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Joseph Fraunhofer: Diffraction

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sunlight is premiums from outdoors through this too the big lens focuses an image
of the sun on the slick and over here we have a
spectacle the sled a :colon meeting lens which produces a parallel the wildlife in this region In the last president finally the camera we see numerous dark lines in the spectrum of sunlight they were studied by Joseph from offered in the early 19th century he used some of them as fixed reference marks to measure the values for the index of refraction refraction of optical glass turn these values enabled him to produce extremely fine in chromatic lenses here we want to talk about a series of experiments by from over in a different area of optics In the attraction In the experiments he would let the discover the use of diffraction grating and the for the spectroscopy it's quite easy for me to modify the spectroscopic observations in direction 1st of all I removed the glass prisms the lens :colon the light from the source said the in here is parallel the camera lenses focus
Sony at present an image of the source that irradiated by sunlight is sharply focused on our health the study diffraction
patterns all I need to do is take distracting objects in the parallel B but before I do so I would like to explain how Jordan Prime Mover went about the stairs some of these apparatus and some of the diffraction gratings are preserved in the German Museum of Science and Technology In the city in the area where the prime movement spent a large part of his life
then is the spectrometer used for the study of distractions Ronald who did not have a colony land instead he had the source that very far away from the micrometer party the 9th arriving at the telescope from this that would essentially parallel With the
eyepiece focused on the source said and with a slick image
exactly on the intersection of the cross hairs in the Yankees the telescope's angular position was determined on this Vernier protracted to within a few seconds apart
next the attracting object was placed on the
table in front of the telescope finally the
telescope history through some angle the angle of the at which some aspect of interest
occurred this angle can be determined by again leading the lower Vernier progress now we don't want to repeat probable the precise measurements of angles we just want to describe to you what he did in a qualitative way and show you what he saw he was meant to relight the use of the grading by looking at patterns from the single a double but triple flip and so on let me begin by putting a single slipped in here In instead of a sharp image of the source that which we saw earlier we now see a wide range of center but like reaches our photographic film in a broad angular range on either side the the form spectrum arranged symmetrically about the center Prince the problem is that it is pattern and he accounted for the appearance of each color in the spectrum by the arguments of wave interference that's the light appears probable at the position indicated by the arrows because these angles of attractions the single that produces destructive interference from Greenspan life blue and red predominate producing the next colors purple this is the pattern created by 2 cracking slips of exactly the same grants please parallel and close to each other in the same plane the dock space between this letter is approximately is wide and left additional spectrum have appeared but there still is a central white fringe although it is narrower symmetrically on each side in orderly manner when the background 1 following upon another they have broader than that of the United from the center we call this the 1st order spectrum this is the 2nd the 3rd the 4th order and so on again the colors are not the primary suspect colors into which a glance prism would disburse white light this is because each monochromatic being picked wavelength is spreading broad fringes by the 2 acting together education picture he can actively inserted a band red filter into the beans that's returned to the two-step pattern and it appears when the incident being wife again take a look at 1 of the fringes which appears purple because the white light reaching it from the 2 slips interfere destructively for the primary green region of the spectrum only red and blue remain they combine into purple other mixed colors occur at other positions but in the center of a pattern a true slipped into hear constructed before always the central cringes white will not proceed by adding more slipped 1 at a time parallel to the 2 we're using each will have the same with and will be placed at the same stating the other here to see the effect of adding efforts that the central 1 fringe is narrower and so are in fact the specter of all the orders and interacting with fans is the appearance of wheat subsidiaries backtracked exactly 1 between the White sent range and the 1st order on each side In fact there is 1 subsidiaries spectrum between successive Maine waters in the case of a triple slip pattern a trace of the subsidiary spectrum between the main specter of orders 1 and 2 is barely visible here With cause lets each on a spectrum is narrowed even more and the central wide range also narrower begins to look more like a sharp image of the source said now there are 2 subsidiaries spectrum between the main orders then and always equal to the number of students the tool I want that's when uses a week there will be these subsidiaries spectrum intensity In this tends to patent the subsidiary spectra are so weak that 1 can barely see them there's another change in the character of the spectral patterns it becomes more pronounced as more states are added the specter of orders are beginning to look more like primary spectra like those which have glass prison with produced by dispersion look for example at the way the color red appears in the 1st quarter even in the 2nd order it appears more nearly like primary red 1 in the 3rd when still sees vertical 20 26 note that the white central fringes quite job narrow the main spectral orders 1 and 2 are also quite narrow and separated from each other the specter broadening the overlap that larger order numbers In this picture we're viewing of multiple slip diffraction pattern in greater magnification moreover for this exposure we're using 300 notice how sharp narrow the central wide range has become there's something else in this picture which is new and different the new effect is not very obvious in the 1st quarter but we do see barely somebody good .period lines within the diffraction spectrum they are more pronounced in the higher orders the dark lines are probable for line remember our 300 system is being irradiated with sunlight In other words distraction by a sufficiently large number of their resolve spectral lines just like a prison Our series of experiments involving more and more that is similar to 1 from multiple forms around the year 1820 he probably didn't expect the dark Alliance to appear but his powers of observation and a judgment made him concentrate on the fly so let's look at the Spectrum again it doesn't show as many dark alliances were produced by the prison spectacle which we used to the start of the film could this be a matter of bringing into play more and more students space more and more closely together this is 1 of from the ball multiple states by the way 1 calls a system of multiple slips a diffraction grating he made some of these
