Master class II with David Quéré

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Master class II with David Quéré
Wetting and roughness
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Two hundreds years ago, Thomas Young understood how the solid/liquid contact is dictated by surface forces. Our plan is to discuss how the solid roughness modifies (quite dramatically) this law. Roughness can be either accidental, or set at a surface with micro-machined extures, which decides the resulting properties: super-hydrophilicity, water repellency, slip, anti-fogging properties, etc. We present recent developments in this lively field of surface science.
Keywords Surface Physics
Regentropfen Bicycle Beam emittance Year Lunar phase Vakuumphysik Wire bonding Thin film FACTS (newspaper) Solid Sizing Turning Band gap Cartridge (firearms) Powder metallurgy Plant (control theory) Water vapor
Hot working Tool Day Crystallographic defect Force FACTS (newspaper) Turning Potentiometer Alcohol proof Cartridge (firearms) Powder metallurgy Book cover Photodissoziation
Impact event Hang gliding Quality (business) Effects unit Scale (map) Mobile phone Aircraft carrier Bill of materials Bird vocalization Infrared Turning Stream bed Propeller (aircraft) Atmosphere of Earth Tool bit Speckle imaging Pitch (music) Duty cycle Minute FACTS (newspaper) Pair production Interface (chemistry) Carburetor Control rod Noble gas Series and parallel circuits Cartridge (firearms) Contactor Level staff Liquid Cosmic distance ladder Boat Crystal structure Generation Sea breeze Alcohol proof Morse code Angeregter Zustand Homogeneous isotropic turbulence Regentropfen Paper Cylinder head Hydropower Paul <Firma> Chemical substance Texturizing Cogeneration Angle of attack Sizing Theodolite Relative dating Water vapor
Regentropfen Prozessleittechnik Catadioptric system Effects unit Refractive index Year Order and disorder (physics) Lead Aerodynamics Turning Sizing Contactor Orbital period Relative dating Giant (mythology) Controller (control theory) Angeregter Zustand
Night Cosmic distance ladder Cartridge (firearms) Crystallographic defect Measurement Kosmischer Staub Water vapor Angeregter Zustand Cogeneration
Gang Button Die proof (philately) De Havilland Mosquito Kickstand Effects unit Scale (map) Newton's laws of motion Transmission (mechanics) Global warming Light Phase (matter) Wavelength Turning Alcohol proof Limiter Video Klassifikationsgesellschaft Atmosphere of Earth Angeregter Zustand Striking clock Regentropfen November (film) Paper Pump (skateboarding) Wolkengattung Stationery Year Season Gas FACTS (newspaper) Chemical substance Texturizing Nyquist stability criterion Series and parallel circuits Cartridge (firearms) Sewing needle Hour Moving walkway Contactor Water vapor Condenser (heat transfer)
Liquid Hot working Effects unit Sunlight Measurement Crystal structure Spaceflight Cardboard (paper product) Field-effect transistor Phase (matter) Apparent magnitude Turning Volumetric flow rate Atmosphere of Earth Staple (fastener) Angeregter Zustand Channeling Cut (gems) Ballpoint pen Striptease Field strength Sunday Hall effect Year Minute Ground station FACTS (newspaper) Classical mechanics Interface (chemistry) Permittivity Density Game Gentleman Sizing Universe Autumn Series and parallel circuits Cartridge (firearms) Fahrgeschwindigkeit Moving walkway Plating Book design Natürliche Radioaktivität Last June
Mechanical fan Brillouin zone Tracing paper Right ascension Geokorona Scale (map) Amplitude Order and disorder (physics) Mobile phone Aircraft carrier Light Group delay and phase delay Aerodynamics Phase (matter) Atmosphere of Earth Audio frequency Sensor Viscosity Committee Sunday Ground station Year Season Windshield Power (physics) FACTS (newspaper) Carburetor Autumn Cartridge (firearms) Fahrgeschwindigkeit Ammeter Plating Contactor Containment building Hyundai Motor Co. Liquid Measurement Boat Force Wire Buoy tender Field-effect transistor Generation Volumetric flow rate Alcohol proof Orbital period Musical ensemble Negation Video Watercraft rowing Material Angeregter Zustand Regentropfen Channeling Demining Winter Key (engineering) White Domäne <Kristallographie> Drehmasse Kopfstütze Blanking and piercing Cogeneration Metre Spant Sizing Atmospheric pressure Plant (control theory) Trade wind Water vapor Astronomisches Fenster Stock (firearms) Conductivity (electrolytic) Week Natürliche Radioaktivität Movement (clockwork) June
Ship breaking Typesetting December Railway coupling Quality (business) Weight Viscosity Sunday Year Drehmasse Missile Fahrgeschwindigkeit Cartridge (firearms) Limiter Ammeter Brillouin zone Trade wind Atmosphere of Earth Hyperbelnavigation Angeregter Zustand Antenna diversity
Roman calendar Kickstand Effects unit Weight Right ascension Absorbance Order and disorder (physics) Spaceflight Particle Group delay and phase delay Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow Turning Screw cap Laser Strahldivergenz Limiter Atmosphere of Earth Artillery battery Engine displacement Elektrische Isolierung Ship breaking Mechanic Tiefdruckgebiet Committee Year Minute Wire bonding Commode Locher Power (physics) FACTS (newspaper) Doorbell Carburetor Monday Direct current Cartridge (firearms) PIN diode Contactor Ammeter Plating Book design Switch Ruler Liquid Hot working Force Spontaneous fission Reflexionskoeffizient Cardboard (paper product) Field-effect transistor Volumetric flow rate Alcohol proof Orbital period Spare part Temperature Rail transport operations Angeregter Zustand Lumber Regentropfen Paper Continental drift Stellar atmosphere Drehmasse Loudspeaker Bridge (nautical) Kopfstütze Cogeneration Sizing Gamma ray Atmospheric pressure Hour Relative dating Giant (mythology) Astronomisches Fenster Condenser (heat transfer) Week Movement (clockwork)
so it was a further fault is about vacuum drops so effective drops were discovered buried on the voluntary when we look at the natural history of being the 2 thousand years ago we find that drops on plants can be very special and he says that these plants themselves are very special and so he had the idea that this special solids stand innovative high compacting but they were being discovered in the late nineties here bicycle compilation the number of his speeches this is a fact walks you keep the wax Constanza chemistry constant and you make it very rough this case is 100 my comment is here and so these bonds are they collated with smaller bands of size and emitters which then says on the collated by his world themselves when they commit their it's affected should face danger water the deposit is water
on this sunny day and you observe this magnificent Taylor of which made the cover of the dollar only in the 19 and 96 and I think cover attracted the ire of many researchers including myself and when I saw this it's been a picture I felt Paul me what the from behave very differently from what it does usually an enemy of the it's said so the observation compact and they also also very small compact and listed as despite the fact that you have many defects as associates of face so you're going on a tool 1 2 on 2 pots and the
