Master class with Sibylle Günter

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Master class with Sibylle Günter
Physics basis of magnetic fusion reactions
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Nuclear fusion could play a major role in the energy mix during the second half of this century. The advantages of nuclear fusion, in particular for base load power stations, are obvious: the fuel is nearly unlimited and widely available, and - in contrast to fission - there is no possibility of a runaway reaction or meltdown. After more than 50 years of research, fusion has advanced to the decisive step on the way to a power plant: the international tokamak experiment ITER is designed to demonstrate the feasibility of net energy production from nuclear fusion reactions. For a fusion reactor, matter has to be heated up to extremely high temperatures: more than 100 million degrees - about a factor of 10 hotter than the sun's core. At these temperatures the material is fully ionized. The charged particles can be confined by magnetic fields, which are also able to provide the required efficient heat insulation. For magnetic fusion reactions to be self-sustaining, the thermal insulation has to be a factor of 100 better than that of polystyrene - at temperatures, where the velocity of particles approaches one fifth of the velocity of light! The physics basis of such magnetic confinement will be discussed. The two alternative concepts on the way to a fusion power plant: the tokamak and the stellarator will be introduced and the remaining scientific challenges for magnetic fusion will be discussed.
Keywords fusion reactors
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and I come to work his master class on actually a physics basis of we need a few chapters on the underside of the date electoral officer most plummeted from plasma physics fall that far too sexually is mainly plasma physics work talking about so I want to start with a question What is a plasma and then sure how all the sun and the stars the stars you see in the future as an energy source and was different from that of funerals he would see that we will use the money confinement of customers and the reduced costs there's this little hole just blocks and then I will introduce to you there at least tool by very and research topics at the moment on the way to a few left at the end of a computer presently officially approach toward the same because changed the Susan and finally I would like to make a few remarks hoisting the fusion energy can contribute to the energy mix of the 2nd half of the century status but what is a plasma on the Net is actually quite simple if you will remember you see states of Madigan also starts at quite a temperatures temperatures with this was a solid like an ice cube for example can increased temperature you come to a fluid like of food water if you even increase the temperature more are you end up with cigars and if you now even further increase temperature you end up with some kind of an ionized gasses so no not only that see solid state structures destroyed and party without moving nearly uncorrelated no C. Adams have lost their homes and you have actually got out of the picture charge carriers well there are some examples of plasmas everybody knows for example lightning or if you have the chance to go to the Arkansas support like this modernized tool actually Everybody
feted by plasma physics is actually everything and this is even told because 99 per cent of the visible matter in the universe is so consisting of plants most and therefore we have acquired huge claims of parameters in density and temperature of the pessimists the court and you find here everything from interstellar plays space at very low densities tool was used call and very high densities of football to continue to run frames and the low temperatures is kind of flights have lights plasma TVs we don't have at the moment but this is 1 of the the applications and and then at the very high temperatures of about 100 million degrees we come to all applications you nominated fusion and North's refusal which probably doesn't always seem temperatures of about 150 million degrees but it really different the incident rate
ex-combatants to continue going nice pictures of the enabler to disorder called on the cynics we see
swoops are really nice and we are dealing with this kind of rhetoric as where not only was he was metropolis Iowa mentions the
polar lights and then in the atmosphere there are several ionized as India was responsible for the fact that you can transmit shortwave radio waves at cost of 2 of the applications of plasma physics that everybody was a car has not been plus Motlanthe nobody's plasma pleading for dealing with social services such as quoting of cars for example that block at the highest rating and copying so plenty of applications I'm closer to full fueling that these are produced customers with if you take a full authority for example the fire was laser onto it it's he'd stop and create dense and the whole and when went on I don't want to go into details of the applications but I want to sketch the basic basic properties of customers under
the 1st 1 is cosmopolitan whoever gasses consisting of charged particles and if you know try to separated partners deceased charge part of its was separate for many at once he really fast we find altered is not possible to just imagine you have a class Moses parted the density of about 10 to the 16 per cubic meter in to try to shift or delinquents by just 10 centimeters you end up with a montage of euro of millions this is obviously a possible and therefore on a larger scale units so we'll cm even we find that the charges of ions and electrons has to be the same and so finally to some of the charges in the apartments zeal to his call for microscopic scale not necessarily for Michael HO's Quebec skiers Soviet .period Pope charge into a class among men the other part of it's really up to the soul positive hope charge will of course affect their plans and Diaz irons positively charged ions will be crucial and the density of the called for example your uh will you end up with that kind of Portman with amusement it to the back onto density times 6 use potential in energy president of kinetic energy so it is the same as of course would try to apply electric viewed from outside so it's a selected few this static it will be refuted by the declines in the past month analysts a frequency you'll applies very high so for for example should take a matter the author of many electrons freely moving you can't really look into the matter that even the was always takes place because it makes their frequencies for Hyzer diligence canola formal and in the screening doesn't happen before static feuds says always the case and therefore we don't have exactly acquittal potential what you would expect for charged particles that would cause the potential at 1 over the distance between the screams "quotation mark on potential which is cold support device screening and this is very similar to a quarter potential but then that this additional screening factory to the miners are divided by the the bindings which is a typical fall offerings tool away he possible at port charge and the violence is larger for past moving part of its fight and butchers and gets smaller for higher density so if you want whether would of some outside the compiling says newly no potential left inside it disclosed to the full of potential sold to basic properties of the Plaza because most causing employment if there you want to have a system size that is much larger than the bindings prophecies basically put basic principles that have refused to do the right sizes smaller than to buy things of course he would not achieve crossing between and finally you would need to have a sufficiently large number of charged particles produced more than 50 into a device here again the chief said the chief causing a so if you go back to all I've only had a look at before
really plot the temperature part of incident they can all the right to Sweden into through according to physics parameters suppose somebody can the rights Syria by dividing up see the allegiance in the region where the interaction potential is quite small compared to the Canadian energy it's a part of its actresses free-agent visit which is a quite high and the densities are not too large on the lower corner you think it is already high and low temperatures we end up with small-minded plus muster Connecticut and it is a small pool of energy large in on the Net these customers have had to be treated in a certain way and you raises head desist you find proximate to consider 2 Plassmeyer conductor for from the electrons in a single conductor can be considered as possible violence and is very you end up in the Nextel can look at this and can you describe two-plus classical on the soonest possible as long as you mean distance between the popular this not more than 200 briefings is usually the case in the same dynamic space before and on the right tools he grew lying here we have degenerated government so we have to deal with quantum physics the Mexican Oscar safe Maynard which cosmopolitan you will have fully ionized plasma plus mottled for mileage of Moses above the screen lying in relying on his Asian energy is so small that you buy fewer than the Energy and people who have done at lower temperatures from the state's problems molecules whatever this is not only to right as well and that the 1st instances might be surprising that the even higher densities and you don't have bonded states anymore but the reason is that you will skis and all the parties very very close together and then you change the injection potential and then again he here to survive you end up with the generated no idea plasma but still it is free I'm Sophie overly now waterfront and we find that the all the plasma set high temperatures like many interviewed because most like a notion through food because most likely will Ursula Korn Lightning's these are all ideas that could last months All-Stars must we find in our because my lambs foreign frames we support our lights these nights this nice lights come from opponents states that you have the flexibility of a war down the evaluation from 1 advertisement Asimov sources from the states of was not fully ionized India for solid-state physics and some part of the solar interior has to be at least take of quantum mechanically today but most of the customers the attack temperatures you can use classical physics only and that is what they're going to do it so if you don't power is actually key energy source said police's standards and is son the endurance and therefore we have local we can walk hold the staff of the problem and could be learned something about that and some people made a nice move you know of that hole you can just learn something from the sentences like this on and and on the King is the energy policy on this stuff out the synergies from the greatest challenges of our time world they say save almost source of the disease merits and just look at the dollar he dances by the way this was the 1st director of technical director of the comment there is a moment being bitten controversial you must know that we but the have to be serious let's have a real call sun really gets its power and this can be seen as this movie sold on the part of motion and then receive diffusion of single part of and if you were careful you have seen it was portends being infused tool here on the sea seductions
