 orders of magnitude larger than perpendicular and sold you have to analyze this and and this is a competition earlier big problems and we have to include Connecticut effects where this isn't this assimilation of public transport flood the present a problem of experiment and you see this mixing up in temperatures here very nicely and if you will try to understand again by people who have not
understood From the beginning that Oblast transport was important you see that before we made toward developed efficient heating schemes ,comma transferred the car because it's a pretty weird gradient before come transport sets in and below that you don't see it but once you reach this could be the gradient in exceeded so you can heat and heat and heat temperature Wigan would not increase have kind of stiff temperature call for it he did me attempted predict the temperature of the this is not true for the many anxious to see evidence of that and not for the rally center but have some instabilities a calling and affecting having people for so this
is a government that knows the level at top for the infant temperature predecessor Millipore fights here and there some kind of transport bombing at edge insists constant is the template at the plasma edge you can come Pfizer specific particularly the geometry of the all facts offices and understand the sunspot barriers you can you have to look at a situation mechanisms for the travel and said this is too pushy flows on the future that's muffles the form government anti-Semitism apart and this reduces the public transport and despite something links to hear the transport body at about the edge and this was discovered for the 1st time than dodging and now this is the abolishment scenario for ETA but even London a lot of things about government and if you really go into detail that you can really get such plans but there is also the plasma center and UCB of reached even ignition temperatures soared to 1 million degrees any devices that does not mean that a user of size 50 immediacy of 200 million degrees here before this House so this is 1 of the topics and another very important topic will be coming forward from receipt and this is a tough assignment of God Save King of supplies must by the IFA
particles when you 1st look at the party that all this and you can see that the parties not simply for the money to feed lines that they have left said that because every false perpendicular to money to feed lines causes it lifts perpendicular the falls into this for the money to fuel and in addition yes sorry motions which comes with the concept of motion that is the money the moment and insulation between the pub major energy divided by the money here so it is your friend looked at part of it's moving in U.S. money fuel so the money of the departed also nominated feud it comes through In legions of higher Monday he explains then has to increase had been energy but as the energies of goes then was a adoption of the Polish energy and is a about and it is not sufficiently spotted it will be effective with this very similar to Topalov due between it's a lot of money dispute not imaging as it for itself like 1 of our for the Center for the edge and then issued a
photo of a party that doesn't have enough founded they talk among you see this looks like this not the part year it tries to go once onto it's also but it will be reflected in the region of the high-minded fields and if you don't look at the projects and that's a part of the public deviates from this particular surface but the part of it's up close and even Caesars very different to withstand where is the go from what the kids and we also see that not only part of the and also that either party could have a similar velocity like the current they may philosophy of the itineraries and so they can visit on the index with resentment exchange energy so of course you have more energy to part of the standard at the edge of the affiliated with this when it where it begins the source of the energy drives Reeves which and found that the 2 of the distribution of energetic particles that innings this distribution functions and that way you will I departed from the port with the edge you need expanded them and this might be dangerous for the boys and therefore
we have to look at this as a moment as well we have specific diagnostics to look at lots of fast partly because it is of course not I part of it but we do we was part past public this fall in heating and you see here this part
of the losses at a certain frequency when aligned with the proper funding monitored fluctuations I'm not saying
this is a pointless you we matters to you want to understand the instabilities new devices and then if you it have textual Yasui then you are confident can depend predict for what he did as well and you see nicely as you eat plants for the for the basin of the electron temperature compared with the corresponding as government and there is this experiment is a diagnostic has been developed and the experiment is carried out on a lot talk about 6 operate operates from the defense acute so we have a nice combination you and so this is
very important to predict that the the day performance was effective cost-cutting I certify on my screen Stanley this that much less than the then talk so actually there 2 at the moment but smaller 1 in Spain and another 1 in the U.S. says this 1 has been shut down only because he wanted to break up the sense of the next is a major heating device Noland in Japan but this 1 is not an optimized a and was means I
saw you on the next flight the current structure of its Delaware the you fuel prices for the for want of fuel and then the city of winding long last to compensate for the plasma :colon the promise that in general as we part can really do live in later election all of the polls and this you have to avoid and that we did carefully for the systems of Somerset next here that look again at this point system is he knows the difference we do
not have to settle .period systems we have these documents .period which is a really is this month in our voice and that this is a discrete quite said that does actually rather than is seen as places like quality of just for having some experiment of freedom and then you look at the money if you'd like to see at the Pentagon you have legions of high-minded feuds and genuine let and low Monday feuds and and so popular that are now chapter would be in this east toward legions of future we are adding I in danger of being lost but if you know the woman to 1 of the 5 monuments the received the motion of support for this optimized structure is not completed on Monday Fiordland arisen among so the party cannot deliver although Stanley did and so we expect a much confined followed senator but if you look at the scene of a
device now we have a major radius of 5 meters in minor ways of 0 . 5 leaders it is about connecting the devices said it could be years of government will you and the logic with Marcelia 50 of these non cleanup always being met among Monday defeat of the test and the 5 things of 30 minutes where next week just just show you some by the disaster some the pictures from some uses the money fuel oil this 1 computer
module to make you mother
usually reminds always over the Swiss cheese that is all we have to give physicist and heating methods and all the pipes and you
have done the portals
somebody so you might wonder why do we need to concepts well ceremony confinement concepts many have been investigated its top and steadily this simply means the problem of shows a good performance parts you need a careful to keep the control and the continues operation is still an issue and of the sewage on the other hand the senator kind of really operate continuously but we have to solve faster than media can reach the food economic performance it needs optimization it's more difficult to bid hopefully with the easier to operate in any case for fusion research intensified its next step because on the 1 hand steadily it up now supports the death a summary on the other hand everything you on an idiot technology you can also use but in our look at elevated to what's fuel power plant when giving up ETA and Polly reduce this talk about instead illegally sought the have next will go into operation until 14 we have material developments and technology developments we plan for the tea operation and demonstration that you really can be more energy than it put in for counseling heating and 2027 and they could then start the design of the demonstration power plant we are confident that he will be ready with such a pulp and by default 50 this is just a sketch of world to a port on a beta development has just been developed by the European Jews communities in the recent months and come to the craving conclusion of course but is that really dedicated and detailed where you can go faster if you want this is what China's but proposing at the moment moment China's very aggressive they talk 10 billion dollars the want In hat and prominent leader and want to end up as a kind of demonstration that the power plant look at his machine that is designed being designed now and planned for class mobility in 2025 the 1 demonstrated 100 gigawatts of fusion power by the end of the century but if you can't find what they look like this it's a plasma inside the city to Wallach the blankets where retreats that you read a caused by external means but then you have the kind of like an always conventional power plants you quit the Boyd said I heated up by the nuclear you go to generators and you then to what's the next thing that's just
a so comparison between fusion and fission and they have a chain-reaction 5th National Weather but it actually confusion this scene you have few infallible 2 years of operation in which involved lands along on only fusion we don't have negative products and therefore we don't have a problem of Medellin's wanted power increases and we don't need the German intelligence positively as always materials have been
used in activity within the 1st 100 years to win the that that is similar to the core us so finally if you look at energy mining scenarios are that I just the 1 year that at least aims said the increase in temperature by 2 only and well in this year we replace fission power plants that to some extent by the end of the century it doesn't make sense to talk
too much about the tiered prices has been a study led by McKinsey and in case you have to compete with school you would never know but that this renewal with the existing gas the same price and the of samples and points of 4th fusion I've mentioned nearly all of them here and just as a lot left in March but you may be competitive with the new rules but 1 of the last large investments for the problem but also in the means for the use of the fuel that you've much heroes