reason is the presence of the the soul this very high contact angles we this is something valuable to the force cannot be reached just like industry remember maximum value was 120 degrees and suddenly we 55 degrees and can also be found in nature and particularly Kansas where was is very famous work by these from German but analysts look at the hands of different examples that you can find in nature and particularly intense 200 grants has a property to be super 104 make what about here is an offense here which is a promise from Indonesia said he often indifferent to supplant fears among the young the elegant beautiful pictures here there was lot which is at the Canada was granted in each case you have the collation others your face and you have also hydrophobicity Berezin walks going on and so when you come with
liquid and that this liquid will make a very high contact but there's no contact angle history this these 2 qualities of equally equally important and as a consequence we went down initial and this is you and universal called Lotus affect the fact that if your studied has some contaminants on it and the liquid is coming on here from some of the left as 8 runs down if it finds these contaminants which I grains of better this is a mistake which dates to the grid so it's a it's a innocent of any team can affect fact that when you have an interface it's gains sums of Western energy by being coated by a Soviet it's a very general effect and so what is a remarkable here is not the fact that the drop dates Ltd the veins of paper expenditure on what is remarkable is the fact that the drop is more like it and so if it's mobile it's very logical but it takes was the Baltic and so people described by the kind of self-cleaning effect that that exactly said hinting that it means that just terrain enough 2 the very nicely this base that many animals of so-and-so Paul 1 which is the most impressive for its is what Strider and not hear what astride their sitting on tongue and if you look carefully closes the legs it's very clear that water easily bettered close the legs and if you look carefully at the Leggett said it's also the collated by you kind of offered at the scale which is very very small and in the scale of true my comic In this case it's very sophisticated design very poorly there is not only this property to have these such as usual but there are also inclined which means that the fictional water from the unusable because the fact that its glides very nice 1 way but you can't crucial soil water and so the fact that the despite sidelined Paul greater also it's for something very nice again and similar properties at the same time when you have these kind of perspective touches and so on as likely to shows these animals can do many things on water now are jumping meticulous and so not intending it up with an event because see that never disappear because your face which would be a disaster if should press on the what astride the builders faced it sinks the extensive and what call for it's clearly a matter of life too uh .period use efficient but pendency of so you have all Nice natural structures and soulful question is aware what is the best 1 can we really Latin on sold these are the questions and answers a question which is made using breeze can we do movies such as much simpler and the answer is yes you Uganda In avoid such as we job just you that appears very regular and this is inconvenient for studying the phenomena because here you can vary independently of the free parameters of this offices which shocked the distance between bidders the height of the Peters and images of the and so you can generate families of news and then compare the behavior of water as it comes in contact with the surface so here care that is the beautiful poem and uh the reason is that this bill exactly like in the previous examples off hydrophobic it is a kind of what's which codes everything and so is the fact that you have both hydrophobicity chemical hydrophobicity breasts structure we generates an enhancement of the site of obesity and giving this should go ahead of businesses who will have all the head of a big hit and so do possibilities again users a drop those inside the bidders all it stands at the top of the piers and very the name we could think that this might be I prefer to do it because this because I hydrophobic and so on why should observe the queen follows the accidents of Sony that it does not plan this is because of course when we are in the states we have many interfaces between liquid and vapor and each of these interfaces carrier and its own energy saying could and so the company between these 2 states something interesting and attends you back to the well of course the answers most of other state depends upon the boat on this number of pupils and also the size of the Beatles and so on and so it you but the design uh can be chosen in such a way but this situation favored instead of this but then things like most of whimsy in a few seconds so this is an experiment where you very the department s which is a faction of solid occupied by the .period OK so each of 100 per cent of because means that the surface flat he deposited Florida and you observed a comeback and which is slightly obtuse if you have 10 per cent of the leaders of very obviously is a compact angle in the but you cannot see all of the phenomena if you have 1 person the Peters the contact goodies the high but now I must clearly see the origin of the of the phenomenon because you realize that the lightning-fast experiment a member of the candle behind this is the like passing below and here we see the light passing which means that drop sits at the top on bed of Michael this is the reason why we like to call the state effective state because this drop is a little bit like it effect here which is supposed to be on the on the date off off off off Nate and so when using his picture we immediately guessed that it indeed attributed the height of a big because builders dropped is 1 possible bidders but it is also a 99 per cent of air and so we are very close to have a solution which is very polite and remember what said at the beginning if we are able to make the solid vapor like we should reach the originate value of 180 degrees but was recaptured pitches venue because there is still the promotion of Peters and so exactly as we discussed was a fried egg experiment here to contact individual pursuit of you kind of have alleged between the contact angle on air which is 180 degrees and 1 and contact and understanding which is 100 wait waited buys abortion of of an Air B which is about until then calculate all of that now I don't it's too late to enter the isn't dates it is 1 case that that I like a lot which is a case when you made the pitches mobile before the ruins of the abuse are fixed on your side and so late mobile you think about and it's hydrophobic powder thought to be the size of each grain it's to 2013 I commuters same size as abuse and try to mix water With his father it insisted that because about is hydrophobic and indeed it does not work when water is coming the air powder that makes but Of course it counts the on you you all your unique will remember with a center with her lover to come most of the great until then since its cool to whatever the substrate below it not I went the substrate and because you have a spot that was instead of protecting the skin on your silly and they will not as which is chose and so you make a liquid which is decorated by his surname so now has a texture instead of being on the city is on liquid but it isn't even better of something which is pulling on 1 with the about whatever the substance can take these marvelous and put them here on the topic on the table or walking on water the the main nobler drops and so on this is a tricky another trick to achieve very high degrees of of propellants so we got pictures of these