our full-year again so it might not be seeing these idiots to port on few to its deuterium and the next reactions Susi Susanti titanium misusing was another port with and then to William we nuclei to reinforce and some reaction is essentially fall Portland's William and then a lot of energy is being released description of action and if you ever wanted to send a signal is intercut with it actually eat roots and the square and that a city Mosul stadium Nokia's is smaller than the sum of the losses of SEF of Portland and the differences of this mask with the least in terms of and collaborate in the sun is generating its energy and the receded forms of power flux arriving on us which is 124 Cuba pulled a pistol at me just above the atmosphere which is a very important number for those who will bid for the work types of devices just told to assist total work it just how much energy you can be influenced about it at maximum ball 1 you want to scrap if you don't have any child on study so the son of course produces more energy it's about 4 times that of the 17th gigawatts and in doing so it every 2nd it converts from 600 million tons of Portland's title tune into a 596 points of you to just 4 points missing correspondence with energy so what happened in way In the sort of call we have temperature of 10 million degrees on the fuel for the funeral actions and look at a few debates alarmed that the fuel-related increases the temperature so will be needed no fusion power plant it is sufficiently high temperature he will you would see what this means but at least we need a lot simpler transcends the way on the substance covers although there's ideation or appointment so the valuation is half proportionate to 2 the 4th and so you better have a very low temperature on the surface and the son or with having the surface temperature of about 5 5 from 2 weeks to issue this is a huge difference in temperature so we need a high temperature in the past McCormick low-temperature on the surface and that means she's a very good heat insulation is 1 of the ingredients of a few topped by the temperature to Windows density of course produce oppression sowings solar call its 10 billion baht at the surface of the opened 1 month so actually the sun would like to explore and as a force against those which is currently that means of you also need some forced to keep supplies not to go there probably won't be gravitation as all of fusion power upon might want to be a little smaller and less heavy than the sun but staring confining force so what can we do both where the fusion reaction I've shown you for the Portland on cycle but on this and as on the fast reaction was refused to hold ones to go to watch 1 channel and this of course was the conviction and any action that was speaking directions very very muddy slope so the sun compensates this problem by huge must have if you don't want to wait for an all the designers of funeral the better go far different reactions and actually really want to go for deuterium-tritium as reaction into Seiyu said to humiliate this reaction is 7 this 27 orders of magnitude larger no way that you can use exactly the same sort of nuclear reactions of the however several now
I drop of course he is equal to 1 quarter wrapped with this the sea in Brule to humiliate a function of the relative energy of the pool the UPI chairman Christian season maximum latest given you for the deuterium-tritium reaction at lowest temperature as well as for example silly action of detail materialist a little smaller this little more because of the low as an excuse to it's already the orders magnitude here so we really have to push carts and therefore be good for the solely for the reaction was the highest human what is the reason for
this small reaction laden with
particular for large energy the party need to have but as long as if you want to bring tool nuclear together you have fast toward overcoming the call of proprietary so we have a parts of force and only when the nuclear come close enough to each other you can really start to look silly action sold to potential energy you have to work on this actual news which of course product of charges divided by the distance between the parties and we could end up with the Quilmes barrier of about 400 that kid Ecuador's convoys even for the year was the upcoming months so we don't want to go for a higher elements and unions because this would increase support of going to the 2 reasons that Charter One is any remorse enough even then quite a high potential energy and what's saving you is of course quantum mechanics sold some of introduces the quantum mechanics to this program problem and soul he realized in 28 already probability function of these portals caves this previous years and therefore you find a finer probability told Congress was political board already at lower energies and is always have always had the highest probability for a few reaction for the lightest nuclear at largest collectively but authorities that we
used to see few reaction between deuterium and tritium for union bent the nuclear power detailing you can easily find on almost every round the water because it is contained in seawater pool .period all 15 % that's easy enough it's not as easy for freedom because consumers reacted on them as a half time of the end of the players is essentially and so on there is actually no consumer the until we have to believe this solely used to
bleachers and from 6 so you essentially useless and you put that set free by the few reaction to spread leads him into tritium and helium and wired already and if you only option probably action there would be a energy set free of 17 . 6 maker that we would you be another not just 5 minutes .period word from this reaction sold in a funeral after you but the closest U.S. cycle and that means you would talk to 2 blankets on the war is over who knew Weise and a new wouldn't index was plasma so much to adjust Gold warlords and their specific to put him and so we see here how synergies the agency noted that means a tool toward reaction products like but this could easily be the device to it's very simple and you start off this century are not moving nuclei because of compared to the negative tone was set free in the reaction the under Cuellar told tentative qualities we haven't had a problem of half-mast on the edge of the bed for you can start from the assumption of momentum conservation to the amendment in of the newcomers as large as the momentum of the nuclei and then all they also feel that energy conservation different all the place the system here from the momentum conservation so you end up with if you just scream the creation and then he would have you would have to leave families cannot be squared medium and the muscles in from squared times not adjusting from scratch you and then you can learn in the place of Austin so and must synergy of can you please supply as well as the energy of the neutron divided by the wants it and then you can just licenses situation here on and so little energy the 17 . 5 million .period words and ancestors equally to the energy of new 20 times as much must be operational and then you find easily the Yukon it's just the total energy during times four-fifths sold the plan carries much of the largest part of the energy which is just there according to its among investors must not stage racial sold the human energies support for interest and they include the four-fifths of synergy and therefore we end up as we provide medical which was used as a part of and 14 . 1 4 0 to 20 per cent that day you Monday it's very large floors Unitarian Christian views this tall but still the program by year's very high and so the number of coral collisions is too much larger than the number of human reactions and therefore it we need many many many conclusions before we end up with 1 human and that means you have to confine the A-plus already under than a few Americans would we could but than are successful then the energy density of the energy release is very large so from 800 gum deuterium-tritium fuel you can gain as much energy as some 10 thousand tonnes of course because in a chemical reaction you just gained a little more and then a utility action you gain onwards so that you can translate easily between the 2 numbers authorities said to cheering you can easily get a lot of seawater but the 2 generated from its own initiative to
assemble back on their envelope calculations find at the bus stop of water and to used battery of your laptop would be sufficient for energy for 50 years of an average sized commonly associated with that it's a it's a half way to a fusion of afterward because would need 150 million degrees to have given you have to do a lot of things but finally it's also because the energy you can really gain you this study large stores depression which the plasma parameters you will have to achieve easily follows from the pollens work to balance of power from the few reactions so I said the new plants get better get that out of supplies my immediately so only i've apart admits that he too costly yeah this is the left parties will the the energy it was apology and preside over part of schools was clear after density because need for part of its fuse detainment Christian times reactionary at times the energy of self-appointed this the energy to being reviewed reactions then on the other side of the losses at many but I'm strong so you have an accelerated motion multiparty this way there that indirect wires as a quorum potential so this plan strong disproportionate to the charge To spirited density into the square root of the temperature and then all other losses you don't need tool we prescribed at the moment are hidden in this time is just the mentally ill like it at all the plasma energy density times but not constant temperature divided by a car the time just to make it up the power to the couple's of time this energy lost energy of the plasma delighted by the lost power and actually occur regardless of Nafta all the after the quality of the insulation so if you own now want or find Altus number you the energy confinement time you can just a proforma integration and you end up with a requirement that the density times says you can find the time has to be larger than this trade union and this can be prostitutes once again because density times this measure of heat insulation pipes temperatures time with the temperature you see discovers a minimum it is this and this minimum this at about 10 kV if a conflict by the use of all the level the police then you end up with and 50 million degrees for this minimum that's a reason why we say we need 150 million degrees as the temperature was mistakes if you will in any of this dialect those elections would encompass received as well needed quite few platinum because a larger said that said effective use the more losses you have on that side from