out of wires later precise stating Beijing's parallel to each other the machine finally credits then
cemented wires into each successive French his finest wire great which has unfortunately been lost at almost 300 wires laid down at 320 per inch he built a ruling
engine and cut ratings on flat glass and on gold leaf cemented the blast like this 1 no life but given wavelength lambda normally incident on a grating it is practice
into the end through an angle later according to to this relation here D is the distance from fled to neighboring slept center to center From over confirmed this relation experimentally with the dark wines is reference mark but if the spacing and the angle status of unknown a value for land that can be calculated for anyone .period client integrating spectrum of sunlight from over determined that fraction angles with the spectrometer the measure the grating spacing until
microscope the grading was placed on the microscope stage which can travel
precisely measurable distances on precision my Kramotorsk rule From finest greeting which ruled on flat glass with the diamond .period it had a space in the 1 . 3 0 rose 3 3 1 1 centimeter that means he ruled upon glance at the rate of 7 thousand 671 lines per inch With that he determined the wavelengths corresponding several prominent problem lines to for significant figures we will together at breaking spectrometry to take a look at the solar spectrum in Heidi's bird this late in the century vertical the lens underwrite serves as a commentator 30 thousand
vertical lines per inch are ruled onto the surface of this great it's a flat reflection breaking 2 inches square such dense rulings weren't accomplished until the 20th century by
turning the integrating different colors of the spectrum of the sun will reach the camera
With such a fine grating 1 can see many more .period lines then probable for good toward the end of the 19th century the American Henry Rollins made great things which had about 20 thousand lines per inch With these Brolin determined the wavelengths of many thousands of Ronald line the 2 .period lines in the yellow Ali 6 Jamuna departing wavelength they belong together as a Dublin spectral lines and were traced to the elements sodium about 30 years after prom only then did the
dark lines in the spectrum of the sun become understood as an absorption spectrum but even so come over had made brilliant use of them in his lifetime he had found a method for determining their wavelength with precision and that meant that works just as well for any other spectral light With this film we honor the founder of grating spectroscopy
Beugungsfigur
Computeranimation
Elementarteilchenphysik
Sonnenstrahlung
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Elektronische Medien
Speckle-Interferometrie
Mikroskopobjektiv
Brennpunkt <Optik>
Parallelschaltung
Licht
Optik
Sonnenstrahlung
Glasherstellung
Optisches Spektrum
Frequenzanalyse
Druckkraft
Leitungstheorie
Computeranimation
Mikroskopobjektiv
Lichtbrechung
Gleichstrom
Source <Elektronik>
Buick Century
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Brechzahl
Beugungsgitter
Beugungsfigur
Sonnenstrahlung
Source <Elektronik>
Speckle-Interferometrie
Messschraube
Spektrometer
Motor
Source <Elektronik>
Schnittmuster
Ersatzteil
Feuerwehrfahrzeug
Uhrwerk
Beugungsgitter
Source <Elektronik>
Speckle-Interferometrie
Front <Meteorologie>
Anstellwinkel
Messung
Sensor
Parallelschaltung
Kugelblitz
Sonnenstrahlung
Erdefunkstelle
Schnittmuster
Hobel
Optisches Spektrum
Linienintensität
Leistungssteuerung
Leitungstheorie
Woche
Radialgebläse
Avro Arrow
Umlaufzeit
Beugungsfigur
Maschine
Schlicker
Speckle-Interferometrie
Energielücke
Multiplizität
Klangeffekt
Beugungsgitter
Interferenzerscheinung
Wellenlänge
Kaltumformen
Glasherstellung
Übungsmunition
Druckkraft
Gleitsichtglas
Werkzeug
Angeregtes Atom
Nassdampfturbine
Weiß
Eisendraht
Hintergrundstrahlung
Source <Elektronik>
Jahr
Farbmischung
Buntheit
Intensitätsverteilung
Anstellwinkel
Wellenlänge
Blattgold
Motor
Eisendraht
Glasscheibe
Lambda-Hyperon
Edelsteinschliff
Lineal
Mikroskop
Messung
Relativistische Mechanik
Spektrometer
Längenmessung
Sonnenstrahlung
Postkutsche
Optisches Spektrum
Anstellwinkel
Wellenlänge
Gasdichte
Messung
Glasscheibe
Längenmessung
Sonnenstrahlung
Diamant <Rakete>
Dreidimensionale Integration
Rauschzahl
Leitungstheorie
Mikroskopobjektiv
Massenspektrum
Reflexionskoeffizient
Trenntechnik
Lineal
Buick Century
Wellenlänge
Umlaufzeit
Sonnenstrahlung
Jahr
Buntheit
Buick Century
Optisches Spektrum
Linienintensität
Bahnelement
Leitungstheorie
Wellenlänge
Sonnenstrahlung
Optisches Spektrum
Leitungstheorie

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Joseph Fraunhofer: Diffraction
Alternativer Titel Joseph Fraunhofer: Beugung
Autor Leitner, Alfred
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 3.0 Unported:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/17733
IWF-Signatur W 1591
Herausgeber Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Erscheinungsjahr 1974
Sprache Englisch
Produzent Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Office of Instructional Media

Technische Metadaten

IWF-Filmdaten Film, 16 mm, LT, MT, 176 m ; F, 16 1/2 min

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Physik, Technik
Abstract Wiederholung eindrucksvoller Experimente aus dem Jahre 1820 mit heute noch benutzten Gittertypen: Drahtgitter, geritzte Gitter mit bis zu 3.020 Linien pro cm. Damit wurden die Wellenlängen der Fraunhofer-Linien so genau bestimmt, daß auch heute nur geringfügige Korrekturen erforderlich sind.
Takes the viewer into the Deutsches Museum in Munich and shows Fraunhofer's precise diffraction spectrometer, wire and glass gratings and other instruments, insofar as they have been preserved. Shows how he put them to use in work on diffraction.
Schlagwörter Fraunhofer, Joseph von
Beugung
Absorptionsspektrum
absorption spectrum
diffraction
Fraunhofer, Joseph von

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