Biedermeier so coming back to the case which is by far the most important Of course you attempted to move to make these quantity and smaller the 2 guests if we fail you guess that your fucking state become more and more fragile and indeed if you keep this bubble from constant about 1 person and issue that was it the drop by 2 ways just slightly different gentle way here with very carefully and it was dropped although much of 1 would you do you through there a drop you upset at the same job of the can have different and so on you come back after 10 minutes the drop in the belatedly debates and so are you saying that the 1st scary very nicely you still sees line of light below swing Austin's effective state very high compact well even if you wait so even if you look at that then that tap wanted usual life here it's a disaster because of you also back which apparently he's Hydro physique despite the fact that for bits of so it pays but here as you could get so quake is inside the texture and because it is inside the textures the impact is very strongly picture and so it very very efficient and so as a consequence this state is extremely sticky why this 1 as you can guess would be extremely simple but the question is whether they can coexist and so you have to define how to make this 1 variable how to prevent this condition from thinking and the people have discussed a lot to question so well how can you trigger for example the transition between the 2 states and there is 1 where um which is quite funny because it's not completely intuitive I would say which consist of varying the size of the Vecchio so you staff of a given effect here and you make it lighter and lighter and trick easy just interpolation act and as a function of time the Finley's nearly many of time because of BOP all guests mostly portion is very fast and so is the effect here which is decreasing in size and look it's very very quick at some point here it is a series of 7 conditions and after loss of Asuncion then it becomes extremely flat because once it is inside the bins and efficient so it means of course has comedy has nothing to do with the light factory here tends to mean paying why the big effect he had remained the top but intends also let loose and wife the the 1 in Paris many related to the fact that the curvature of the drop increases as a function of time because it's in appointing and as a consequence you can find about them and so of course this is always the case in this question of Macbeth heavy-duty in many cases the state is on the best able I told you government little pockets of of of their programming interfaces between liquid and vapor the the carrier hordes energy and so the availability and Hagerty bets this is dropped does not know whether the soaring below Anthony Maine editor and you have a new creation barrier and the question is how can you activate the new decrease or increase the sanitation Barry so it's something that you can study was the experiments when you look after interpolation you find to
be the date that you see clearly that unofficial face where post-quake since both with was fragile giants of facing did you find trace which is a coffee stain effect and then you went to the went inside and of course if you think of the
argument by said that not tempted to say whether those Apple cats below curved because it can the drop it said exists and the curvature must be constant because of the lack especially as the constant and as a consequence as Stein is going on the quantity that actually increases of over time and so at some point they thought should be of the order of H the size of the pure and if it occurs then there is a compact and American factories have backed my propagate if the situation is only state and this condition was that the dynamic the buyer the controls over here and his goal and they made wonderful movie where you follow what they called meeting the dynamics of the contact as it propagates lead to very very high-speed movies to be good timescale for the whole process is less than 1 year Saddam and our new beaches where users indication of his comeback and the propagation of his compact and could characterize dynamics of this upon the but what I want to discuss here is something in a sense much simpler which is how to prevent the Standish and so you have to possibilities was the arguments I said previously won easily made it is to say Well I keep everything constant in particular I keep the appears far from each other so that you a job that is about affair but now I make this because and so it shouldn't be difficult for to find about biscuits so this is our 1st experiment that you can do it's a very long period instead of the small ones said and you look at the interpolation of these dropped and so you remember it was a tentative size below which it was being about this 1 but here nothing happened and so until the the end so may be and the very end something locally it's not clear and so you take a picture after interpolation the coffee stain effected than something about where the drop was at the end of its life and find
something really wonderful which is defined that the dust is concentrated in a few cases and remains close to the top of the people so it means that in this experiment indeed so drop never In so there is here are very natural answer to the question How can you make this effective state much more it's that eventually to make the very long and so this
is I think the solution which is ongoing by many animals in particular when you look at the distance between the legs and the defection of the lagging water this unit is this sense is very very large it's a fraction of a and so it means the beetles which honored to have I seen on this case and as you could see from these animals when jumping inside and it's really crucial that they avoid this being condition the sermon solution to this question of business of of a high rise is new and we don't really know if it's many but I think it's it's very nice to 2 nights