the Bronx ,comma soul for Certificate of goods we already you you see that sits requirements even larger and if you go to evening um model plasma you might end up with a situation that is no the warm for admission always you can really gain energy from the past we need very poor poor person was killed month when and where good said here this density times confinement time and a temperature this for this 1 when Parliament effectively into his pressure so we have density times the quantity of heat insulation fixed tens to temperature and there are no 2 ways to funerals when is enough refusing by your Shaw a battery high-density then you don't need a very quirky cancelation or confinement time and there is always the same temperature of about 150 degrees to density you need for an overview of news Kansas City 1 had cubic and this leads central pressure was given temperature competitor to the solar helium soccer knew about why people use small talents list detailing Prince community frozen 1 despite of the size of a bottoming medium and then you take many many lasers aren't you on should Salinas only very continuously under this talent I'm told you heated up very fast and of course this leads to explosion but the natural offices this populist stance um consigned the plasma followed by smaller time for about 10 to the minus 10 seconds but is sufficient to alleviate In principle ignite small palette and gain a lot of energy by fusing their actions so it is not a fusion because of silly notion keeps the stuff together sometimes also called if you because you needed of the season's where I will come to the in a minute in a little more detail but I have to say that in you will eventually people don't study later produced gas but don't studies that indicated future and the reason is I did this what is mainly being done in Duesseldorf in Japan and nearly a century nearly entirely 384 by militarily people and the reason is this is a very very nice experiments for test your Commission called for nuclear weapons sold BPA's abandon our annual parade of some keep in touch activities in the sense that investigated produced last but not really goal for the such devices we allowed the goal for money diffusion reverie goes the opposite direction so we chose a very low density and a very low density which means very low and about to the 29 part of its plan cubic meter so it's about a million less than in the atmosphere and then we need of course larger confinement time which is of the order of seconds so well under confinement not something easily accessible so you can just think of this is the time as a plus not with stolen after it has been heated up to a high temperature and confinement sensible fields because we make use of waterfront before beginning this past month this charge particles and charged particles can be influenced by money defused because you cannot move easily perpendicular to the money in the 1st I come from a new tool than those refusing so that actually
true concepts the left contractor all this century studied at the moment that the largest facility in Livermore and the they you have at the will on all of the highs epithelia recorded and then you have here tools openings residencies as quick and and the sailors hit the water will not fall apart heated up and then you have kind of a black body evaluation in the extreme briefings and this is and that means it tried to have a very homey genius power to this small planet otherwise I mean it is not homogeneous and you then you have a problem with stability has come to that was instability to this has been tried and unfortunately up to a year ago people have promised this would happen and now a few months in London last year demonstrated an education conference last fall we have learned that the this and but also because they we ended up with summons refuses to come to the solar and to have achieved today policy of achieved everything they wanted but the Council of Resistance allows them to really go forward yet another concept is so so dialect life so then you have In this case 192 means and you're very Maginnis have to distribute them on onto touch of palate and then you have to try to compress plan but I always told you that you have problems with some instability should follow along easier large-scale stability so we don't have a separate section anymore but some as it takes and I have a problem that you have the independent valuer for interior you and then In order to ensure we from compression venue ever the highs that material also all tied to even be manually push the Senate would could compress the inner part of the show is easier but the problem is that you have forced onto this high that happy with the union and that means you've assimilation a situation very similar to the problem that if you will to the bar afterward and it would have water anymore but the nobody by heavier than liquid buffer centers on the was situation so their nicer than by master Sparky Bessel Willie makes us very nicely into you can then it's toward sheets above each other and you just have a slight at this tournament of the disappears and is very similar to heavy fluids but insist in this case of Sophie this connotation in this case Novelia falls onto were lighter fluid and this means that the city of is as unscrupulous 1 known as the very very very carefully adjust or initiated beams and and also the since fewer customers the seasonal climate attempt was the United States my hands but you don't have the data are not allowed any uncertainties here in the trial has been nearly a soccer mom and this is actresses a point where there was a fear that moment because the problem is if you have any mixture between the side that material and inside here the high-tech material is of course not fully ionized and this means it's this is for example tungsten or whatever then you have the sides of net that material even at 115 and 150 million degrees this is not fully ionized so you have lined mediation insists that it's a lot of energy rates and you don't make it and this is actually the problem at the moment and
there is also an issue with sermons this and everyone tries not only to just compressed by ordinary Libyans suspended but also applies to all awarded it was another laser and then tried to all of to ignite in novelas have apart and not toward pilot but then you have even more issues of course sensibilities this the mean going is forever we nearly a gantlet of all instabilities have the wheel Medina strife and then a suspended since this standing tried it's mission facility in the U.S. I understand convinced that it will be a aria in reigniting a penitent and the would-be be and having won diffusion on us but the point is once you have ignited such the bond palette are you buy you out very carefully to just everything and a sit on all they just sit there always is the use of force to what sociologists of something Nippon shot and then start again if you react but you need to have this at 10 times a 2nd so you have to drop opponent you have to adjust everything within a 10th of a 2nd have an explosion inside again to this would be a huge technology declared development that to be done by time I want will not confinement because this is what we actually dealing with the new and you know where the writer charged particles can only move freely along money too lines to launch force to enforce a ban on on a circular motion perpendicular to it so if you know a clever and inventive you'll design among such support is kind of the few plasma Monday fuel and you can have a good confinement and this of course cause for to the best confinement properties you have if you have money to feed lines to trace old .period when offices this is if you start the money to fuel unit goes once all the toll was it doesn't come back a better to the team .period under which we wages would not be wise to back comes back to another .period but like that on the surface so many of nested surfaces and SET trans-border Lungren Monday few this in the center of such plus mobile 10 orders of magnitude larger than perpendicular to nearly half time the constant temperatures and densities on the surfaces and that way you can really achieve valuable tinting heat insulation by the way we need to make information that is 50 times that is a property this is really the high millions of degrees but if you can achieve that the mere very power density so you would think 150 million degrees must not sixfold totally has a partial 10 atmospheres because as a very very low part of identity until the power density in the feuding parties and they beyond the fact of 100 less than the cotton gin for half of 200 less than efficient port Yukon
can compare all to the sun we have I learned from the sun but we don't think the stunt was lost as we have seen before but the use it imprisonment instead of support on train our children don't fewer muscles little smaller as the we have the advantage .period Jory wonderland into all in all plasma as part of the density of 10 to the 20 speculative 150 to 200 million degrees pressure between To 110 10 and the sizes of the order of 10 meters to adapt to concepts for money you can find them and 1 a problem of and the others steadily on the the atomic you use money diffuse chorus before the if you will have a current going in the Monday Fuqua disgraced money to feed of course tolerated elections also sketched you was a clean but in addition USA plasma a secondary winding binding of transformer so then you induce a plasma coolant which this indicated he was better and this plasma Collins is public-owned costs associated with the money to feed imported put reduction to the and a combination of issues use of Black Monday the fuel lines and these are viewed lenses the pre-salt sees money Dakes offices shortly before this the problem of somebody buys and therefore it has been successful at the earliest there's is access to make quick and Internet system it would be wise to conform all part with subclause unless you stop them for some of the collisions and therefore we have a very good some insulation because also you money you money Dix offices are ready by nested and Donald islands sold nothing list of perturbations in them so it's a problem not really very easily provides illegal confinement on the other hand the plasma Copeland said discuss McClelland if I have to use a condom in the plasma of course I can only have piste operation and the Scotland is also a source of instability and sold into marriages can even leading to disruption to the ground would be quenched and then into the ground disappears in this case the court Monday diffuse cage disappear so the governor would go toward this much less dangerous than you would think of because the price was not it's not densely wonderful have 1 what 1 got of what matter so it's more the words that are dangerous to the plasma and the government it was to the water just disappear the 2nd that somebody over 2nd option increases steadily to play can actually we produce monitor configurations trust placed on review :colon did only that does not want to feel that they can mathematically pool that then you have to give up the and if you give up the soon-to-be have