it's an experiment it was done 24 years ago by a late John Beijing and if he became interested in the idea of the mustard and he has the following ideas said mosquito are leaving Morrison clouds so they are probably hit by needle drops and which as I say I didn't know that but if we find us With the eyes of the gas sensitive to the far ahead and so we are in the dock whom you close the lights and who will know that after she wants to hear like this close to you and that is a very clear it's bad for the mosquito this is something I think it's you again he gets closer and closer and this is the 1st season during which I more rendered Witchazel religion wears a red is easy and this is the reason why they are close to your ears and so we are sensitive to position financially needy eyes and for making drops and so of course we must avoid but question of forensic condensation all sticking of these drops despite the fact that these drugs are extremely small and the numbers of small drops an hour more attracted to others who face and the big ones well it turns out that I think discovered that the ire of the mosquito is covered by clues so very close to the artificial because they previously except by the bar which is here these 100 so got extremely small compared to the artificial ones 10 micrometres 1 iconic it's 10 times worse there is an obvious reason of course is to face must some hold constant lights this not stop he stopped by the presence of toughness and so you must have skated which is here which is much more the wavelength of light but also probably this is the idea of me John you avoid a stinking of the drops because if the drop is coming here if it had to find a button which is the disasters on the way to transform build dropping a sticky 1 it would have to perform at the scale of 100 mm which implies very nearly lost curvature and so very very large not prospects and so it's not about this is that the proposal off off of major so there is no real proof of that but a very entertaining experiments but I hope you will like it and I like it because I hate mosquitoes inside reality of this experiment where you take a mosquito and you put this mosquito in the freezer take minus 25 degrees cancel after it's a half an hour as a mosquito is obviously there is extremely cold minus 25 degrees and taking notes and you put it in the hot you may tender and of course water condenses of mosquitoes which is so called and you take a picture this is expect and the picture is impressive so you have this mosquito was a lot of water on it and the eyes are completely dry so it's not of course proved that you have here is in 1st Drive on the funding so face ever but it's an interesting sign and I think there a beautiful poem of research here which is to try to establish know what's happening and water commences on this schools 19 but there are many examples of course of human onto for the 2 faces all eyes are you made along with a few of water which means that when we trusted cloud wasn't involves of water can go eyes and just spread on the quick which is what the world and so that uh to have what's your face but Of course the eye of the mosquitoes less sophisticated and has no possibility of bruising of which and so a traitor might be they so speaking of responsibility of admit that stable state people are trying to go 1 step further and to invent only from its offices also faces a are depending on the water but it's always as 1 so the difficulty was always is the fact that if you take a fragile phase and it it was a job on the matter come back anger is not not amending degrees but we so that starting from 9 degrees in having a texture at the venue which is now demanding in ways we also so that starting from the deliveries and ending a texture you go the low 90 degrees and so it's not just that if you take all you and you put that on its face can reach very high contact however voucher waltz and probably the most popular hostility was the 1 barrier to get John Grabow items in an 19 3 years ago where the 2 could drop of the decaying making all state in November with the lights at allocating and put it on a sunny and we observe this unprecedented hydroelectric and when you see that How is only 1 possibility there is air travel it is this is the only once and that the design of this but again deciding which of course at the scale of the drop looks flat he says that all its nickel-plated gang of mushrooms In series of fruit and berries hat and quiz coming on that and it's a very nice straight member the possibility of being your life you have only navigate the mushrooms and berries and this is the next 1 and antiquities coming if could not stop here because if it stops here you would have a contact angle which is 1 and degrees and it's not the case at all on sunny so we know generally chemical contact angle is smaller than admits the station's 48 thing but as I explore the during the heart of the martial I find a position here where I can still why because if I make zoo on this did something like that it's a overhang and so there is certainly 1 particular position only 1 where I made the that the it's a 40 degrees which is required to have some equitably of my contact the equivalent of a precise sense which is mechanical included William if it is achieved the forces balance as show and so the line against paper and so it can stop at the position such amenities air below and so the contact individual so you kind of alleged between contacting the area which is 180 and conduct and their history which is 2 . 4 of and so if you make the quantity of their large enough you can generate very high compared but of course this is higher than at the same time because there is another possibility for the audience which is to come here as a so fast and energy of the southern situation is much worse and so this is a cause of practical limitation about to shake it a bit confined about them and so the question of homelessness of them at which I underestimated the previously is absolutely crucial there and it's not really soft this is an example which I like a lot because L In many cases of people tried to to make us believe that we find solutions nature and we Shakopee these solutions and we send them by saying Well nature invented that and so we copied and so we are not nearly as good as nature so this is 1 case where nature somehow imitated demand because 3 years after that my friend but the 1980's in President found a similar case in nature you really to give the animal which is cool ,comma this is going to war the signs bearing the fugitives and it's maybe the most common animal and a face of the of the of the year OK when you when you deem that user in the soil and in the forests you see many many of these immigrants people don't know exact insects although takes it into a classification that easy now I can't stand of monsters and they are living in in very humid environment and also very polluted unveiled pollutant in the sense of off surfactants but naturalist effect cancel the most hazardous waters which would the case of very more scared of these animals of course because debutant divorce so if water penetrates and then OK so it's a crucial it's a matter of life but they must resist to contaminated water it's much much harder then I what strike which 1 my pumps which is more it's pure water and so 97 ideas said they must resist too very special water and support that have very especially picture editor and so he he wasn't incredibly patient conditions the company