you can approve anymore was arguably nicely nested money offices but the worse if you don't have an exact symmetry you pocket the not necessarily closed anymore so you can get a bit of populism will come to the public in the middle but on the other hand and should only discuss and you can operate stellarator city-state and you don't have to pass Marco and the candlelight instability so if you make a deal with large Moser concepts have been improved so that in the top mark by X X tunnel convoys and making use of an intrinsic customer problems that is to them by the pressure gradient between the Strassner center on the edge you can buy part of the problem not result transformer and additionally of course our hour-plus must marry what Islamic religion less because the choreographer late cause was 1 over each with a forceful uh sold to the standard is very lost 3 can drive made under Collins was medieval sold therefore surprises in tokamak can be very long and the ousted you ideas to make it with city-state that me and a lot of very sophisticated feedback composed schemes have been developed toward you with instabilities and we can all safety operator Alltel ,comma on the other hand for the does 0 unnecessary Holland kind of clauses in between so you cannot have been except symmetry of some money few functions but you can have a cemetery Of the magnitude of cemented and in that case you can again come to a much better particle confinement as again departed obits are closed and steadily fuel to account for the optimization and then you can never really would heat and pardons so social 1 wants summer what has been achieved in 50 years of feuding and can have a look at this dilemma when used as 6 axis the temperature good and at the riots is actually a figure of merit which followed from the power imbalance between neither party beading and losses and to the mellitus density time temperature times energy confinement time which was always measure for the cancelation so actually funeral of assault for allegedly that it was very hard for the customers opt to was 150 million ways this actually was not the problem already the fast-talking mark in this former Soviet Union Union was able to achieve more than a million degrees and nowadays we have achieved even-tempered 1st about so acquired 100 100 to 200 million degrees see we are already at 14
500 million believes so this was not a problem it's a problem is to have there we need good heat insulation and this will number we have achieved by having this nested magnetic surfaces and has everywhere it's need information of course improves machines so this machine size but also was lining and the list to transport properties here aiming to increase or a figure of merit the thought of for this benefactor of 5 to 10 missing to win the game energy more energy than we need to it's a on his back data points by the real problem and only these data points here from fellow with experiments to once and see they didn't achieve as much as proper and the reason is that none of the steadily disses we optimized we bringing up and I saw it at 0 ensued at the moment is experiment offensive next to come to that later and we expect this to be the problem at that range given you and then it's close to the largest to the values of the largest talk marks sense that than the distance is not as large animal the reason why tokamak social much better than incinerators is that steadily documentation but this optimization procedure need supercomputers went through the computers of so be quiet power foreigners were available only in the 1980's you would put the laughable to computers but still you needed them to optimize the notice nowadays you could have done this in relations following unilateral but in those days this was not possible before that on a piece of paper there was no chance for the fast Delaware has been bid up by alignment with 31 0 Princeton was completely lost because the party has just disappeared I come to this question later why this happened and then the question of why it like them even to heat last month so efficiently to highlight high temperatures when we won the method is to inject very fast partly this he's part of course had to be neutral we will not believe it will inject charged particles money it's genuine charge nuclear fast particles in present-day experiments often energy of 100 left-wing void freedom 1 was and is part of a sentence that itemized in the past and then it just gives energy to isn't there compost by column couldn't from another option discussed Maurice and there are several possibilities and the need to use resonances average of 7 for example UFC eloquence generating all the money he had nothing to fear take besides of provocation such that that has to say and and existing federal vacancies than you can dedicated the easier it will the same as possible for the islands on the arm and then there's some intermediate frequency range with the show actually bolted Middleton mean obstacle is a combination of of covered most of it .period sometimes it's over the excellence and present-day experiments with the frequency of the from of all tumbled 2 1 looking the that's to make him the effect is very small this can be this leaves can really be launched the belt optical elements by just to the plasma wife for the ICH hunting you need the continents last month and and for the I would also familiar but order that we now arguing for large experiment eaten which has a major wages of about 6 meters to plasma leaders enabled to fifa plasma McClelland of 15 million hunters that money you'd about 5 tests and with this we want all the infusion power between 400 and 800 megawatts was applied links between Fort 2nd and about an hour and December power send in this wage because we want all study heating of electrons and ions and all the physics behind but century you want to gain support of the about a factor of 10 more than is needed to heed to well indeed applauded has essentially 7 partners blousy you would 1 partner with the the 37 member states we can imagine not so easy to deal with it now has about as US Japan Russia China India and Tulia and the problem with all this there so when ETA has been set up with as a portrait of peacefully peaceful collaboration for nuclear power but they can go much of on their own this project has of course been Udaipur scientists it has a huge political impact as well and so was a complex have been made for example such that every partner it has to be allowed to ruin everything the technology for this means you can imagine it's not that among interviewed coins already put you produced by 1 top and all this technology will be developed we'll fall partners ever and then they would bring in-kind contributions toward the 2 sides to this if you imagine you want to ,comma and 1 of is being produced and developed and U.S. 1 China 1 India in Japan to bring all of them you and then you hope that it fits together and this is probably not the best and cheapest way to deal with but on the other hand if you want tool can be put in a message the message and you want to see where we want to go together you on period peaceful combination this is of course a value said but it will not make supported the cheapest could you can imagine this is the site for the deconstruction of in
Kenosha and maybe even asked for good reasons to buy you know by does it take so long and that the lead many people have already promised 50 years avoided 60 years ago it will happen in 50 years had 50 years time I come always some of the physics reason for that they're somewhat later but if you are honest and if you look for example you know John North enjoyment from 1957 what they considered the human deposition by Fudan happen by take just the device the Cuban along 100 meters in diameter and any of the Big Three immune and is if you look at them and you need 1 for the war you and this is what they have promised that way you can easily compare this guy was the Empire State Building increases in Elizabeth's Tuesday to quite time and if you look for the design of the dead and you see a you what we have done within 50 years was 64 years where we went from science fiction to the design of a human which is he described logically but compared to this guy it even tiny so the question is how we perform investigations and all the talk remarks farm where we use our different tokamaks Intertie a kind of wind-tunnel experiments so this is the geometry of of tokamaks for you have this kind of a doughnut-shaped you cut it in 1 place and you look at the 180 geometry 3 money officers we have talked about before and then the last tools talks of this month and this is the only class services touches the wall salt water does not warrant action you have no it only chairman and Ukraine make something out of it so you can harm the who can make CDs plasma density very large subject evaluate the part of some of the energy we certainly users and this has to advantages this to the plasma is more pure than that you just have a the solemnly the plasma and it also Klima was improvement confinement of tool that has has not been understood for for many years but I've come to the later to this kind of partnership "quotation mark whether a decision but he has been developed at all Institute in Garching send jets which is a factor of 2 larger dimensions has been modified accordingly to cost of 2 good combine the properties and pure plasmas muster and and at the end of day the the design has being of course but it on this experience and now we have a very big experiment in UK Jeddah joined European which is a joint European experiment everybody can go all money but losers of those rights and then we have a fact of tools more Indiana mentions the tokamak but we can try out new ideas solutions are flexible and if you are successful then the gold project Lucas's books stood then the on off confident that this would also be welcome here the