of global lattice of race of 1 the and the union whatever they do much better and he
observed a very very recently that this should face of the village or phase of the bodies including their legs I said including the eyes of the law that no I still don't think and the size of analyze and they also face is covered by this game can be sophisticated but and what do you want 1 year of work was to catch 1 of these and he succeeded and he found a cut of 1 of these In this incredibly sophisticated which presents many overhangs OK so it seems that's it's a kind of A-level international so this is 1 case where nature mutated man if it so if
you have questions you want good certain insects hosted at the signing of analysis of his kitchen long ball not so I like to finish with is the fact that when you are in respective situation you have put between the liquid and a solid a certain proportion of air OK and this will portion of course the higher disproportionate the more mobile your your request I need something that against you the good again June the density of the effects of structures but you put at the center and so I would like to finish by showing that these generates very very special bank so the 1st series of experiments war about sleep and as I said a few words about straight but they should add something the fact that when you have a son interface and you make a liquid flow in city face the board from the beginning of hydrodynamics I have to make the size of what was about the conditions and the Sunday the Queen in and you probably know that In 1848 think said that there is using medical anti-Semitism again and again said that it's nearly that he said that there is no sleep and the sun between them so it means that travel through a frequent here you might have Paul fight of this flow inside an acquittal and you should have 1 because Kansas City Kansas is fixed and there is no this is the most sleep now my condition entertain of donor it uses to proposals by Nigerian people then made many calculations about 180 it explain something think through what work have been very happy for I would say about fall fall 1 150 years was eastbound icon and then while people try to think about small size Michael channels on the way and so it became difficult to know if indeed it was mostly permission and thinking it was very challenging report but maybe in some cases it could be difficult in which case you would suppress all minimized the brilliance of cities which of the soulful disappear Shh imagine that it is a alcohol very large slick and so you could imagine was a very dossier and the flow is and such a afloat but does not that uh uh needs any miscues false prior to this disposal units do you need a lot of energy to create full-length sold the remaining discussions and in particular it was a kind of battle between the different techniques of measurements and I think that things became more as clarified and uneven simply would say 5 years ago something that in particular the work off the remarkable researcher in view in France is a challenge she discovered many artifacts in the new gotcha she discovered for example that "quotation mark given system you could have for orders of magnitude Of the measurement of the state planks and mentioned the fact that between the city's 2 situations there is 1 which is always a reasonable which is 1 where you have the gradient of velocity but still have possibly the stupidest of face and the way to quantify sleep consists of measuring this lengths and she found that you had the folders of magnitude between uh is a staple of the prize was the detained and my job it's been easy to envision DeMarco in both gone right now in itself studies and so she got invited more silly thing and the result is very simple is antiquities had affiliate called facilities hide affiliate lumbar and flat long . is 2 at most 1 so it's of money could ask which means that it needs to publicly offer low you can't ignore the strip the stupid if the hydrophobic then Mumbai's like acknowledges can become dependent it's it's she public now but there is no application I think people have in mind chefs such as more means that the channel whose size would be tendency to so it could be a tendering 99 cents for a minute can exist of course but the make with the extent Azov my commitment so full not scale a low-tech applications this is not about it becomes excessively remain extremely small rental medical mission of course the private next jury of his life in a sense because we have known for years and years of that books the but now we are in a very different situation we have with respect to a situation where jury agreed flows not exactly on signing but on the mixture of sorting and so will you might think that maybe we generated lobster and so is the debate was the reactivated and a man who immediately and found very very interesting is that is not and I most universities he'll do very nice overview article last year about that and he did very beautiful experiments where falling apart you measure the flow and this is a will fight between plates which very classical Plaza experiment 2 top His populate this flat the bottom freight the modem Brady's pictures pictured and hydrophobic and so if it's a hydrophobic which is the case for these 2 samples and not always won you see that instead of having a positive role was as the velocity at Saudi you merger the statement OCT adds about nothing between your also need which is dedicated solely because that where the so this result is I would take quite magical but it's quantitative and so the nice thing about it is that these people could measure the strength of City Hall it could be just a blank for defendants the design of the
and they find that the slayings can be incredibly large and it is a very nice that argument for understanding that so I think it would be made in the last winter that conditions by fans who where is my this is not the 1st time Britain and the rest were not yet needed more research on the right lines not be used to roam you Democratic group warned of more consumers yes this year's review right now not not so I don't know why I don't know if the resolution is is is is is good enough to to 2 of you and that is the key this is a good also straight time that's all it is a very nice that argument understand that you did you can generate much much longer states and uh that genuine slips by choosing and so here is the argument of Estonia and of course I chose the simplest 1 which is this 1 collated was the post we are in state so that he could is coming and it stops here and now we add flow and so this equivalent it's growing like this the velocity at New velocity which is so am interested In blanks and so as you can see from the the construction is a typical velocity of the flow is being I know that deserve the government which is very it is Over this is the definition of conduct and this season the full area defined the 2 blighted adherence by the viscosity of adequate so this is in a sense the definitions Of the viscosity this guy is a viscous .period unit area is a coefficient of his because at the time so clearly in the velocity and hear the gradient of velocity have supplying from the certificate city divided by but here I can also evaluate what is this this guide said it's just extrapolations it's a linear extrapolation he family and then Texas show clear and in which explains why does anyone so in this case you can also calculate all and it's not going conditions at skating no that you can in any way but as a typical Fallston provide liquid because you are here a certain distance and between the rows which is a Barnetta Ketchikan Juneau the only good is flowing and as you can guess generally zone the falls the viscous force necessary to move the required of all the air is needed because of scarcity of areas negative competitiveness was Jeffrey it's Wilderville factor 1 100 units all units more so it means that the only place where is going the it is and the vicinity of the top of the penis because here Nordic equipment is throwing on the side so what is this difficult force when got here size which is being the size of the period and so that bigger force should be stocks force which is good eating dying V time there quick ascent him with you know the great vision and this fall good Land since you have 1 eager and it is intact the beauty over square and so now if you consider the flow you multiplied by the number of people use but you divided by the same a number of pieces here and so this is a false good material which is said necessary to write on it and so immediately when you look at this through expressions you find that you know what is this place in this situation the same he and square what total resigned because he tells you that you can't decide what is this the plants and you can decide that it can be extremely large remembers the orders of magnitude here because 1 millimeter affiliate carriers then in the middle for hydrophobic gays but now and can be done by committee the can be 1 nite ,comma Tercel edible 10 10 but then Michael at 109 Michael meters so there is a factor which is 10 to the full cancel 10 thousand times larger managers to so it's clearly a different world certainly somewhere and there was a huge competitions for the de-mining long not as loud as possible and I think for the moment winner of the competition is keen to use unit who allegedly simply 2 blanks off 100 by comic sectors the ones we couldn't predict babies made of so if all that the single open made interesting experimental measurement of from out on much more with less about when they connected but 1 iconic is already extremely large compared to these values and what is nice in this experiment is that twice the same experiment 1st the measure trip blanks by moving queried on the on the picture to face and a summary statement was clear to doing that it Bush a little bit of the survey so it falls to "quotation mark inside and now and then that portion and you see that in 1 case they aren't affected states with major not values which are quite knowledge in the 2nd case that ended in Beijing and of course became completely the sick the so I sleep is really something really exciting and I was the research to is 1st to try to find very lasted planks is 1 think Anderson on question which is raising particularly by Jonathan which time is to say Well is there some macroscopic consequence of that so for the moment people think that began reduced the pressure needed to make a flowing Michael channel reflected an iconic but maybe in another scale of a boat on the scale of the fish and the weighs about marrying about that is that is has done that he enumerates acts was asleep might be different so that consequences might be even more politics which is believing itself of of such steps so it's it's a very interesting question the way it's belated for the virtues of appearance of children's health inspector so the summer of special 9 anything would like to show you it is a fact that now if I go to a
disgusting so I had some water and more and take a viscous it's in the civil Hyundai or anything like that I put this Sunday on a sunny item did then they look at demotion it is quite a remarkable results which was proposed by and and I had a long and Bullmore which is fact that these drops instead of sliding as we do usually show 1 "quotation mark she should behave as solid vandalism is that it was a very scarce you expect a small than number and at this moment as number so the suspension so to say that is a way of moving which minimizes its viscous dissipation and worrying there is no clear viscous dissipation because it's a sort like motion and this is this is completely true and it has an amazing consequence which we are going to see here which is that view of 2 drops in an unwitting situation this case you tend to play by the 210 degrees so we a very very would fall down there are traces on each of them and so you should be sensitive to the fact that it's a pure 14 motions to Sony like motion but it is another thing which is often quite busy which is a fact that to tell you this was a small 1 is is is this week and this is of course very unusual because when you are in this decision uh Stokes slow that is you had the small ones always be much much slower the binding force is not after June stocks .period is the tides are and so he is out of the square so if you divide decided by affected thank you bye generosity by factor 100 and you hear it in light of sighs a factor to watch applies a velocity and the reason is a funny is the fact that drops Our so I will be immediately that the so these drops all not exactly 2 years it is very small from the sphere which is related but they have wait and so there is the kind of food here and so the only place where viscosity and because it too application is Close to useful and so he should take a drop of is smaller the fruit is much more and so as a consequence the viscous Paulson is much much more more that it becomes the discuss falls varies as a full forward of the of the size of the drop while providing false memories as a show of power and it was you know he has a velocity liable to generate a limousine where was drop the faster it and others this is no surprising because it tells you let these drops on other on me going very quickly the outgoing also quicker since DOS more which is very bizarre because in principle when you have a viscous the queried the becomes exceedingly good to movie that a small-scale precisely because there is a small uses as the scale of the novel The viscous forces and here the country so this will of special dynamics is indeed very special because it generates behavior which has which are I think quite the news and very last example will How about the special mayonnaise on what like to call the dynamical positive which for me is also very exciting domain so we sold that the