ones who are done with you the plasma called for to say then you can go for reactors the it's a plasma so-called before annually up but then suggested actually very similar to a conventional the 3 need human put consumers that have to be that in in the so that there would be the 2 more years of you guys and then nutrients hit the tomb create that we become dulled and then pumped back into the plasma such acknowledge the 50 50 the percentage of deuterium-tritium and then by hitting the ball of continued Wednesday as a carried most of the energy to heat up toward and you finally however the what according to you and you have at the end steam going to a Attwood turbine and then this goes into that produce electric power and called the but I would like to come for just if you'll .period principles for the motion of charged particles and collected the money to future need to understand why Pokemon designed is that this was very simple of an electric future just selected force and the particles move along and that the fields and have been availability said so lot forced to force is a part of this 1 the self-promotion of Alterman confused because a frequency that is proportionate to the money to feed strings and inversely proportional to the masses Sauzee frequency is much higher for the homes and for the irons and therefore the air concept of an eating the frequencies by Italy before where it's in the hundreds gigahertz range wide for the island's it's just me and the allegiance is proportional to the energy of the populace and inversely proportional to the monarch futile firemen accused you Jewish media are much smaller than chances are diamond even even in the seizes on this picture if you just here look at about if you can in that direction and then have it and I am moving decorate this vote just is a current direction White the city money if you produce :colon but called off the plane so it would weaken the money to fuel you stop so customers are time-honored way this generation that not only a possibility to heat plasma Justin resonance was a part of browser diagnosis the generation accelerated motion and therefore it emits its mediation and this radiation is at the optically 6 and so we can start with the plant cross and if you look at very low frequencies you end up with an intensity that is proportionate to the temperature well generation frequency is proportional to the money fuel and money defeated in a talk tokamak grantees because there's less this may really have a very well resourced therefrom temperature measurements reserved by the city this is a very high Creatuity inflated the solution of less centimeter on so this is the way you measure in a fury after temperatures of 100 million degrees is not so simple as it was clear to the spectroscopic like there's another issue we said spread part of its foreign money to lines and generally just around the few lines scissors tool only 4 homogeneous money to feed result any forces the sure that every enforces perpendicular to the money to few closes at the end of the lift from deductibles the force and wondered if you you put a plaster the direction of the morning feud is that the actions because of destructive action and this can mean illustrated simply at the hand of tutelage motions with their electric field this doctrine when interviewed and the plane and then you look at Mandela told that if it moves in direction selected future that uses energy my generation was proportionate to the energy so therefore it becomes morning and it good that goes back at this get and saw the Jewish leaders Becomes largest finally it most of which is for the of alliances the it's very similar to the irons Of course actually 220 goal in the direction of the electric utility tuition reduces small larger there and the eyes going the same direction solicitor left there if you have an elected elected few perpendicular to the money defeated before the lift and sought election this independence on the chart departed we have always have had left his purported to force crossed to monitor few divided by the charge times scales monitored in Seoul and some of the false use proportionate to the charge to sconces and finally you end up with the Crosby divided by the square of the because you arises from this formula or from the real motion put in the process he was on the rise in May there was an idea that really works to whatever the rocket engine based on this concept if you have a concern that the told contended the plates here and future and into the plane when you put on the Wikipedia you get force next waiting for on the few have 1 test on an island plasma and you want to achieve honking meters per 2nd in the 200 computer printers 6 . 1 meters which is quite a lot of people we have looked at me into the so we have another force we have to look at because all customers of course not homogeneous you cannot have it awarded money you this would genes so we have the key of someone at future that is so also all morning few case that 1 of our elected to have the money a few close friends he insisted symmetry axis and an interview the case that run along consultant so I know homogeneous Monday in images money future false justice among the big moment times the gradient of cemented his on then again you end up lift that is proportionate with the creation of someone defeated this time divided by the charge because the forces independent of charges and salt ions and electrons with lift in different directions so this we can all use for our atop To afterward in the beginning but indeed avoided fiat-money defeated Fatah but the feelin shouldn't those into each other but this would be the easiest simplest I think it would single what I wanted device where the parties cannot leave to devise a lot of money to feed lines or then why not having just that a lot of money defeated by doing customer ,comma right the problem is that we have this among the feud which is so we have a lot of money refuted on the 1 side and a Ohio money interviewed on the other side to be on the side of the tallest woman interviewed also exists in
cannot follow again all motion of the headlines Tennessee but of course in the region where the money if you spend as long as we have a smaller tuition wages which is well aware purported to wonder whether immediate future no logic in that election and to find a list of words and the others compared to what you actually would expect which Islamabad sentimentalist omelettes just for the island's Nunavut live elements within it .period and this makes you charge the place from where you have around in the beginning of a lady that is not possible because the the plasma you don't have charged that the separation powers and you don't hear because what happens then is to have a new bid up and left field and the fields promoted assist directive from the upper to the lower part of the officer told and everyone interviewed until the plane descended list will be put in there that was the money defeated and money futility would be out of tuples you have a nice toward money to fuel the new past model it's just all right and that disappears and everything's fine you don't have a confinement anymore so this doesn't work they have been very intelligent physicists Trident results thinking it doesn't work up 50 across to you'd lift is also sold as much lot much smaller than the sum velocity it's basically order many who stayed at home the reason this is dead and pedestrian walking speed and this is that we're kind of complain of plasma and therefore you need also wondered if you'd like to that election to short-circuit the cynical view and this is provided by the plasma coolant Pokemon and all by money to fuel lines instead of 1 but is not an issue all firms in which anyone confused and this is your generation lasted till motion is across apparent motion to a constant of motions is among the moment among the moment is still a shortage of superconductor energy divided by the monarch few things so just imagine my party the moves in the direction of increasing money the few don't perpendicular energy has to increase work but as it can generate energy just the energy of the party will remain constant he will fight you would with Parliament and part the and this part of our citizens not large enough at some point you part of us it is you want and you have to be a part of it will be reflected sister also happens in the final and the people really know where the waitresses party good hitting the charts productivity and money to feed and it moves along the money refutes lines to the pool monitored in previous years and those part who don't have enough power and energy would just be reflected here and go back and forth but insists that a similar talk among where large amenity kits weakened consist side in this morning and you and and so should follows a part of it the talk among you start departed from radio it goes to what city -dash side but we believe flattered and then again to go was always part of the toll was in the final project it's subject you look onto the on Tuesday the party Clinton now this is kind of a ban on all but 3 starts a party that once and then had to get it did this it does not accept follows money surface at drifts we was uh gradients and wondered if he strings that finding is this all disclosed to the part doesn't move all books just doesn't stay on the money itself safe but it has some deviations and the fact that party disclosed his eyes from the accident it's a problem now we go to a steadily Kansas City dimension and sister this property doesn't exist anymore so in general and Sweeney geometry part kind removal worlds so we also have sort of section of partygoers this is in between there is a legion of Monday strings but then blisters a party can easily be elated election and departed lives lost and this happened to the fast the celebrated by management and it is a pity is the heart of the party's Celestica lights so the real conditions get better manner and sold still has the of part of its disappeared from the city's after the US Ecology Department Department more so even if you would achieve fusion which is I'm probably amended diffusion produce parties would immediately the system is not to be what you want to have and sold the next 3 days so also particle orbits in on you experiment benefits of next we have here is the pentagon shape you have legions of high and some that I money few things he hadn't ruled Monday few things so there's 4 5 is very similar to that of the actions the same money feuds twang so as a kind of sympathy there and so we admire CU part that trapped and is also the lifting but it's twisting along monitored the suffers so part it doesn't get lost so we have people have made you want to use as the symmetry properties on their and so on the particle sweetie can be kept in the steadily once pricing remembered late at 845 like sold so it with this sort of thing um sold therefore I will only give you now an overview hold the physics in these high-temperature plasmas is and then I become a in the 2nd part of my lecture after you probably if you like 1 to ask questions and toward some hot topics of research but that in the last minutes only In overview of what is physics in these parts what is 11 times gives way to fastest times criticized delicious to parts of the city at 1 generation to the next to the CIA and relations tens of minutes 8 seconds for the present a couple months then you have the time for transiting of what I am sentiment 5 seconds then you have to pollution time commitments the 2nd and this is very interesting so my IRA covets ,comma times on polls before it runs collide so this this is what we'll collision possible mean on the other hand departed to stay very long on Monday so for the collision frequencies very small the party sticker likes very often before it leaves the surface so we stated was from the past and we still have a temperature otherwise wouldn't understand the concept of a temperature at all so therefore our customers obvious mighty skiable sometime and space so the modest gains skits and it was for the Senate when the waves and the largest units of the device to meet and in frequency on time to last 2 the smallest times here too so if they seek a lot of the time skin often complicit customer and