few of area something very nice confuses a lot of mobility tenders and so on and of course the stream of vapor exists in the light of false situation is the plate which is very hot and if you come with water on this creates wire this water it is extremely mobile because orders drops and sits on the addition of a again because there is no contact there is no fiction of it is more fiction compared to music To begin with velocities are 1 thousand times larger than the velocities on specified so has nothing to there no off all this is very special because you need to teach you need the very height and so the question is could you generate feel of by different ways and in particular using some Diner and I would like to show you a few examples of so this is a experiment which became embedded in everything you have container was always and individual agendas used the 180 scarcity of water so it's Oh you've always difficult and you put a drop of the same always on the on a handful of course we expect that's all we merge was all In the difficult time skating with the affection of a and so this is a picture which is taken just when you .period the drop of body volume on on your but you add something else was at this moment there is a fear of air the state of Arizona the philosophy did get matching thereafter action of presidents-elect nudging takes place but the idea of if there was to say in now if I shake the container then I should make some movement of the frame and this movement of the region trade air which is around and made in such a way but I feel it constantly this fear of marriages between all and on and of course you have to whites the careful was on beaches and frequency at which you vibrate the baffled by that when you are careful enough it can be agreed saying that no once you find the right spot is the Phase II I'm it's such a small region it's a reasonable 1 typical amplitude the function of a minister to because frequency of 50 hertz and then falling because of you this is not so is the time of dynamical light Pacific where you the contact between in this case liquid and adequate nobody succeeded I'm making at making the same experiment was agreed on subject and it would be a big discovered of figuring all for windows windshield .period to migrate it would be enough to prevent a quiet sense of drops which are footing major discovery that if there said I'd never succeeded with a 17 million long-range asserting that flexible lightweight something works for them well it's nearly a funny but it's not completely understood all of us and of course if don't then the individual experiments putting many jobs and interact with each other and 2 2 2 2 1 this is the 1st the
someone's multitiered I would say
that the experiment with was December and the idea is to move the city below later Sunday in that you move Tanzania said when the Fed moved quickly and quietly me a feeling of air would come in Was it kind of nominee a year maybe when it's coming and he tries to find the solution of course because of the
National because of its weight but constantly there is air which is coming and so maybe I can feel so in dialog between the Anderson so in the 1st experiment break is going to the left and the velocity is 10 meters per 2nd to it's very quick and this is a glob of disavowal of his qualities 1 wasn't dangerous because each of what and so it has been with me and so in trade is state very clear that at some point of the center text of some of the 13 and you could see that it didn't take so you introduce Manitoba the velocity of displayed so knowledge the 10 . 5 meters per 2nd set of 10 same job of missile and in this case you say that you induce limitation and when you have this litigation of would drift of course but that the velocity which is much much more of a member of the velocity of the great because it is a small company buys the viscosity of the air which is small and so you have this president injury so for the moment I think that nobody understands it velocity at which he takes place 1 innocent misshapen wouldn't sensibly diversity as many many things to do on this on this expected Howard couplers was the viscosity of antiquated the Food and lasting about I would like to show you is just beautiful imagination because there are
people who tries things which should not working would say this is something I would have never bet on that's an experiment by board members are indulgent Tech and he's a following experiment where you have always so all you let simply think of going to Silicon audience and it's always is on a solid as you can see and it does not seem to witness something which is going bizarre it's something and is a wide signing is that there is a laser which is coming areas have been so because of Salazar the drop is hinted at in the it's I was told by exerted by the difference of Abacha between the drop and debate Monday about 30 degrees to the greatest 20 degrees the drop is 50 degrees so it's not a very large discounts of about and so when you heated and it is dropped here as you as it's obvious from his movies does not going as it is very because there is some no movement in the atmosphere and it's enough to win because it is a fiction but it doesn't work what is the mechanism here it's suddenly clear but it might be the following things so you have according to the case sold to minors here the rest of here but this point is close to the Saudi so it's pointless to minors and so on the temperature in the drop is not homogeneous and because the city very large 2 minus that archery is maintained because you keep Salazar on the team president so you always have these accounts of about because of the matter is not homogenous southwestern China's Neapolitans where the batteries high-rises of ascension is low gamma minus Democrats and so you have a flow from the original rules of Western energy into the region of high suppressing energy the size of dropped and States Airways above and so is brought out at the right price has a place where we precisely want to see their which is between the liquid and vapor and so this is a very suddenly Islam which is proposed to explain his experiment and of course in this experiment it's completely symmetry and so there is no movement of course of but now if you shift and the Middle East you would expect 1 of the several to be louder and the other 1 and so you might create amassing a trip between the 2 arrows which means that you might create a moment and so it's not only a question of making a drop in any date but you can also manipulate drop so this is the very last experiment where the drop is moving because the laser is moving and other consequential generated holes which which which makes use of and we follow the events and his and I think it was and the I think it was really is what's in it for the exactly this now so I don't remember if he has particles in size and equipped with onboard all the right stuff this is something I don't I don't it's a shame because it was a thing of the speaker and I remember exactly asking these questions will answer and I think that he put some some some some of the particles into the air and I am the competition my but the bell .period because you need that you to create this defensive of about at the the only public service I didn't get the I don't think so no insect this 1 Paul flowers and insects states ,comma III was originally a length skating was