believe because we do not consider this instance the constellation motion because so many many problems except for heating and some diagnostics we can just ignore this very fast the motion but at least you have to resort life in time and of "quotation mark tons time the time again collision time and a lot of times giving the deal was still has assisted is the time which is a time scale on which the current diffusion pieces of seconds so we can look at Richard Morris who you have to you have to look at your which physics concepts well actually it's all plasmas really are ready for aerial operations manager actually have to use a continuing to deal with this problem and this is what at more and more happens these days because the computers become more powerful head has 1 the assumption being feed me which all too fast generation motions we don't neglected because of this generation although 0 the it's might change for you average adult but then hue and end up with the problem of 5 dimensions softly in space into a velocity and is actually what we usually do you use the space for the Silicon description of plants must therefore larger Stewart sometimes are allowed to use extended through what moderate but you have to be careful in its stated that local equipment of manager plasma and probabilities large-scale people have a look at Simba consequent increase reflected future but this is actually just to the rest of the simplest problem full financing which would have all bleak and after the break if you have any questions just let me and that you want to contemplate and put topics 1 this problem transport of heat and part of and this concert together a question lies ahead we need such big devices for while the people are so confident of securing can be reached with and I don't think this will hurt the 40 years since the reason is that the people when the man not Stupid White said this our whole compatible get part of that lost and fewer new license presence not much of a chance actually if you just for a apart all and you have not many provisions he would assume in a tokamak where we have set you can pull surprise all with the closed says no way you can Moses parted unlisted this topic by conditions of some sort of justice and the picture is not that simple but just to understand that if you want build up a diffusion coefficient you neither Mercado stick with scant and laying time so just imagine you have a popular all that's a generation of Montefiore lines and other conditions we would displace a popular by 1 of its size stories so he would have a diffusion coefficient buildup of this all size of situation reduced and two-time and to collisions will pizzicato the Penske but it just seemed that it's not that simple it's not generation radiates Lazard's he's all but in principle it it's very similar so you and that this would end up with very small diffusion coefficients that because operation frequency is just too small so the time individual quotas for lunch and then the rise more atop a mark would ignite and you wouldn't need such pick devices and we should you know the only problem is this is not told and in our experiments found out that the diffusion coefficients ourselves Eurosceptic at the 2nd so its orders of magnitude larger than simple estimate and for a long period and understand why this was the case aren't actually what we find all this that we have to deal with problem transport In addition so it's not just simply single particles we do find talented fluctuations in part because the temperature and density and if you don't do a very simple stayed the same way so the Eddie Collins mostly in the any size of the talent and is divided by by giving time of such entities who end up vault cycle renewal so you want to understand our future Paul Pennsylvania start fusion plasmas we need to deal problems on sport and don't know of anybody off you always dealing with forward so relations all this was true Tobin's I mean many engineers are dealing with this for airplanes and and everything you need you need to understand and and this is not well-understood yet we haven't known much fun attitude dealing with this .period without any simulations and tighten neglect of the smallest skates but that is not completely understood and soul and because causes is such a heart problem and people always claim this is the last unsolved problem of just before the borrower machines so far including the the designs are based on empirical scaling so you have on the 1 and a site and site of the energy confinement time which all measure which is all measure for heat insulation and fueled plotted against the skating laws includes machine size temperature :colon money defeated on the machine parameters and then it all the talk among some of the words and see in the world and I low-tech proxy or align nicely and then you extrapolate to eat and we are quite confident that it will achieve this goal would because means the expropriation regions not any larger than suggests Parliament basic income was 1 experiment but actually we would like to understand you give me each taking solace and I want to calculate the temperature profile the same is part of the Tamiami prior it and I want to see the fight to this away we understand however human plasma and so we really need to Liu was up to physics Morris and don't high-performance computers to deal with this because you have 1 advantage compared to a fluid dynamics and this as we have a smaller-scale always most Gatesy and its wondering if you're denies you don't have a smaller can go down to the molecules size and instead don't know if all the physics and was end in case but it's a huge scandal reminding me that and items eyewitness to the devices but still possible source of the 1st median enlisted you drive for example tolerance In the determined transport so you have an input of the heat source admitted pressure gradients suppression weighted blighted Tomlinson and the tolerance tools Dublin diffuse lenses said says a Salisbury's center but we have to deal with the Canadian problem you see geometry is very much a part of the upset or I uncovered so many times wanted toll was before it was collates light so it really is feels on monitor geometry output was extremely and as whole because the part of its move much faster nominee he lines that perpendicular is particularly true for the poor and the conduction along money feared lines is 10 0 orders of money to the larger the perpendicular to deal with this the computationally is really a problem because this goes to machine size and it was as it was in this system no obstacle to computer and the tense is already quite a quite enough acuity and we have to deal with kinetic effects of resonant and action taken part in race To we are nowadays
also this is a total simulation for middle-sized talk among us exactly to see the Tobin and is already well elevated long-running feud lines because of transport the on Monday defused so fast to mania two-dimensional problem perpendicular to to the many feuds he always is pushed effects work procedures item you to see some hot spots is we hot and and and and the cold temperature you may see some turbulent mixing of the Templeton wise and once you have done those simulations and you went back and looked at the underlying instability that even understand something about the
pollen comes forward and you also understand why people didn't clear lies the adjustable the problem areas unless you have really efficient heating methods for the past month you'll realize that the problem competition exists because below a certain temperature guage and nothing happens but only when you pick the sudden allocates the listener competently and then you excite the traveling transport Soviet specialty here and use that increase heat and power you longer increase the temperature gradient increase diffusion coefficient soul we don't have that kind of gradient in temperature that so and so you end up with this template up offered to assist the wasn't going to defend face the constant then you end up with the exponential behavior of the temperature was in the human intended to hear contended that we should that there are at least if you eat sufficiently strong if you want he did not find any winner come to discourage order would have covered has put everything is fine and you want to gold tool best performers who want to have it economically active so we want to have high temperature the center at the smallest possible scale of of of of the device so we want to push the temperature gradient high enough so but that it cannot really except as obviously is typically in the the plasma action which we won and there's a real weekend of the sender's accessible with some Lord large-scale instabilities you can you can we really our problem is very similar to people who do with some pilots went to assist poor guy who was full increasingly of its Office of that some and as long as you when fixes sees this as a surface area there is allowed to pile up he can travel as much as he wants you can lose at all the data had given an increase the height is very similar to our problem unless you put in summer can't put billions from Kansas given for granted but then again you can have the same angry
you and this very similar to what happens in our case he is fearless make lots of the template as they see their rights have similar and as only he and the 1st can which should given if you get it to the plasma the temperature here you can tell what the motive there would be but this obviously is a region they can have vanished the temperature gradient and you have kind of a times book value like for the guy was sometimes and uncontrolled that this time watches this that amateur gradient use of comfort barrier has a lot of work to do was to specific geometry of supplies not the Vatican's match and understand how this comes ice laughter Roque interdicted physics and the situation mechanisms for Dublin's what sees that she had consultations can is the and apart or distort them and it's not a transport disproportionate to the scale LCD size so we can reduce teleconference but by Shia consultation and this has been investigated by our critiques of Princeton's is a movie the no
actually I wanted to have this start and if I playing conceal all this tolerant transport develops meaning
this instabilities call wandered off the inside of the talk among them can also understand why this happens but just that the ticket for the moment is granted to this year's lots of nice touches developed and now it promising happens and want quoted by letter with doesn't look like working so long as the structures become larger and stronger in the house it again to continue and then you see now the structures way much along money diffusion lines and he the loaf inside the structure develops as in that higher temperatures and rule lower temperatures and then after some time you see there structures about to get going comments ,comma and after some time so as to save scintillating mechanism and so is he Cesar instabilities creates she applies notation and and this does motivation Eddie's apart and so this is a separation mechanism insists the
region of the plasma etch uh this effect of in addition to Due to the geometry and the customer qualifies the inactive feuds which corresponds to all consultations he Crosby um tragedy current transport is reduced very much in the indebted develop such a transport Ben-Eliezer set just comes together with the geometry to divert the geometry of talked about before and now aware as you have stiff Paul fights Nova temperature is this transfer Bellion gives you a lot of increase in the Indonesian because energy sources so-called confinement mold and the basic by operational for but I still haven't stopped Sotogrande transport you can even designed transport barriers in the plasma and that they care for adjusting the the money future between the plasma Cohen then I saying his see here citizen next into uncomfortable for of us exactly you see compared to a normal discharge the temperature of the plasma center increases a lot and this is more than needed for admission to now imagine we have 50 centimeters Cosmo he astronomy and we should use associated with city short some insulation would make a nice tiny fusion reactor but we can do so only for very low densities in for a very short time but this is this is the way we would like to gold in the sewage and is quite advanced top marks to the Suns put barriers in the plasma center on the 1 hand could lead to a smaller through that but on the other hand it also can lead to were steady-state Pokemon because as accounts Marco and Dougherty mentioned that at the very beginning and is a purported so cosmically to the pleasure we so if you have a transport barriers here for example that the McGreevey's tenement life Collins at the location of plasma pressure gradient by the reasons "quotation mark .period Collins left history you can really as head of state of SMEs and cease control phys ed to support such a relation of opponents so if you carefully the Justice and preparing the new can really end up with a steady state government will another issue I want to talk to become feeding and this is because this is the splendid new for development Anita because all the present the machines even in cases have some either party leading most of the day has been provided by external means so far /slash apparently heeding ghost was part of it's of an energy range of 3 . 5 megawatts and this means that for the velocity of party is larger than the Eiffel velocity but not much otherwise the eye and tell us it is much smaller than the humidity and it from some of the most is much larger but the either party as the heads ever-closer velocity and as sales slowed down they can presently monthly index energy exchange energy which I think and test it might be a problem for refusing to grant them and the reason is here because of idiot radiant energy the Energy Energy departed distributions of much more fusion generator particles in the plasma centers and at the edge the city gradient this when it would end receiver drive instabilities reserve of an exchange between the parties and reefs will sizzle parties can you need softened the weights and can exchange energy wasn't so they excitedly the wave recalled and Taiwan change the energy part is immune function and the situation will bend then BY a flattening of the media part of his youth so you so you will redistribute
Partizan descended toward the edge and even then expired energetic particles which is not nice not because you don't need any more it's even worse if you really need it was a barrier to depart awards to build so
what we do present-day experiments we kind of investigative cause either party meeting but there we can investigate fast particle physics receding methods we have at hand the injection of new part that's me topped the bald and CIA Inspector tumblers heating so this generates energetic particles in what we look at the initiative for this diagnostic is for part that I expected by the and assesses the lights
agnostics hot particle hits the surface a scintillating independent company always find is this money deport measurements we find the money to vision that covered all the tools and you can just that matches the PPT and just as surely as we see in nice frequency potency abilities and the left-hand side you see the and you see this coincides very nicely and so on and so you can't really see a very nicely that's is always coincides an unfortunate don't over the sale as me but we can also compare effort from a comfortable life easier more structure of the excited rates on the simulations according to see we and that this is very nice because this diagnostic has made Britain the Netherlands and see the institute and so we can really compare 1 to 1 and this season because you we really Greece's six-month most culture says very important because we don't deal with either party the better understand the physics of our present experiments and then the Canucks property Babar annual computer codes 42 cases within the Nikkan 35 at the very what BC college auditors would be expanded hours Monday defeats the teachers to be designed particularly coming some hold some hold changes on coal-fired right now would like to come to a zone thousand been fission
um but this is easy way present fishing power stations just the from to spit lenient usually when to 200 35 so far too slowly action and what he wanted was 1 diffuse detailing the freedom so if you
compare no fuel-efficient fresheners and always a chain reaction and this is what I knew there was a neutral Spitzer's nucleus and then approximates the New York Times would be generated a lot on the other hand the funeral activate is consonant time by them and this year you can learn changes captivated by the plasma Parliament as part of 1 undetermined it still makes 1 and desultory reaction was so as to actually just I always receive constant and you cannot really have the ability Lodgepole increase in a few important authorities have sacked that we have risen the plasma you really run of fuel which is sufficient for 1 minute to somewhat more and awards but in the plasma it's only 1 gram inefficient problem you have fewer for about 2 years support to other times I would not say that you've never been activity ever come to that but it doesn't have any immediate of products source of Porter pursuant to Internet gossip so there's nothing but threw the ball that there officially option you will produce a lot of the lady the products which have some problems and come to me and then I already discussed so the power density in if you're very very low talked of Hamlet lower than in the petition so the problem of this product of products of courses to forward 1 as is also that I'm not lonely living CAD came very fast and produce after so needed to grant award as the a chain reaction and you need uninterrupted quitting if you don't have about according then you can remember the Fukushima accident on the site of products stood produce heat loss of cooling to and they did comes with a number of you from this was not a problem report shutdown this will solve the problem of of of Chernobyl White said you have a problem with the number of new and then there's a long living audit of products that differ from Pennsylvania on many more years and was always unique geological storage when and if you let it shouldn't have been active products you do not have a lot of after he some other confident and is because new forms there it's award and as soon you have some of the actions said that to some productivity and there's some increase in temperature and because of the constant the number of the reductions in time you don't have any unpleasant unplanned power increase and that we assure you that most of the the material can be decided after 100 years so we don't expect to need to look to the rest positively by trust come to met on
um if you will switch off to support plans to follow up on opposite ends of Winkler together and then there are some of course due to the new Newcombs bombarding the war you also have the camp would increase at the Forest Lawn but sister according to the simulations is very much the loss-making temperature and for officially up this temperature exceeded more than that to solve the police and therefore to serve you compliment on as we have seen before Fukushima this
multilayered I assure you as you creativity some of power among residency years after shutdown of a few important and and you will see the CD cover for light for efficiently up like water there for 2 types we have found is of course a little bit a W there was big-scale otherwise this would fall much faster of course but in the end and that by comparison for a few left also for the for the very 1st time for the for the past 10 times after shot down we have to teach them in our Paul plans sold barely out puberty quite hired by the committee is quite high as well but then is the productivity for offer by orders of magnitude so it's a tool sure a study of men and you have many would have made it look so easy as 1 2 3 4 5 potential for 4 to 5 can the 5th set it up on the facility India of their use to you this village steered patented for fusion fuel fears for the exists so we have a huge decrease in relativity was in the 1st 50 to 100 years and we compare the Sudanese this scored also called pork and produces a lot of productivity by doesn't produce about that but you get the call out of the mountains and there's the lead on invoices and of course scored a facade of adaptive use touch it so therefore we decided once again top-scored us you also might be used to cut to touch a waste of a fusion power plant after 100 years so we consider that most of Sudan's reactive raised a that Camilla cycle that can be adjusted can just stored at the at the place that Apple not 200 years you can just decide where existing materials research I'm going because he would like to evening pulled that you can no single phone anymore lawyers or even due to meet in Kobuk cumbia Comic-Con precise and there will be great because 2 also wouldn't be allowed up to the door about the problem he's Matsuda buried with and they're so far this no buyers disease that is I'm not insightful views and sold the Steelers to exist as a show science fiction so far but is the interesting to look at the other materials which might help you analyze evade their days unlimited resources for fission but only for fast breeder if you want to use the Sicily option the sewing a 125 is resources already by limited I wouldn't go as far as the it's completely and then it all resources on the metaphor is not cool but essentially deuterium is anyway see whether we we have enough there treat some wily to my was asked in the the break well this isn't isn't a problem .period actually only need leasing 6 so we can go it was always a 93 % some 700 all your committee support of the batteries and then the fusion with only needed 6 to 7 per cent to close at least 6 is the only thing that by 6 % according to our calculations this would be a problem but they are scarce resources unfortunately is a said even union we use superconducting devices otherwise you cannot produce because even that produces big-money defeats in copper coins finally coppers also at some point in the soil helium you can accept all of the evidence would be very expensive right now look now will call for
power plant simplest sketchily of applause Monday at sea so the wallets of the system in there so we'll you twins lots of war heated up and generally treats him and then you have a cooling circuit here you get to this turbine and produce electricity I have always