and so it it's I think it's its mission is to 290 meters he said lumber collected but the smaller of the 2 of them on the up no no no no no it's that's when in the and then and I know there's no systemic effect of this kind and no no could name loudly most Republicans and of course my sense of loss was Republicans but that none of the skaters is is is not it's a it's a sea of these bonds are issued by committees and then each of then is the collated by this said Michael Creek skating but it's a visitor here but this is 200 mm so all attended the meeting this is not so far from being cover the licensee's 5 mm 2 it's played much much more and he tried to create 2 weeks into difficult experiment to place drops was reflected on the cap based on this that's and there the pale everything they then elected tried it alert the basic underlying that is most easygoing on this side of so of to key it's uh about the statement said there is group movements animals were found with the implies that you getting your album affinity is small the you're thank you you will not have any pictures arrest you Our yeah you say that the elderly victims larval Banks diverges and indeed many properties they become apparent to the spectacular when we are obviously where we have very few very but this teammates is not he is in moment giant cannot sustain any more than would so operation interesting is this society but obviously we are tempted to make any large and the small to love big number but at the same time we know but a lot of the small the system collapsed where we can a property number and so it's exactly the same kind of debate as we head for the Compaq underwear this is far from each other and which of makes a very small fraction of Sony builders of declared the delegation visiting of compromise and so today I would say that the people are here how to make this quantity large Kansas states effective state almost enough to we have nice experiments and to have but about when you push the Queens In the 2 internal Israeli pressure we need to push an acquaintance we should push on equipment is awaits victory acquitted invading the sect and so on and so on it's clear the questions for the design which has to be given the In the end of the the I hesitated to include something like that now few experiments of this kind of hope that we had when we did this experiment was that it's the Institute for the bridge standing as a function of space then so hydrophobicity should change and so you should have spontaneous placement along with text the problem but the agreeing case you should go to regions which are uh less and less dense no more and more Benson beaches because you start from the hydrophobic regions for uniquely then it goes to the region which are less than before but I don't know anybody who succeeded in doing that when this experiment we did not observe anything and then shade is the bit and then ruling that there's something so and so the forces that to generate power between each and so generally there are opposed Pfizer pinning which takes place at the top of the page and so it would be very nice to do this in a statement whizzes around pillars on which pinning his yeah I like this 1 the idea exactly that this would be wonderful young then and soul it's not so easy to make but it's it's it's it's not feasible the full spontaneous placement of require that the switch of faces something very interesting because it means that the body should in a commensurate condenser vapor but it's everywhere and and a similar descendant of drift very nice because it concentrates but you were traveling and it's today achievement that was the end of the year demonstrated movement of the article start using the just optical readers back was to the stand the whoa I have to think about it there is no end the paper recommends that there is no explanation to it's a fact so I think that they can be explained I was tempted to say that if you issue but I I just imagine that'll tonight the I'd I'd I'd never felt deeply about that so I'm quite confident that the reason for limitation is correct but for the displacement I'm less firm enough might be right In particular there is something which is absolutely correct which is the fact that once you make adequately date the force that you need to display 6 these included more it's always you order of Michael Newton it's so easy on the overall In the weight of the drop divided by a factor of 100 1 thousand which is very far from being what we know for drop the window windowpanes the force to display citizen out the way because preparing Prince stack OK so here we are in a completely different so any the force might might explain a disgrace I also think of all the things you need to focus only on on the colonies this is the only part of the new about but the announcement of the holy land going and from the government like and the agreement signed by book the size of the various commodities world I don't know of course also with hours of reflection properties of the book of world world that might that's a lot more than that other sports love of that here is a list of the most moving him and and new crop was willing to to do their own thing of all of the jump from 1 of now downloading everywhere and and so on uh uh should just say Let's they don't it's exactly what I said previously had not been there the cost of moving this year's elections and so there is something fundamentally the way announced on this sunny in which fixes in an arbitrary way the direction it takes in this particular case the break was flat and so it was no privilege Pennsylvania this great guide said it's interesting questions later we might do statistics of Athens you know what after revelations who it's paradoxical because it's so it's very hot took place but because they love this film vapor which is quite thick and which is a very good insulator a drop of water of 1 on the plate which is 300 degrees has a lifetime which is 2 minutes 2 years 5 and a and false stayed on the books of the that and he understood that it was related to the fact that there was no contact with nobody should deposit a drop of water on the solid at 100 degrees to lifetime is a 10th of a 2nd and if you increase the temperature of the played by 200 degrees this lifetime as they said is multiplied by a factor of 1 thousand In the event of divergent of time because of the fear so I just getting of the movie where to look the action on the interpolation is complicating the debate is a buying because we naturally meeting that interpolation appraisal maybe even listings of dropped his Hoosier Orchid effect of that I think that the case OK time to To conclude a faint thank you feel the


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