shown this and if you know I think I'm
in a about toward human power plant by the reuse European children ,comma yes that is something we need for on the nice "quotation mark 80 pages or whatever here the just in easiest sketchbook sources 100 points so as I said we are now waiting Evita and he deserved plan to stop operations on the 2020 but then people want to realize how to operate and the 1st attempted to him experiment so far spent Watford 27 then anyone to demonstrate for the 1st time that you can exceed see politics as a power generator perfume they can accede to the power you need to eat the plasma by a factor of 10 so once you have reached this point anywhere successfully then after words you want to have a design for the movie out and that he would stop believing that and then the end up with electricity around 2050 in part of building of the day I suspect we will continue this atomic experiments to prepare fleet operations we will also study stellarators just in case you never know uh how hold you talk about behaves probably it will be a success but still light at the end you end up with service of more air than economically more attractive for the part played by steadily disorder like you have knowledge to kinds of engines for cars with students these and other lines so we on the other hand a needs some development technology student and materials and resources a huge development line as well as enters the southern end a deity that times give you also need further development for that with the support and to this you will cease to 20 can be mindless to China and China recently decided where the energy problem issue which we want a solution want a solution soon so we know invested 10 billion dollars into fusion was in China alone and they want to educate 2000 fusion scientists Italy started huge hole where all them in power it was there the partnership 22 so it is times give first-class mark used to those 19 Adobe anymore with the 20 of 31 or something then it would be tempting to filled 27 and so now we look at this time skewed the try Tool to bid a kind of a power plant and that is you have is awarded cycle have generated inside the CIS will dissuade may be done and he as well but only for testing this would be self-sufficient freedoms we generate all the things you need for your pop and and you have everything you go to the next level everything into it but this power plants are bidding you will be efficient so they would have to be at the so what you engineering equals 1 or the power would only have an efficiency of once we put as much power in the new at all but but including everything so next step would be really it was officially of tested or the technology over it and they want all start uh being very soon and they plan for the 1st Tuzmen 2025 this is 5 years after starlet and then they want their 1st trip to face only in adult it's this summertime as he did in the 2nd 1 and finally want to end up with sodium aware of it continues in advance actually compared to European times it is a more aggressive of ways as when the CAC have no problem with the train at the senior citizen with wins in all they are still behind you opens U.S. party come of fast persistently the barrier and I would like to discuss soul of fusion and the world energy problems but the problem 1
of the problems with eddies in Germany nobody talks about accomplishing the increase in the climate change anymore because we are so busy was that this discussing that we have have to step out of Europol and efficient power that we meet me at the moment kind of ignores it climate change problems and if you look at these international conferences it's still debated but but I don't see much but what if you know if consider if you could just continuous businesses use you know you end up with huge increases in temperatures and not in Germany and the Netherlands but somewhere as well however as a sea-level increases and surf analysts might really be a problem so you don't want extra tapenade even lessons in Germany on but on the other hand this as a problem In the energy demands Aziz's GDP per capita versus security consumption pick up the tab and you see this is this huge differences between them so indeed like poor countries 1 person has about 100 what has alarmed by this and this is what passenger it's actually was positioned just need to food but on the other hand the U.S. and Canada query I would say we sort of so this would probably be read you would use it on the whole of how much of Germany and probably of the Netherlands can there do better but on the other hand I don't believe that pool guys were to stay at the same stage as the as yet when at the moment because it would increase energy consumption this is obvious and toward that but at the moment as he is he ever watched over which would increase and me expected to work to be its we could watch the copy and then you have to walk a forward in increase in population on the arts and if you know the way that's guess it's about 10 billion at the end of sentence wouldn't work out to about 100 and speaking of arts and you know all the Baltic Sea energy demand by traders make uncertainty and that energy demand on the 2001 Hamilton's this depends on what you fueled How many people do what would be living on Rosenthal's 100 What do you think how much energy and so on so the uncertainties this predicting that the increased by a factor of tools up to a factor of 4 but nobody expects there will be an increase in energy money even if we see a lot of energy in this now already included 7 is even more increase electricity the of atrocity will become much more important and see predictions the effect of 6 increases in electricity was again laughter all blossoming I don't want to clean behind the walls the energy demand will develop to the point I want to make it would not go but if you continue on business as uses 1 of his idols energy modeling for a greater just say where we don't do anything and then what you would do was of course he would you will use your always you will increase the MoD of course you're using because school is available for the next 20 years the gasses even bothered to even more economical than cool and then there are some looking on someone your words and then you see this is business as usual usual with increasing energy demand and if you go for that said you can know directly high-quality skewed tool emotion and went into staff several scenarios again this is the increase the city was seen twin missions on 2 proposals 2003 and then you have set with suppliers who can go down your will dogmatically up and tools would probably be somewhere between to that's how it's not as tho the green 1 is scenarios with goes down and then the answer that the Great 1 which is really the you have made a lot of and then you can kind of see assumptions on this assumption that many of you you don't know and and frankly we don't know exactly what the suit was going exactly to the temperature I'm not an expert here just take see if I can be seen in report and renewed energy sources of climate change mitigation and they predict forces for the rally Green Party is aware that you see admission of futile to expect the increase in temperature but could you please write if you are if you don't do anything then we are at a mean you buy at the extremely I don't want to claim this is going to happen if you feel like this or that but there but it's very the although that something some increase wouldn't happen if he did not significantly reduce always you mission advisory at the moment it doesn't look like formal really won't be
as stupid as a business student scenario so you know I have chosen a very optimistic 1 already told the resurgence increase in 2001 harmless but this is the worst scenario meaning that we still got a lot of not much much so much cooler but on Gus and then in the middle of essentially suddenly realize we have to do something and in this case we have a lot of biomass which also has its cons and be the use costs and by a machine this carbon capture and storage there's also this debate follows and then there be can get rid of a lot of this you here we have a large part of nuclear not too much renewal without much more so than I also tried somebody controls it and find a lot of snow space this amount of renewal which is increased a lot as this is possible but you know well uh you have spiky energy production soared in July 2010 in Germany he will have to spikes of solar energy during lunch time and only in some of course and some wind in July and if you go for generally to see that you have winter with Sunday's result of course and not let them know we use useful so this Court of course for 4 4 for efficient energy sources is a topic of research 1 has to go forward he wanted the EU's enlargement of the nobles and what I single fusion can could you this is not not savings energy problem of board what probably but we try to do is to provide a part of it and actually I think the idea should be situation will finally call for nuclear we will put in place nuclear power stations in China claimed that the one-twelfth maybe the I'm overestimating you how fast it can go goalie was like this I guess is just a sketch out to China claims to want to have a president of detention essentially 100 gigawatts produced by nuclear fusion formed by nuclear fission and then Gina was I was saying the also call for solar and wind and so is not I assume you shouldn't look so some of you at this as a competition between energy sources for this mix which it is finally but 1st I think we have to develop options and all options because the problem is big enough and that we should allow declined to say when I conceived word like I think that makes sense as in which we should go for everything and see if we are able to we need on the 1 hand we have the energy needed for the Woodward but on the other hand also do so without destroying everything and increasing Sutil emission very strongly at the moment but unfortunately I don't I don't see a lot of movement back but I think that the developed countries cannot only came by the others should save energy I think we also have also provided technologies for fall for the other countries with little to use Our to develop technologies and in that sense cuteness of course a complex technology on the other hand to energy demand increases research development and in very poor countries toward the use a lot of energy and on the other hand we have many departments for example India and China will you need a lot of energy and so we shall a technology so that 1 and I said to beginning you wouldn't probably manage reported like this if you if you want to be 1 on the other hand if you will you want this Singleton knowledge and it's probably the best way to do so and reported and isn't sure I wanted to tell you I think about the intention attention if if the questions that's fine with me I don't want to go to bed early but but you have no other that's at the chance would ask some questions with them the future


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